Overview

Brief Summary

Fossil species

recent & fossil

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Lytechinus variegatus, also called green sea urchin, is a species of sea urchin that can be found in the warm waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. It has short spines and can reach a diameter of around 11 cm.

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Distribution

In Panama this species has been collected in the Caribbean from:

-Portobelo (USNM E 18762)

-Galeta Island (USNM E 26676, USNM E 18742; Centroid Latitude: 9.4067, Centroid Longitude: -79.8717)

-Margaritia Island, Fort Randolph, Limon Bay (USNM E 27253)

-Toro Point, Fort Sherman, Limon Bay (USNM E 26663)

-Naranjo Point, Colon (USNM 1011517; Centroid Latitude: 9.4333, Centroid Longitude: -79.7861, depth 1 m)

-Fox Bay, Colon (USNM E 4940)

-Sail Rock, Colon (USNM E 18749)

-Buenaventura Bay, Mangote Island, Colon (Centroid Latitude: 9.5431, Centroid Longitude:-79.6808, depth <1 m)

-North of Palina Island, Colon (USNM 1011519)

-Valiente Peninsula (USNM E 34176; Centroid Latitude: 9.2133, Centroid Longitude: -82.0450, depth 1 to 2 m)

-South of Maria Soto River (USNM 1114996; Centroid Latitude: 9.5233, Centroid Longitude: -79.6867, depth < 1 m)

-2.5 miles southwest of Guanche River (USNM 1017370)

-Miria Island, San Blas (USNM E 18768)

-Pico Feo Island, San Blas (USNM E 26667; Centroid Latitude: 9.5500, Centroid Longitude: -78.9833)

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© Coppard , Simon

Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Synonymised taxa

Anapesus blainvillei (Des Moulins, 1837) (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus blainvillei Des Moulins, 1837 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus excavatus Blainville, 1825 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus variegatus Lamarck, 1816 (transferred to Lytechinus)
Lytechinus atlanticus A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus carolinus A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus excavatus (Blainville, 1825) (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus thieryi Koehler, 1927 (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus thiéryi Koehler, 1927 (incorrect original spelling, mandatory change under Article 32.5.2.1. of the ICZN Code)
Lytechinus variegatus atlanticus A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus variegatus carolinus A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Lytechinus variegatus typicus H.L. Clark, 1912 (nomen nudum)
Psammechinus excavatus (Blainville, 1825) (subjective junior synonym)
Psammechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) (transferred to Lytechinus)
Psilechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) (transferred to Lytechinus)
Schizechinus excavatus (Blainville, 1825) (subjective junior synonym)
Schizechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) (transferred to Lytechinus)
Toxopneustes atlanticus (A. Agassiz, 1863) (subjective junior synonym)
Toxopneustes variegatus (Lamarck, 1816) (transferred to Lytechinus)

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Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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References and links

Mortensen, T. (1943). A monograph of the Echinoidea 3(2). Camarodonta 1. Copenhagen. 553 pp., 321 figures, 56 pls; pages: 437-446.

Zigler K.S. & Lessios, H. A. (2004). Speciation on the coasts of the new world: Phylogeography and the evolution of bindin in the sea urchin genus Lytechinus. Evolution, 58:1225-1241.

GenBank

The Echinoid Directory

World Echinoidea Database

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Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 403 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 215 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 580
  Temperature range (°C): 6.124 - 27.713
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 29.548
  Salinity (PPS): 34.487 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.681 - 5.250
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.992
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 24.889

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 580

Temperature range (°C): 6.124 - 27.713

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 29.548

Salinity (PPS): 34.487 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.681 - 5.250

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.992

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 24.889
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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Depth range based on 403 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 215 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 580
  Temperature range (°C): 6.124 - 27.713
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 29.548
  Salinity (PPS): 34.487 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.681 - 5.250
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.992
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 24.889

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 580

Temperature range (°C): 6.124 - 27.713

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 29.548

Salinity (PPS): 34.487 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.681 - 5.250

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 1.992

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 24.889
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lytechinus variegatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

NTT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CTGTTCCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGTCACCCAGAAGTTTACATCTTGATCCTTCCCGGATTCGGTATGATCTCACATGTTATTGCTCACTACTCAGGAAAGCGA---GAGCCATTTGGATACCTGGGAATGGTTTACGCCATGATAGCCATTGGAATCCTAGGATTTTTAGTCTGAGCTCACCATATGTTTACAGTGGGAATGGACGTGGATACACGGGCCTACTTCACAGCAGCGACAATGATTATTGCAGTTCCAACAGGAATTAAGGTATTTAGATGAATG---GCCACACTGCAAGGTTCG---AACTTACAATGAGAAACTCCCCTGCTATGGGCACTAGGGTTTGTCTTTCTCTTCACATTAGGAGGACTTACAGGAATCGTCCTAGCCAACTCATCTATTGATGTTGTACTTCACGACACCTACTACGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTACGTC---TTATCAATGGGGGCCGTATTCGCAATTTTCGCAGGGTTTACTCACTGATTTCCGTTATTCTCAGGATACAGCCTACATCCACTGTGAGGAAAGGTTCACTTTTTTATTATGTTTGTCGGGGTAAACTTGACATTCTTCCCCCAACACTTCCTAGGGCTGGCCGGGATGCCACGACGA------------------------TATTCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lytechinus variegatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 22
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Australia Museum
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© Ocean Genome Legacy

Source: Ocean Genome Resource

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Wikipedia

Lytechinus variegatus

Lytechinus variegatus, commonly called the green sea urchin or the variegated sea urchin, is a species of sea urchin that can be found in the warm waters of the western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea.

Sub-species[edit]

  • Lytechinus variegatus carolinus
  • Lytechinus variegatus variegatus

Description[edit]

The green sea urchin has a globular test (shell) densely covered in spines and can reach a diameter of around 11 centimetres (4.3 in). The test may be purple, green or dull red, blotched with white. The majority of the spines are short but there are a few longer primary spines. The spines vary in colour, sometimes being one colour at the base and a different colour at the tip. Green test with green spines or green test with white spines are the most common combinations found in the Caribbean. In between the spines are pedicellaria, pincer like structures. These are white which distinguishes the green sea urchin from the rather similar Lytechinus williamsi which has purple pedicellaria.[2][3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The green sea urchin occurs in tropical waters in the western Atlantic Ocean. The sub-species occupy different geographical areas. L. v. variegatus occurs in the Caribbean Sea, southern Florida, the Yucatan peninsula and northern Brazil but not Barbados while L. v. carolinus is found from North Carolina southwards to the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It is found on rocky reefs, on or under rocks, on sandy or muddy substrates and in seagrass meadows. It can occur in large numbers with as many as 15 being found in one square metre (yard).[3]

Biology[edit]

The green sea urchin is often found with pieces of algae, bits of seagrass and fragments of mollusc shell on its aboral (upper) surface, holding them in place with its tube feet. It is thought that the urchin is photo-sensitive and that these pieces of debris may provide some protection from strong sunlight and ultraviolet light in the clear shallow waters it favours.[4] While subsequent research confirmed that a different species, L. pictus (= L. anamesus), submerged in 20-cm deep aquaria responded negatively to sunlight and UV light and succumbed following extended exposure to UV light. However, studies in wave tanks with or without light showed they masked with shell material and aggregated in groups when exposed to surge activity. Masked and/or aggregated urchins were able to remain stable on the sand whereas unmasked individuals rolled around helplessly on the sand.[5]

The green sea urchin has a structure called an Aristotle's lantern surrounding its mouth on its oral (under) surface. This has five teeth that can be used to rasp surfaces. It is largely herbivorous, feeding on the seagrass Thalassia. Its tube feet and spines also play a role in feeding, catching and holding bits of debris that float past.[4]

It is sometimes found in aggregations of closely packed individuals. This may be linked to breeding activities but at other times it has no known cause.[3] Breeding takes place at various times of the year in different parts of its range. In Bermuda the spawning period is short and seems to be related to the phase of the moon. Eggs and sperm are liberated into the water column and fertilisation is external. The larvae are planktonic and are known as pluteus larvae. They pass through several developmental stages before undergoing metamorphosis into juvenile urchins.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroh, A. (2010). A. Kroh & R. Mooi, ed. "Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816)". World Echinoidea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  2. ^ "Variegated urchin (Lytechinus variegatus)". Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  3. ^ a b c Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. pp. 417–418. ISBN 0-86622-875-6. 
  4. ^ a b c Norris, Amy. "Green Sea Urchin (Lytechinus variegatus)". Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  5. ^ Template:Lees, D. C., and G. Carter. 1972. The masking response to surge, sunlight, and ultraviolet light in ''Lytechinus anamesus'' (Echinoidea). Ecology 53: 1127-1133.
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