The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Chase, C. 1997. "Urchins" (On-line). Accessed March 01, 2001 at
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, 1999. "Sea Urchins" (On-line). Accessed March 01, 2001 at,5716,68182+1,00.html.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Kamaral, S. 05/14/1999. "Sea Urchins" (On-line). Accessed 04/10/2000 at
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Arbacia punctulata. In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marine Biological Laboratory, 1996. Specimens - Sea Urchins. The Collecting Net, November: 12-14.
  • Marine Biological Laboratory, Oct 6 1985. MBL Pediatrician Studies Birth Defects. The Collecting Net, Vol. 3 No. 6: 336-338.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Serafy, D. Keith. 1979. Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, vol. V, pt. III. 1-120
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Vodopich, D., R. Moore. 1999. Biology Labratory Manual. Boston: McGraw Hill.
  • Wright, J. 1994. Atlantic Purple Sea Urchin. New Jersey SCUBA Diving, July: 12.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.


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