Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Brachiopods are bivalved animals unrelated to molluscs. Neocrania anomala looks rather like a limpet with a low conical shell or valve attached to a hard surface. The shell is oval in vertical view and up to 15 mm long. The other valve is cemented to the surface beneath the animal. The shell surface is smooth and has fine concentric lines. Shell colour is pale grey, yellow or white and is overlaid with a thin brown periostracum.Unusually for the inarticulate brachiopods, the shell contains calcium carbonate. In brachiopods the valves of the shell are dorso-ventral whereas in molluscs the valves are lateral.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This brachiopod looks like a saddle oyster, attached to the rock with one of its valves. Brachiopods may look like bivalve molluscs, but are actually not related to them at all. Their shells are dorsal and ventral (back and underside) whilst a bivalve's shells are lateral, left and right.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

In diving depths, shallower than 50m, mostly Scotland, but also quite common in Kenmare River, SW Ireland.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 107 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 52 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1590
  Temperature range (°C): 5.410 - 16.178
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.471 - 18.892
  Salinity (PPS): 35.203 - 38.459
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.178 - 6.205
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 1.180
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.723 - 13.017

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1590

Temperature range (°C): 5.410 - 16.178

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.471 - 18.892

Salinity (PPS): 35.203 - 38.459

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.178 - 6.205

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.214 - 1.180

Silicate (umol/l): 1.723 - 13.017
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Typically inhabits rocky current-swept bottoms in moderately shallow water. The species is not very tolerant of wave exposure and so is found in deep water or in sheltered fjordic sea lochs.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In deeper, colder water, becoming more easily found in Scottish sea loughs.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Novocrania anomala

Novocrania anomala is a species of brachiopod found offshore in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.[1]

Contents

Distribution and habitat

N. anomala is found from the Canary Isles, Ireland, Scotland, the Faeroe Isles, Norway, Iceland and Svalbard.[2] It is found attached to the bedrock and boulders at a depth of up to 1500 metres in sheltered environments where the water movement is low.[2]

Description

In appearance, N. anomala resembles a cockle or limpet with a low conical, oval shell up to fifteen millimetres long. The upper valve is the only part visible as the lower valve is cemented to the rock beneath. The shell surface is smooth, white, buff or pale grey and has fine concentric lines. The outer surface is covered by a thin brown periostracum.[2]

Biology

N. anomala is a filter feeder, using the lophophore between the two valves to selectively catch particles that drift past. It lives for up to ten years but growth is slow after the first year. It is free-spawning with external fertilisation in the water. The eggs sink to the bottom and hatch into free-swimming juveniles. These larvae are fully developed within three days and settle out a few days later, attaching themselves to the substrate. Because N. anomala favours waters with tidal flows of less than one knot, dispersal may be limited.[2]

Ecology

N. anomala is often the dominant species in its environment. It is eaten by starfish, crustacea, gastropods and fish. Compared to molluscs, the shell is easily drilled into and the shells are often heavily bored. However predation seems to be limited, perhaps because the brachiopod is unpalatable.[2]

This species is often found in association with the sea anemone Protanthea simplex in very sheltered deep water, usually on littoral bedrock, silty boulders and rock slopes in fiords and other areas with calm waters. They are often accompanied by the parchment worm Chaetopterus variopedatus, encrusting red algae and the polychaete worm Pomatoceros triqueter. Other members of the community may be the saddle oyster Pododesmus patelliformis and the fan worm Sabella pavonina. Scattered colonies of Alcyonium digitatum are occasionally present along with the hydroid Bougainvillia muscus. The barnacle Balanus balanus and the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus can often be seen in the vicinity and the squat lobster Munida rugosa may be hiding in crevices nearby.[3]

A range of solitary sea squirts are often present including Ciona intestinalis, Corella parallelogramma, Polycarpa pomaria, Ascidia mentula and Ascidia virginea. Echinoderms such as the brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis are frequently seen with their arms protruding from rock cracks, whilst the starfish Asterias rubens and the sea urchins Echinus esculentus and Psammechinus miliaris occasionally form part of the community, as does the whelk Buccinum undatum.[3]

A survey was undertaken of the marine ecology in deep water off County Kerry in Ireland, The rock and boulders were covered with a fine silt and there were coralline crusts over most surfaces. N. anomala was found on the steep sides and lower parts of boulders while the tube worm Pomatoceros triqueter and the stony coral Caryophyllia smithii predominated on the upper parts.[4]

References

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!