The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Balser, E. 1998. Cloning by Ophiuroid Echinoderm Larvae. Biological Bulletin, 194: 187-193.
  • Bernhard, .. 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia Volume 3: Mollusks and Echinoderms. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Bumpus, H. C., 1898. The breeding of animals at Woods Holl during the months of June, July and August. Science, 8: 850-858.
  • Fewkes, J. W., 1886. Preliminary observations on the development of Ophiopholis and Echinarachnius. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 12: 105-152.
  • Fewkes, J. W., 1887. On the development of the calcareous plates of Amphiura. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 13: 107-150.
  • Gosner, .. 1978. A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Hyman, L.V., (1955). The Invertebrates: Vol. IV. Echinodermata. The coelomate Bilateria. New York: McGraw Hill. External link.
  • JNCC (Joint Nature Conservation Committee), (1999). Marine Environment Resource Mapping And Information Database (MERMAID): Marine Nature Conservation Review Survey Database. [on-line], External link.
  • Kistner, .. "Echinoderms" (On-line). Accessed February 17, 2000 at
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Mortensen, T.H., (1927). Handbook of the echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. External link.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Olsen, H., 1942. The development of the brittle-star Ophiopholis aculeata (O. Fr. Müller) with a short report on the outer hyaline layer. Bergens Mus. Arb., 1942, Naturv. Rekke Nr. 6, S. 1-107.
  • Picton, B.E., (1993). A field guide to the shallow-water echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd. External link.
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
  • Stöhr S., O’Hara T. & Thuy B. (Eds) (2015). WoRMS Ophiuroidea: World Ophiuroidea database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Stöhr, S.; Hansson, H. (2007). Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767). In: Stöhr, S.; O’Hara, T. & Thuy, B. (Eds) (2016). World Ophiuroidea database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Waggoner, .. "The Ophiuroidea" (On-line). Accessed February 17, 2000 at


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