Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is widespread in tropical and subtropical waters, including Red Sea, Australia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eritrea, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America (nearly circumtropical).
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This species is recorded off both the eastern Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Panama.

On the eastern Pacific side it has been collected off Perico Island (USNM E 9883; Centroid Latitude: 8.917, Centroid Longitude: -79.517), Pedro Gonzales Island, Perlas Archipelago (USNM E 21685) and off Taboga Island (USNM E 2359), Bay of Panama; while on the Caribbean side it has been collected off of Sail Rock (USNM E 21708), Toro Point, Fort Sherman, Limon Bay (USNM E 21668); and Galeta Point, Galeta Island (USNM E 23721).

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

General distribution: almost circumtropical (Tortonese, 1980); tropical, circumtropical, depth range 0-30 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also distributed in Maldive area, Bay of Bengal, East Indies, north Australia, Philippine, China, south Japan, South Pacific Is. and Hawaiian Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Ecology: benthic, inshore, detritus feeder, deposit feeder (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Tortonese, E. (1980). Researches on the coast of Somalia. Littoral Echinodermata. Monitore zoologico italiano NS Supplemento XIII 5: 99-139.
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References and links

Semper, C. (1868). Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen. Zweiter Theil. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. Erster Band. Holothurien. Hefte iv. and v: Unpaginated.

Cherbonnier, G. (1988). Echinodermes: Holothurides. Faune de Madagascar 70.

Heding, S. G. (1939). The Holothurians collected during the cruises of the M/S Monsunen in the tropical Pacific in 1934. Vidensk. Medd. naturh. Foren. Kjob 102: pp. 213-222.

Pearson, J. (1913). Notes on the Holothurioidea of the Indian Ocean. I. The genus Holothuria. Spolia Zeylan. 9 (34): 49-101.

Selenka, E. (1867). Beitrage zur Anatomie und Systematik der Holothurien. Der Philosophischen Facultat zu Gottingen in December 1866, als Dissertation vorgelegt.: pp. 291-374.

Tortonese, E. (1980). Researches on the coast of Somalia. Littoral Echinodermata. Monitore zoologico italiano NS Supplemento XIII 5: 99-139.

World Register of Marine Species

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:210814


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Synonymised taxa

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found under stones in Cuba, whilst in the Caribbean region it occurs in coral debris and sand flats (Bruckner 2006). In Comoros, the species is intertidal and burrows in the sand between corals and stones (Samyn et al. 2006). This species is quite small, and is probably cryptic.

No information is known on changes of habitat requirements during the life history of the species, but generally, the juveniles of aspidochirotids are cryptic and small individuals may migrate into adult habitat later (Purcell 2004).


Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 33 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 24 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 121
  Temperature range (°C): 14.302 - 28.770
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 27.445
  Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 37.646
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.077 - 4.895
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.075 - 2.060
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 20.003

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 121

Temperature range (°C): 14.302 - 28.770

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 27.445

Salinity (PPS): 34.598 - 37.646

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.077 - 4.895

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.075 - 2.060

Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 20.003
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Diogenella deichmannae Humes & Ho, 1970 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Diogenella impar Humes & Ho, 1970 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Diogenella seticauda Stock, 1968 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Diogenidium deforme Stock, 1968 (parasitic: endoparasitic)
Nanaspis truncata Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: ectoparasitic)
Nanaspis truncata Stock, Humes & Gooding, 1962 (parasitic: endoparasitic)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Holothuria arenicola

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 52
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 15 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Field Museum of Natural History & Ocean Genome Legacy
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Conand, C. & Gamboa, R.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B., Carpenter, K.E., Knapp, L. & Harwell, H.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is circumtropical, and may be common in some parts of its range. It is found in shallow waters, and is collected in some parts of its range. Its population is probably not undergoing widespread decline globally, but the taxonomy of the species needs revision, as it is probably a complex. It is listed as Data Deficient. More research is needed on this species' taxonomy, biology, and the potential impact of fisheries.
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Population

Population

This species may be common. In Cuba, it has the highest abundance in the South Central region (Bruckner 2006).


Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although not one of the most important species (low value) for fishery purposes, it can be expected that this species may become more popular after the depletion or reduction of other species of higher commercial importance and value.

Many sea cucumbers are broadcast spawners, which can limit the fertilization success of a species in exploited populations.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species specific conservation measures in place for this species. It may be present in some marine protected areas within its range.
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