The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banister, K., A. Campbell. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York: Facts of File Publications.
  • Bourton J. 2009. Starfish 'pump up' to cool down. BBC Earth News [Internet],
  • Buchsbaum, R., M. Buchsbaum, J. Pearse, V. Pearse. 1987. Animals Without Backbones 3rd Edition. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Grzimeck, B. 1972. Grzimeck's Animal Life Encyclopedia Volume 3 Mollusks and Echnoderms. New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Holotype: Stimpson. 1862. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 8: 263-264.
  • Holotype: Stimpson. 1862. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 8: 264.
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Mah, C. (2014). Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835). In: Mah, C.L. (2014) World Asteroidea database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Mah, C.L. (2013). WoRMS Asteroidea: World Asteroidea database (version 2013-03-04). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • McFadden, M. 2002. "Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835)" (On-line). Accessed December 26, 2004 at
  • Meinkoth, N. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Seashore Creatures. New York: Chanticleer Press, INC.
  • Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network, 2004. "Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt, 1835): Ochre sea star" (On-line). Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network. Accessed December 26, 2004 at
  • Nicol, J. 1960. The Biology of Marine Animals. New York: Interscience Publishers, INC.
  • Paine, R., S. Levin. 1981. Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological monographs, 51: 145-178.
  • Pincebourde S; Sanford E; Helmuth B. 2009. An intertidal sea star adjusts thermal inertia to avoid extreme body temperatures. American Naturalist. 174(6): 890-7.
  • Raimondi, P., 2014. Mystery starfish plague extends to Canada and Mexico, but the answer is within our grasp. The Conversation, 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014 from
  • Ricketts, E., J. Calvin, J. Hedgpeth. 1985. Between Pacific Tides. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • 2014. Pacific Rocky Intertidal Monitoring: Trends and Synthesis. Sea Star Wasting Syndrom Updates. University of Santa Cruz, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Retrieved May 8, 2014 from


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