Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Flustrellidra hispida is an encrusting bryozoan, generally restricted to the mid or lower intertidal zone, in temperate environments. It is abundant on sheltered to moderately exposed rocky shores, where it forms thick dark brown to purplish patches with a distinctly hairy or furry feel. It primarily colonises Fucus serratus, but may use other algal substrates such as Chondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata and Ascophyllum. Only very rarely does F. hispida colonise hard substrates.

The species is widely distributed and may be found on all British coasts.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Distribution

Loppens (1906) beschouwt deze soort aan de Belgische kust als heel zeldzaam op wieren, voornamelijk op Fucus serratus. Er wordt geen vindplaats opgegeven, mogelijks vond hij ze enkel aangespoeld op het strand. Lacourt (1949) trof aangespoelde kolonies van Schouwen en Scheveningen aan in het ‘Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie’ in Leiden. Er zijn geen recente groeiplaatsen bekend uit België. Zelden spoelt een kolonie aan op plastic (De Blauwe, 2000c, 2005) en riemwiervoetjes. In Nederland slechts bekend van een beperkt aantal locaties in de Oosterschelde. In 2002 aangetroffen op de Klaverbank (pers. med. G. van Moorsel).
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Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region), lower St. Lawrence estuary, middle North Shore (from Sept- Iles to Cape Whittle, including the Cape Breton Channel); western slope of Newfoundland, including the southern part of the Strait of Belle Isle but excluding the upper 50m in the area southwest of Newfoundland; Cobscook Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Flustrellidra hispida is a temperate species. In the eastern Atlantic, it ranges from the White Sea and Arctic Norway to the north west coasts of France. In the western Atlantic it ranges south to Woods Hole

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Physical Description

Morphology

Fluestrellidra hispida forms thick encrusting patches or cylindrical colonies, which are dark brown to purple with a furry feel. Zooids are oval to hexagonal in shapes and are separated by deep grooves. Zooids are completely membranous with no calcification. The frontal membrane is smooth and translucent such that the polypide is visible as a white streak. The rectangular orifice of the zooid is subterminal and is wider than it is long. Tentacle number appears to vary between different populations, but is commonly between 28 and 40. Around four to six specialised zooids, which lack feeding apparatus, (kenozooids) develop as erect spines with a blister-like base. The spines are arranged in arc around the distal end (furthest from the colony origin) of feeding zooids and are typically between 0.4-0.6 mm long. They are responsible for the furry feel of the colony

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Size

The size of zooids is between 0.8 and 1.2.6 by 0.5 and 0.6 mm

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt soms uitgebreide, dikke, gelobde korsten op Fucus serratus en vlezige cilinders op Gigartina en Chondrus, soms op andere wieren. De kolonie is donker roodbruin en heeft een zacht uiterlijk. Kolonies kunnen twee jaar oud worden. In Nederland zijn de kolonies vrij dun en niet zo uitgebreid. Duikers zien vooral de uitstaande blauwachtig witte tentakelkransen. Zoïden groot, ovaal tot zeshoekig en convex. Frontaal glad, doorschijnend, de polypide als een witte streep. De subterminale spleetvormige opening is breder dan lang, met proximale en distale lip. Polypide relatief groot met veel tentakels (27 tot 40). Geelwitte embryo’s in februari. De 4 tot 6 typische, hoornachtige stekels rond de distale helft van elke zoïde zijn kenozoïden.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

intertidal and infralittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 51 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 5
  Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 6.151
  Salinity (PPS): 35.184 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.128 - 6.200
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.421
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.285

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 5

Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 6.151

Salinity (PPS): 35.184 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.128 - 6.200

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.421

Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.285
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Flustrellidra hispida is abundant on sheltered to moderately exposed rocky shores. It reaches its greatest abundance on Fucus serratus, but may use other algal substrates such as Chondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata and Ascophyllum. Only very rarely does F. hispida colonise hard substrates. It is mainly found in the mid to lower shore, hardly extending into subtidal waters.

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Trophic Strategy

Like all bryozoans, Flustrellidra hispida is a suspension feeder. It feeds on small phytoplankton using ciliated tentacles of the lophophore.

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Associations

Flustrellidra hispida is able to colonise algal substrates, primarily Fucus serratus, but it may use other algal substrates such as Chondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata and Ascophyllum.

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

small microorganisms, including diatoms and other unicellar algae
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

The founding zooid (ancestrula) develops into a young colony, and later into an adult colony through asexual budding. Sexually produced embryos are brooded within the colony. Larvae settle after liberation and metamorphose into an ancestrula.

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Reproduction

Reproduction in Flustrellidra hispida occurs during winter. By February, developing embryos, brooded within the colony may be observed by the naked eye as distinct yellowish-white patches. Larvae are non-feeding coronate larvae, which lack a shell and have a densely ciliated belt (the corona) for locomotion. The larvae are large relative to other bryozoan larvae and settle from April to August, depending on location.

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Growth

Colonies grow through asexual budding of new zooids at the periphery. Growth of young colonies is rapid throughout the summer months.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Flustrellidra hispida

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ATGCGATGATGAATATCTACAAACCACAAGGACATTGGAACACTTTATCTACTTTTCGGTTTATGATCTGGCATAGTGGGAAGCGCTTTTTCAGGTTTAATCCGAGCGGAACTAAGGCAAACAGGCTCACTCTTAGGGAAC---GACCAAATTTACAATGTAATCGTCACAGCACATGCATTCGTAATAATCTTTTTTATGGTTATGCCAGTGATAATCGGTGGCTTTGGTAACTGACTAGTTCCTGTCATACTAGGAGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCCCGTTTAAACAACATAAGTTTTTGACTACTCCCCCCCGCACTGTTTTTGCTGCTCCTTTCAAGGGTCGTTGAAGCTGGTGCTGGCACAGGATGAACAGTGTACCCACCACTGTCCTCACTAACAGCGCACTCTGGGGCCTCGGTAGACTTAGCAATTTTCTCTCTTCACCTTGCAGGTGCATCTTCTATCTTAGGAGCTATTAACTTTATGACCACTGTAATCAACATGCGCAGCAAAGCAATGACCGCCGCTCGAGTTCCCTTATTTGTGTGATCTGTTTTTATTACTGCTTTACTGCTAGTTTTATCCCTGCCTGTTCTTGCAGGAGCCATCACAATACTACTGACTGATCGAAACCTAAATACTACATTTTTCGACCCCAGGGGAGGCGGAGACCCCATCCTGTACCAGCACTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACACCCCGAAGTATACATTCTTATTTTACCTGGTTTCGGTATGATCTCCCATGTAGTAGCCTCGTATAGAAACAAAGAAGAAGTATTTGGTACTGTCGGAATAATCTACGCTATACTCTCTATCGCTCTTTTGGGTTTTATTGTTTGAGCACATCATATATTTACTGTAGGGCTAGATGTCGACACTCGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Flustrellidra hispida

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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