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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

This species is luminescent with a greenish light.
  • Mallefet, J. 2009. Echinoderm bioluminescence: Why, when and how do so many ophiuroids glow? Bioluminescence in Focus - A Collection of Illuminating Essays. Meyer-Rochow, V.B. (ed.), Rsearch Singpost, Trivandrum, India, 1-17.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Disk circular (dd = 1.08 to 2.47 mm). Covered by large, irregular, and only slightly imbricating scales (Fig. 5g). Sometimes with the central primary plate evident. Radial scales slightly longer than broad, contiguous, separated proximally by a small scale, with outer margin rounded and inner margin straight. Ventral interradius covered by strongly imbricating scales, which are smaller than dorsal scales (Fig. 5h). Distinct line of demarcation between the scales of the dorsal and ventral surface. Bursal slits long and broad (Fig. 5h). Oral shields fan-shape, distal margin enlarged and convex, slightly longer than wide (Fig. 5i). Adoral shields large, united proximally. Two oral papillae on each side of jaw angle, distal long and opercular (Fig. 5i). A pair of infradental papillae. Dorsal arm plate broader than long, proximal margin rounded and distal margin straight (Fig. 5j). Ventral arm plate pentagonal, twice as long as wide. Three arm spines conical, erect, serrate at tip (Fig. 5l). Two tentacle scales small, narrow and elongated.
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Source: ZooKeys

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Description

 Amphipholis squamata is a small inconspicuous brittle star, with a circular disc and spindly arms. It is grey/bluish-white in colour. The disc has a diameter ranging between 3-5 mm, with its dorsal surface covered in small scales. The arms are up to 20 mm in length (approximately 4 x the length of the disc) and consist of numerous marginal plates each with 3 or 4 conical arm spines. The mouth shields are small rhomboids, with very broad mouth papillae.This species is a deposit feeder collecting particles within its tube feet, and a suspension feeder via trapping detritus in mucus. It is hermaphroditic and the eggs are brooded and hatched as juveniles.
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Description

A small inconspicuous brittle star found commonly amongst sessile invertebrates, beneath boulders, etc. The disc is circular and the arms relatively short and thin. The disc is covered with scales and the radial plates are half-moon shaped and conspicuous. There are four short conical arm spines and two tentacle scales. Disc 3-5mm., arms 4x disc diameter.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Distribution

Intertidal to more than 200 m depth. Common along algae in tidepools and damp places , and under stones in gravel, from aboout mid-tide level down, all round the British Isles; occasional offshore among gravel and shells. Cosmopolitan in temperate and in warm seas, but A. squamata is probably a species complex, the individual species distinguishable by molecular methods only (Le Gac et al., 2004)
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Cosmopolitan in temperate and warm temperate seas
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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Arctic to Florida; Alaska to S. California
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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 Traditionally considered cosmopolitan, except for the extreme polar regions (but see remarks). Western Atlantic from Canada, United States, Mexico, the Antilles, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay, and Santa Cruz Province, Argentina (Bernasconi 1965, Hendler et al. 1995, Hernández-Herrejón et al. 2008, Martínez 2008, Benavides-Serrato et al. 2011). In Brazil, from Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Paraíba, Alagoas, Bahia (Gondim et al. in press), Rio de Janeiro (H.L. Clark 1915) and, São Paulo (Borges et al. 2002). Intertidal to 1962 m. Found between 21 and 26m in present study.
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Cosmopolitan in temperate and warm temperate seas, intertidal to more than 200 m depth. Common among algae in tidepools and under stones in gravel.

In Panama this species has been collected from both the eastern Pacific and the Caribbean Sea. In the Pacific it was collected from Panama Bay (USNM E 27229, USNM E 27230, USNM E 27225, USNM E 27237, Centroid Latitude: 8.8769, Centroid Longitude: -79.5567), Gulf of Panama, while in the Caribbean Sea it is recorded from North of Palina Island (USNM 1117663 & USNM 1117664; Centroid Latitude: 9.6131, Centroid Longitude: -79.5972), Colon, and from Fort Randolph (USNM E 26409), Margarita Island, Limon Bay, from shallow water.

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Found all round the British Isles.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Description: Arm length to 15 mm, disc diamter to 2.5 mm. Disc with obvious scales and with a pair of D-shaped radial shields, half the disc radius in length, twice as long as wide, contiguous. Three oral papillae on each side of the jaw. Aboral arm plates wider than long, distal margin convex. Three arm spines, as long as the segment. Two tentacle scales. Disc colour mottled bluish-grey and pink, the distal part of the radial shields standing out as a bright spot surrounded by darker colour. Arms marked with darker spots. Habitat: lower eulittoral on the underside of stones and among seaweed, and deeper on sand, mud and among seagrasses. Also recorded in SE Arabia, W India, Pakistan, East Indies, north Australia, Philippine, South Pacific Is. and Hawaiian Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Kalk (1958) and Rowe & Gates (1995)); Lakshadeep (India) in Sastry (1991). General distribution: tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958); circumglobal (northeastern North America, northern Europe, South Africa, new Zealand, Indo-Pacific Ocean), depth range 0-500 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995); temperate and tropical waters worldwide (Richmond, 1998). Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, continental slope (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Clark, A.M. (1977). The South African Museum's Meiring Naude cruises, part 4: Echinoderms. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 73(6):; 133-147.
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References and links

Clark, A.M. and J. Courtman-Stock. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.

Clark, A.M. (1977). The South African Museum's Meiring Naude cruises, part 4: Echinoderms. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 73(6):; 133-147.

Gosner, K.L. (1971). Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 693 p.

Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 336-351.

Linkletter, L.E. (1977). A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B. 68 p.

Mah, C.L., D.G. McKnight, M.K. Eagle, D.L. Pawson, N. Ameziane, D.J. Vance, A.N. Baker, H.E.S. Clark, and N. Alcock. (2009). Phylum Echinodermata. In Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) The New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch; 371-400.

Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp.

Pawson, D. L., D. J. Vance, C. G. Messing, F. A. Solis-Marin, and C. L. Mah. (2009). Echinodermata of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1177–1204 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College S.

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.

Trott, T.J. (2004). Cobscook Bay inventory: a historical checklist of marine invertebrates spanning 162 years. Northeastern Naturalist (Special Issue 2): 261 - 324.

Barcode of Life

GenBank

World Ophiuroidea Database

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:125064



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Synonymised taxa

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Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Found from the intertidal zone to 828 m depth, often with tunicates, prefers rock, algae covered and gravel substrate.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 2022 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1044 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -1.55 - 4268
  Temperature range (°C): 0.867 - 28.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 30.530
  Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 38.444
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.000 - 7.210
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.056 - 2.333
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.831 - 47.770

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -1.55 - 4268

Temperature range (°C): 0.867 - 28.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.047 - 30.530

Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 38.444

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.000 - 7.210

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.056 - 2.333

Silicate (umol/l): 0.831 - 47.770
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Amphipholis squamata can be found intertidally and in shallow water; under stones, amongst rockpool weeds and occasionally on sandy bottoms. It is also found amongst algal and bryozoan turfs.
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Found commonly amongst algae, bryozoans etc. intertidally and in shallow water and under shells, stones and boulders.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September?
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Reproduction

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. Broods young in bursal slits near arm attachment sites.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Amphipholis squamata is a species complex, the individual species only distinguishable by molecular markers (see Le Gac et al., 2004)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amphipholis cf. squamata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amphipholis cf. squamata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Amphipholis squamata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GCACGATGATTATTTTCAACTAATCATAAGGATATAGGAACTTTATATTTAATTTTTGGAGCATGAGCCGGGACAATAGGTACAGCTATG---AGAAAAATTATACGAGTTGAATTATCTCAACCTGGATCACTAATTCAAGAT---GATCAAGTTTATAATGTAATGGTTACCGCTCACGCCTTCGTTATGATATTTTTTATGGTTATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGATTTGGCAAATGACTTGTCCCTCTTATG---ATTGGAGCTCCCGATATGGCTTTCCCTCGAATGAAAAACATGAGATTCTGACTAATACCCCCTGCCTTCATGCTTTTATTAACATCAGCCGGTAATGAAAGAGGGGTAGGAACAGGATGAACTGTTTACCCACCTTTATCAGGACCTGTAGCTCATGGAGGAGGCTGTGTAGATCTT---GCTATATTTTCCCTCCACTTAGCAGGTGCTTCTTCTATAATGGCATCAATTAATTTTATTACAACTATAATTAAAATGCGAGCACCCGGAATGTCTATGGATCGGACTCCATTATTCGTATGATCAATTCTACTTACTACAATCCTTTTACTTCTTTCCCTACCAGTTCTAGCTGGC---GCAATTACCATGCTTCTCACTGACCGAAATATTAATACATCTTTCTTTGATCCCACTGGAGGAGGAGACCCTGTTCTTTATCAACACTTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCATCCTGAAGTCTATATCTTAATTCTTCCTGGATTTGGAATAATCTCTCACGTAGTAACATCACGCACAGGAAAGCAA---CAACCTTTTGGATATCTAGGAATGATGTATGCTATGATCTCTATAGGAATTTTAGGTTTTATAGTATGAGCACACCATATGTTCACTGTTGGACTAGATGTTGATACCCGAGCTTATTTCACAGCTGCAACAATGATTATTGCTATTCCTACTGGAGTCAAGGTTTTCAGCTGACTA---GCTACATTACAAGGCG
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amphipholis squamata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Amphipholis squamata

Amphipholis squamata, common names brooding snake star and dwarf brittle star, is a species of brittle star in the family Amphiuridae.[2][3][4]

Description[edit]

Jaws

This species is small, grey to bluish-white, and phosphorescent. It has thin, short arms around 20 mm long. The round disc is 3 to 5mm, and has a scale covering with D-shaped radial plates. It has rhombic-shaped mouth shields and extremely wide mouth papillae.

Distribution[edit]

Amphipholis squamata is found in all parts of the British Isles and also in Ireland. It has also been recorded in many other parts of the world.

Habitat[edit]

This brittle star lives in the intertidal zone in shallow water, and can be found under large stones, shells, and around sessile invertebrates such as bryozoans.

Parasites[edit]

This brittle star hosts at least two species of ectoparasites. The following two that have been confirmed are both copepods:

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marine Species Identification Portal : Amphipholis squamata". Species-identification.org. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  2. ^ "The Marine Life Information Network". MarLIN. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  3. ^ "Amphipholis squamata - Marine Life Encyclopedia". Habitas.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  4. ^ "The World Ophiuroidea Database - Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828)". Marinespecies.org. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 


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