The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnold, Augusta Foote. 1903. Sea-Beach at Ebb-Tide. New York : Century Co.; Plate LVII
  • Chase, C. 1997. "Urchins" (On-line). Accessed March 01, 2001 at
  • Clark, Hubert Lyman. 1904. Echinoderms of the Woods Hole Region. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, vol.22, 1902; Plate 8
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, 1999. "Sea Urchins" (On-line). Accessed March 01, 2001 at,5716,68182+1,00.html.
  • Kamaral, S. 05/14/1999. "Sea Urchins" (On-line). Accessed 04/10/2000 at
  • Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2013). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2013-03-04). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Arbacia punctulata. In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Marine Biological Laboratory, 1996. Specimens - Sea Urchins. The Collecting Net, November: 12-14.
  • Marine Biological Laboratory, Oct 6 1985. MBL Pediatrician Studies Birth Defects. The Collecting Net, Vol. 3 No. 6: 336-338.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Serafy, D. Keith. 1979. Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, vol. V, pt. III. 1-120
  • Vodopich, D., R. Moore. 1999. Biology Labratory Manual. Boston: McGraw Hill.
  • Wright, J. 1994. Atlantic Purple Sea Urchin. New Jersey SCUBA Diving, July: 12.


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