Overview

Brief Summary

Living Material

Although it is possible in some species of echinoids to distinguish the sexes by external characteristics (see the papers by Marx, 1932, and Harvey, 1956b), no differentiating characteristics have, as yet, been described for the American sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata. The sexes are readily identified after the animals are opened, by the deep red or purple ovaries and the white testes, or, if unopened animals shed spontaneously, by the red eggs and the white sperm. Hermaphroditic animals are occasionally found (Boolootian and Moore, 1956).

At Woods Hole, Mass., the animals are obtained by dredging; they are, at the present time, rather scarce.

An exhaustive account of the life-history, embryology and metamorphosis of Arbacia is given by Harvey (1956a).

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fossil species

recent & fossil

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Living Material

Although it is possible in some species of echinoids to distinguish the sexes by external characteristics (see the papers by Marx, 1932, and Harvey, 1956b), no differentiating characteristics have, as yet, been described for the American sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata. The sexes are readily identified after the animals are opened, by the deep red or purple ovaries and the white testes, or, if unopened animals shed spontaneously, by the red eggs and the white sperm. Hermaphroditic animals are occasionally found (Boolootian and Moore, 1956).

At Woods Hole, Mass., the animals are obtained by dredging; they are, at the present time, rather scarce.

An exhaustive account of the life-history, embryology and metamorphosis of Arbacia is given by Harvey (1956a).

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Virginian, southside of Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS Editorial Board

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Virginian, southside of Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Arbacia punctulata is a common urchin from Cape Cod to the West Indies.

Biogeographic Regions: atlantic ocean (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In Panama this species has been collected from Margarita Island, Limon Bay (USNM E 4872), Canal Zone, Caribbean Sea.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Coppard , Simon

Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Purple sea urchins, like all sea urchins, are the porcupines of the sea. They have long spines in order to deter predators. Even the name, Sea Urchin, comes from the Old English term for spiny hedgehog. The Arbacia punctulata has a deep purple color all over the spines and body (test). Their body area, called a test, can grow to a diameter of 3-5 cm. This test is made up of ten fused plates that encircle the urchin. Each of these fused plates has small holes from which the feet extend. These feet are controlled by an internal water vascular system. This sytem works by varing the amount of water inside which regulates if the feet are extended or contracted. Sea urchins also have a unique structure called Aristotle's lantern. This structure is made of five hard plates that move together like a beak. They use this beak like structure to scrape rocks clean of algae. These 'teeth' can also grow back after too much wear. They have a mouth at the underside and an anus at the top of the animal. In addition, they are radially symmetrical.

Other Physical Features: ectothermic

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

References and links

Mortensen, T. (1935). A monograph of the Echinoidea 2. Bothriocidaroida, Meonechinoida, Lepidocentroida and Stiridonta. Copenhagen. 647 pp. 377 figures, 89 pls; pages: 573-575.

Barcode of Life

GenBank

The Echinoid Directory

World Echinoidea Database

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:158058


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Coppard , Simon

Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonymised taxa

Anapesus carolinus Holmes, 1869 (subjective junior synonym)
Arbacea punctulata (misspelling for Arbacia punctulata)
Echinocidaris (Agarites) punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocidaris davisii A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinocidaris punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus punctulatus Lamarck, 1816 (transferred to Arbacia)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Coppard , Simon

Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 648 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 301 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 307
  Temperature range (°C): 8.918 - 26.849
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 7.566
  Salinity (PPS): 33.723 - 36.454
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.383 - 5.861
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.709
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.515

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 307

Temperature range (°C): 8.918 - 26.849

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 7.566

Salinity (PPS): 33.723 - 36.454

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.383 - 5.861

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.709

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.515
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
All rights reserved

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

These purple sea urchins are found most commonly on rocks and shells in somewhat deep salt water. They prefer to live on rocks or shell bottoms from the low-tide line to a water depth of about 750 feet (229 meters).

Aquatic Biomes: benthic ; reef

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 648 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 301 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.1 - 307
  Temperature range (°C): 8.918 - 26.849
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 7.566
  Salinity (PPS): 33.723 - 36.454
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.383 - 5.861
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.709
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.515

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.1 - 307

Temperature range (°C): 8.918 - 26.849

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.325 - 7.566

Salinity (PPS): 33.723 - 36.454

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.383 - 5.861

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.709

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 4.515
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Sea urchins graze on algae and other organisms that grow on the rocks around them, using their Aristotle's lantern.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Time Table of Development

The following schedules of development have been observed at temperatures of 23° C. (data from Harvey, 1956a) and 20° C.; the time is recorded from insemination.

Stage20° C.23° C.
Formation of fertilization membrane5 minutes2 minutes
Formation of hyaline layer10 minutes2 minutes
Sperm aster appears15 minutes8 minutes
"Streak" stage35 minutes20-35 minutes
Cleavage asters45 - 50 minutes35 minutes
First cleavage56-67 minutes50 minutes
Second cleavage107 minutes78 minutes
Third cleavage145 minutes103 minutes
Blastula6 hours7-8 hours
Hatching of blastula10 hours12-15 hours
Gastrula20 hours24 hours
Pluteus48 hours
Metamorphosis2 weeks

Different batches of eggs vary slightly (1-2%) in average cleavage times; within a batch, most eggs will develop at the average rate, but some may vary by about 10% Temperatures above 30-32° C. are lethal for Arbacia eggs.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Later Stages of Development

At the eight-cell stage, there is a very small central cavity which enlarges as cleavage continues, to form the blastocoele. About six hours after fertilization, a smooth-surfaced, spherical young blastula is formed, the wall of which is one cell in thickness. Cilia soon develop on the surface, and the blastula is rotated by their action within the fertilization membrane. The blastula hatches out of the fertilization membrane in about ten hours. It has been shown that the blastula releases a "hatching enzyme" at this time, which weakens and dissolves the membrane so that the blastula can break through. A tuft of long cilia develops at the animal pole of the blastula, which is the forward end when the embryo is swimming. At the base of this apical tuft the blastula wall is thickened, forming the apical plate. At the vegetal pole, the blastula wall becomes flattened, and the micromeres migrate into the blastocoele, forming the rudimentary mesenchyme which gives rise to the skeleton.

About 20 hours after fertilization, the cells at the vegetal pole invaginate to form a blind tube, the archenteron. This reaches the opposite end of the blastocoele in about five hours. The gastrula contains approximately one thousand cells, and its outer wall, as well as the wall of the archenteron, has a single layer of cells. The primary mesenchyme cells form a ring around the blastoporal end of the archenteron. Secondary mesenchyme and, later, the coelom are budded off from the tip of the archenteron.

At the completion of gastrulation, the tip of the archenteron turns to one side of the gastrula, which becomes flattened over an area extending from the animal pole nearly to the blastopore. This is the first sign of bilateral symmetry, the flattened area representing the ventral side of the embryo. The primary mesenchyme cells aggregate in two groups, one on each postero-ventral side, and each group secretes a triradiate spicule, the beginning of the skeleton. Where the tip of the archenteron touches the ectoderm, there is formed a depression which later acquires an opening into the archenteron to become the stomodeum. The archenteron becomes divided by two constrictions into oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The apical tuft disappears, a ciliated band surrounds the oral field, the embryo begins to elongate in the dorso-ventral axis, and the direction of swimming changes, so that the ventral side is forward.

After about 48 hours, the embryo enters the pluteus stage, which is fully developed by the end of the third day. The original apical plate grows out in a ventral direction, to form the oral lobe which includes the stomodeum and the anterior part of the oesophagus. Two short outgrowths, the oral (antero-lateral) arms, are formed on the oral lobe, and, at the anal side, two longer anal (aboral or post-oral) arms grow out in the same general direction. The original triradiate spicules form skeletal rods which extend into the oral arms (oral rods), the anal arms (anal rods), dorsally through the body (body rods) and laterally (ventral' transverse rods). Each of the rods is made up of three or four parallel parts joined by cross-bars. Different species of sea urchins differ in this regard, so that the structure of the skeletal rods is a useful characteristic in hybridization studies.

The embryo continues to elongate in the dorso-ventral direction, and becomes pointed at the postero-dorsal end where the body rods meet. The axis running through oesophagus, stomach and intestine becomes J-shaped. The stomach expands, to become a spherical structure which fills a large part of the body of the pluteus; sphincter muscles connect it with the oesophagus and intestine. The two coelomic sacs extend postero-laterally from the oesophagus; the one on the left side becomes larger and later acquires a dorsal opening called the pore canal. The right coelomic sac buds off cells to form the madreporic vesicle; but otherwise remains rudimentary. The left coelom undergoes extensive later development in the formation of structures of the adult sea urchin. These changes do not occur until the second week, when metamorphosis begins in properly fed larvae. The adult organs are built up in and around a structure called the "echinus rudiment," which is formed by the fusion of an invagination (the amniotic invagination) of the ectoderm on the left side with the mid-portion (hydrocoele) of the left coelom. The left side of the pluteus becomes, then, the future oral surface of the adult.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Time Table of Development

The following schedules of development have been observed at temperatures of 23° C. (data from Harvey, 1956a) and 20° C.; the time is recorded from insemination.

Stage20° C.23° C.
Formation of fertilization membrane5 minutes2 minutes
Formation of hyaline layer10 minutes2 minutes
Sperm aster appears15 minutes8 minutes
"Streak" stage35 minutes20-35 minutes
Cleavage asters45 - 50 minutes35 minutes
First cleavage56-67 minutes50 minutes
Second cleavage107 minutes78 minutes
Third cleavage145 minutes103 minutes
Blastula6 hours7-8 hours
Hatching of blastula10 hours12-15 hours
Gastrula20 hours24 hours
Pluteus48 hours
Metamorphosis2 weeks

Different batches of eggs vary slightly (1-2%) in average cleavage times; within a batch, most eggs will develop at the average rate, but some may vary by about 10% Temperatures above 30-32° C. are lethal for Arbacia eggs.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Later Stages of Development

At the eight-cell stage, there is a very small central cavity which enlarges as cleavage continues, to form the blastocoele. About six hours after fertilization, a smooth-surfaced, spherical young blastula is formed, the wall of which is one cell in thickness. Cilia soon develop on the surface, and the blastula is rotated by their action within the fertilization membrane. The blastula hatches out of the fertilization membrane in about ten hours. It has been shown that the blastula releases a "hatching enzyme" at this time, which weakens and dissolves the membrane so that the blastula can break through. A tuft of long cilia develops at the animal pole of the blastula, which is the forward end when the embryo is swimming. At the base of this apical tuft the blastula wall is thickened, forming the apical plate. At the vegetal pole, the blastula wall becomes flattened, and the micromeres migrate into the blastocoele, forming the rudimentary mesenchyme which gives rise to the skeleton.

About 20 hours after fertilization, the cells at the vegetal pole invaginate to form a blind tube, the archenteron. This reaches the opposite end of the blastocoele in about five hours. The gastrula contains approximately one thousand cells, and its outer wall, as well as the wall of the archenteron, has a single layer of cells. The primary mesenchyme cells form a ring around the blastoporal end of the archenteron. Secondary mesenchyme and, later, the coelom are budded off from the tip of the archenteron.

At the completion of gastrulation, the tip of the archenteron turns to one side of the gastrula, which becomes flattened over an area extending from the animal pole nearly to the blastopore. This is the first sign of bilateral symmetry, the flattened area representing the ventral side of the embryo. The primary mesenchyme cells aggregate in two groups, one on each postero-ventral side, and each group secretes a triradiate spicule, the beginning of the skeleton. Where the tip of the archenteron touches the ectoderm, there is formed a depression which later acquires an opening into the archenteron to become the stomodeum. The archenteron becomes divided by two constrictions into oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The apical tuft disappears, a ciliated band surrounds the oral field, the embryo begins to elongate in the dorso-ventral axis, and the direction of swimming changes, so that the ventral side is forward.

After about 48 hours, the embryo enters the pluteus stage, which is fully developed by the end of the third day. The original apical plate grows out in a ventral direction, to form the oral lobe which includes the stomodeum and the anterior part of the oesophagus. Two short outgrowths, the oral (antero-lateral) arms, are formed on the oral lobe, and, at the anal side, two longer anal (aboral or post-oral) arms grow out in the same general direction. The original triradiate spicules form skeletal rods which extend into the oral arms (oral rods), the anal arms (anal rods), dorsally through the body (body rods) and laterally (ventral' transverse rods). Each of the rods is made up of three or four parallel parts joined by cross-bars. Different species of sea urchins differ in this regard, so that the structure of the skeletal rods is a useful characteristic in hybridization studies.

The embryo continues to elongate in the dorso-ventral direction, and becomes pointed at the postero-dorsal end where the body rods meet. The axis running through oesophagus, stomach and intestine becomes J-shaped. The stomach expands, to become a spherical structure which fills a large part of the body of the pluteus; sphincter muscles connect it with the oesophagus and intestine. The two coelomic sacs extend postero-laterally from the oesophagus; the one on the left side becomes larger and later acquires a dorsal opening called the pore canal. The right coelomic sac buds off cells to form the madreporic vesicle; but otherwise remains rudimentary. The left coelom undergoes extensive later development in the formation of structures of the adult sea urchin. These changes do not occur until the second week, when metamorphosis begins in properly fed larvae. The adult organs are built up in and around a structure called the "echinus rudiment," which is formed by the fusion of an invagination (the amniotic invagination) of the ectoderm on the left side with the mid-portion (hydrocoele) of the left coelom. The left side of the pluteus becomes, then, the future oral surface of the adult.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Cleavage

About 15 minutes after insemination (at 20° C.) a sperm aster is visible as a spherical region containing clear rays which extend from a clear center; this configuration attains its maximum development 20 to 30 minutes after insemination. Then a clear streak appears in the egg, slightly above the equator, and 45 to 50 minutes after insemination, it is replaced by two clear areas, the asters of the first cleavage spindle. The first three cleavages divide the egg into eight blastomeres of equal size. The planes of the first two cleavages are meridional (in the polar axis), while that of the third is equatorial or horizontal (at right angles to the polar axis). The progress of the cleavage furrows in dividing eggs can be followed; the hyaline layer forms the surface of the furrow and later, when the cells flatten against one another, it forms the boundary between them. At the fourth cleavage, the four upper cells divide meridionally, forming eight equal mesomeres, while the lower four cells divide unequally and horizontally, to form four large macromeres; below them, at the vegetal pole, are four small, clear micromeres.

At the fifth division, the eight mesomeres divide equally and horizontally, forming two tiers of cells termed an1 (at the animal pole) and an2 (see the paper by Hörstadius, 1939), while the macromeres and micromeres divide meridionally. At the sixth cleavage, the an1 and an2 cells divide in a more or less radial direction, while the macromeres divide horizontally to form the veg1, and veg2 tiers of cells. Veg2 cells are next to the micromeres, which have also divided at this time but which do not form distinct layers. Tiers of cells are not readily distinguished in later cleavage stages, and no special cell-layer designation is used after the 64-cell stage. It has been shown by Hörstadius (1939) that the an,, an2 and veg1 cells form the ectoderm, the veg2 cells form endoderm (gut) and part of the mesoderm (coelom), while the micromeres form the mesodermal skeleton components.

Different batches of eggs vary slightly (1-2%) in average cleavage times; within a batch, most eggs will develop at the average rate, but some may vary by about 10% Temperatures above 30-32° C. are lethal for Arbacia eggs.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fertilization

Sperm penetration occurs very rapidly (apparently at any point on the egg), and it is usually difficult to study. Within a few seconds after insemination, the cortical responses of the egg begin; the vitelline membrane starts to elevate rapidly from the egg surface (in about five seconds), leaving a perivitelline space. This membrane hardens and thickens during the next five minutes, and, after alteration, is called the fertilization membrane. At the protoplasmic egg surface (which is at first slightly disrupted by the elevation of the vitelline membrane), a new, clear layer is formed about ten minutes after fertilization: the hyaline plasma membrane, which is apparently a calcium-proteinate, acting as a cement to hold the blastomeres together after cleavage. It disappears when the eggs are placed in calcium-free sea water. After insemination, the jelly-layer is often clearly delimited by the supernumerary sperm trapped near its surface. Moser (1939, 1940) has correlated the elevation of the vitelline membrane with the breakdown of certain cortical granules. These granules are embedded in the cortex, and are not easily displaced by centrifugation (as are the granules of the underlying fluid endoplasm) . Runnstrom et al. ( 1944) state that the cortical granules contribute to the formation of the fertilization membrane.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Unfertilized Ovum

A good batch of eggs from a ripe female should show uniformity of size, perfectly spherical form and complete absence of immature eggs (which are in the germinal vesicle stage). Both meiotic divisions are completed while the eggs are still in the ovary, and the polar bodies very seldom remain attached when the eggs are shed (Hoadley, 1934). Occasionally (especially from relatively unripe animals, or after maceration of the ovaries), eggs may be found that are in the germinal vesicle stage; this is recognizable in the living state by the large clear nucleus (as opposed to the small nucleus of the ripe egg) and nucleolus. Such eggs may exhibit some surface response to sperm (including the formation of "papillae"), but they do not develop after insemination. The ripe egg, 72 to 75 microns in diameter, has a small, clear nucleus; it contains uniformly dispersed, pale yolk granules, and slightly larger red granules containing echinochrome pigment, which is a substituted naphthoquinone related to the K vitamins (Ball, 1936; Hartmann et al., 1939; Tyler, 1939). The nucleus is usually excentric in location. Since the polar bodies are not ordinarily present, the position of the nucleus with respect to the polar axis is not readily determined; occasionally, however, batches of eggs are obtained in which the polar bodies are still attached, and in these, observations by Hoadley (1934) have shown that the nucleus may lie in any part of the cytoplasm between the cortex and the center. In the transparent, gelatinous coat of the egg (about 30 microns wide), there is a funnel shaped space which usually lies in the polar axis. The funnel is rendered visible by staining the jelly with Janus green, or by placing the eggs in a suspension of Chinese ink. For this purpose, the eggs should be taken immediately after shedding, because the "micropyle" (funnel) may disappear as the jelly swells after the eggs are shed into sea water. See the diagrams by Harvey and Dan (Harvey, 1956a, p. 84) of the membranes and layers of the fertilized, as compared with the unfertilized, egg.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Sperm

After dilution with sea water, the sperm become intensely active, although they are immobile in concentrated suspension due, presumably, to the effects of high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Concomitantly, their ability to fertilize eggs is lost more rapidly in dilute than in concentrated suspensions. (See the papers by Lillie, 1915; Cohn, 1918; Hayashi, 1945.) "Dry" sperm kept in the cold (2° C.) may remain usable for several days; at room temperatures, dilute sperm suspensions often lose their fertilizing power in an hour or less.

The spermatozoon consists of three parts: head, middle piece and tail. These are 3.25 microns, 0.75 micron and 45 microns in length, respectively (Harvey and Anderson, 1943). The fibrillar axial filament of the tail protrudes a short distance beyond the end of the sheath.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeding Season

From the middle of June until the middle of August (Harvey, 1956a), although the season may vary somewhat from year to year.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

There are male and female purple urchins. The females can release as many as several million eggs at a time. These eggs settle and the sperm released from the males swims and finds the eggs, fertilizes them and creates a large gamete. The larvae that hatches is bilaterally symmetrical, and changes to radial symmetry after it grows.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cleavage

About 15 minutes after insemination (at 20° C.) a sperm aster is visible as a spherical region containing clear rays which extend from a clear center; this configuration attains its maximum development 20 to 30 minutes after insemination. Then a clear streak appears in the egg, slightly above the equator, and 45 to 50 minutes after insemination, it is replaced by two clear areas, the asters of the first cleavage spindle. The first three cleavages divide the egg into eight blastomeres of equal size. The planes of the first two cleavages are meridional (in the polar axis), while that of the third is equatorial or horizontal (at right angles to the polar axis). The progress of the cleavage furrows in dividing eggs can be followed; the hyaline layer forms the surface of the furrow and later, when the cells flatten against one another, it forms the boundary between them. At the fourth cleavage, the four upper cells divide meridionally, forming eight equal mesomeres, while the lower four cells divide unequally and horizontally, to form four large macromeres; below them, at the vegetal pole, are four small, clear micromeres.

At the fifth division, the eight mesomeres divide equally and horizontally, forming two tiers of cells termed an1 (at the animal pole) and an2 (see the paper by Hörstadius, 1939), while the macromeres and micromeres divide meridionally. At the sixth cleavage, the an1 and an2 cells divide in a more or less radial direction, while the macromeres divide horizontally to form the veg1, and veg2 tiers of cells. Veg2 cells are next to the micromeres, which have also divided at this time but which do not form distinct layers. Tiers of cells are not readily distinguished in later cleavage stages, and no special cell-layer designation is used after the 64-cell stage. It has been shown by Hörstadius (1939) that the an,, an2 and veg1 cells form the ectoderm, the veg2 cells form endoderm (gut) and part of the mesoderm (coelom), while the micromeres form the mesodermal skeleton components.

Different batches of eggs vary slightly (1-2%) in average cleavage times; within a batch, most eggs will develop at the average rate, but some may vary by about 10% Temperatures above 30-32° C. are lethal for Arbacia eggs.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fertilization

Sperm penetration occurs very rapidly (apparently at any point on the egg), and it is usually difficult to study. Within a few seconds after insemination, the cortical responses of the egg begin; the vitelline membrane starts to elevate rapidly from the egg surface (in about five seconds), leaving a perivitelline space. This membrane hardens and thickens during the next five minutes, and, after alteration, is called the fertilization membrane. At the protoplasmic egg surface (which is at first slightly disrupted by the elevation of the vitelline membrane), a new, clear layer is formed about ten minutes after fertilization: the hyaline plasma membrane, which is apparently a calcium-proteinate, acting as a cement to hold the blastomeres together after cleavage. It disappears when the eggs are placed in calcium-free sea water. After insemination, the jelly-layer is often clearly delimited by the supernumerary sperm trapped near its surface. Moser (1939, 1940) has correlated the elevation of the vitelline membrane with the breakdown of certain cortical granules. These granules are embedded in the cortex, and are not easily displaced by centrifugation (as are the granules of the underlying fluid endoplasm) . Runnstrom et al. ( 1944) state that the cortical granules contribute to the formation of the fertilization membrane.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Unfertilized Ovum

A good batch of eggs from a ripe female should show uniformity of size, perfectly spherical form and complete absence of immature eggs (which are in the germinal vesicle stage). Both meiotic divisions are completed while the eggs are still in the ovary, and the polar bodies very seldom remain attached when the eggs are shed (Hoadley, 1934). Occasionally (especially from relatively unripe animals, or after maceration of the ovaries), eggs may be found that are in the germinal vesicle stage; this is recognizable in the living state by the large clear nucleus (as opposed to the small nucleus of the ripe egg) and nucleolus. Such eggs may exhibit some surface response to sperm (including the formation of "papillae"), but they do not develop after insemination. The ripe egg, 72 to 75 microns in diameter, has a small, clear nucleus; it contains uniformly dispersed, pale yolk granules, and slightly larger red granules containing echinochrome pigment, which is a substituted naphthoquinone related to the K vitamins (Ball, 1936; Hartmann et al., 1939; Tyler, 1939). The nucleus is usually excentric in location. Since the polar bodies are not ordinarily present, the position of the nucleus with respect to the polar axis is not readily determined; occasionally, however, batches of eggs are obtained in which the polar bodies are still attached, and in these, observations by Hoadley (1934) have shown that the nucleus may lie in any part of the cytoplasm between the cortex and the center. In the transparent, gelatinous coat of the egg (about 30 microns wide), there is a funnel shaped space which usually lies in the polar axis. The funnel is rendered visible by staining the jelly with Janus green, or by placing the eggs in a suspension of Chinese ink. For this purpose, the eggs should be taken immediately after shedding, because the "micropyle" (funnel) may disappear as the jelly swells after the eggs are shed into sea water. See the diagrams by Harvey and Dan (Harvey, 1956a, p. 84) of the membranes and layers of the fertilized, as compared with the unfertilized, egg.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Sperm

After dilution with sea water, the sperm become intensely active, although they are immobile in concentrated suspension due, presumably, to the effects of high concentrations of carbon dioxide. Concomitantly, their ability to fertilize eggs is lost more rapidly in dilute than in concentrated suspensions. (See the papers by Lillie, 1915; Cohn, 1918; Hayashi, 1945.) "Dry" sperm kept in the cold (2° C.) may remain usable for several days; at room temperatures, dilute sperm suspensions often lose their fertilizing power in an hour or less.

The spermatozoon consists of three parts: head, middle piece and tail. These are 3.25 microns, 0.75 micron and 45 microns in length, respectively (Harvey and Anderson, 1943). The fibrillar axial filament of the tail protrudes a short distance beyond the end of the sheath.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Breeding Season

From the middle of June until the middle of August (Harvey, 1956a), although the season may vary somewhat from year to year.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arbacia punctulata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arbacia punctulata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

The purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, has been thriving in waters across the world for years and hopefully will continue to. At this time their main enemy is pollution.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Preparing Cultures

Two drops (0.2 cc.) of "dry" sperm may be diluted with 10 cc. of sea water (Just, 1939) in a watch glass, just before insemination; do not use sperm which have been diluted more than 20 minutes, and avoid a high sperm concentration, which leads to polyspermy and abnormal cleavage. Two drops of diluted sperm are sufficient for a fingerbowl of eggs. Stir the dish immediately.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Procuring Gametes

The following methods may be used, (4) or (5) being preferable because of the present scarcity of Arbacia at Woods Hole:

(1) Cut around the peristome (on the oral surface) and remove the Aristotle's lantern, taking care not to injure the gonads. The perivisceral fluid should then be drained from the body and the animal, aboral surface down, placed to shed on a Syracuse watch glass which has been moistened with sea water. After each animal is opened, the hands of the investigator and all instruments used should be washed with running fresh water, to avoid contamination of the gametes of one sex with those of the other, or with body fluids. If the eggs are shed through the gonopores of the female into the Syracuse dish, they should be transferred within ten minutes to a fingerbowl containing 200 cc. of sea water. The sperm are best kept "dry," just as they exude from the testes.

(2) Cut around the test, about halfway between the mouth and the equator, and proceed as in (1) above. Shedding is more frequently obtained by this method, but there is also more likelihood of cutting the gonads; and of contamination with the perivisceral fluid.

(3) Cut as in (2) above, pour out the body fluid and remove the gonads (at the gonoduct end) with blunt forceps, spatula or spoon. The ovaries should be placed in 200 cc. of sea water in a fingerbowl, and allowed to shed. If undisturbed, the eggs are extruded in compact clumps or strings, without ovarian tissue, and may be removed to a fresh dish by means of a wide-mouth pipette. If large quantities of eggs are desired, the ovaries should be allowed to shed for about 30 minutes, with occasional stirring; then pour them gently through cheesecloth (which has previously been washed in fresh water and soaked in filtered sea water) or bolting silk.

(4) Palmer (1937) induced spawning in Arbacia by injecting isotonic (0.53 M) KCl into the perivisceral cavity, and Tyler (1949) described a similar method, utilizing 0.5 cc. of 0.5 M KCl Ripe animals begin to shed in a few minutes; the eggs can be collected by inverting the female in a dish of sea water, or by washing them gently from the surface of the test with a pipette. The sperm should be collected "dry." This method has the advantage that one is enabled to sex animals without sacrificing them, but there is some evidence (Harvey, 1956b) that eggs obtained in this manner do not develop normally. The animals may be returned to an aquarium, and will produce another batch of gametes in about three weeks, if fed periodically.

(5) Harvey (1953) has reported an electrical method (similar to a technique devised by Iwata, 1950, for Japanese sea urchins) for sexing Arbacia and inducing shedding. An alternating current of 10 volts (reduced by a transformer from ordinary 60-cycle, 110-volt current) is applied, using lead electrodes, to any two points on the test of the animal, which is placed, aboral side up, in a dish and covered with sea water. Almost immediately after the current is passed, the gametes will be extruded from each of the gonopores; when the current is stopped, the shedding ceases, to be resumed when the current is again applied. The gametes should be removed and used at once. Harvey points out that this method is of great value in laboratories where sea urchins have become scarce, since only the quantity of gametes desired is obtained and the animals need not be sacrificed.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Care of Adults

In the laboratory, animals can be kept in aquaria provided with running sea water; they should not be crowded.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Special Methods of Observation

Dark-field illumination shows a bright reddish "luminous" layer on the surface of the unfertilized egg. The luminosity diminishes and becomes paler after fertilization (Runnstrom, 1928; Ohman, 1945). The skeletal spicules and rods are best demonstrated by the use of a polarization microscope.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Datasets

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Spines may be poisonous, but only dangerous if stepped on or handled roughly.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Almost all sea urchin species are harvested for food and for their shells. Their eggs are a delicacy in many countries. They are also common laboratory species used for studying reproduction and development.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Preparing Cultures

Two drops (0.2 cc.) of "dry" sperm may be diluted with 10 cc. of sea water (Just, 1939) in a watch glass, just before insemination; do not use sperm which have been diluted more than 20 minutes, and avoid a high sperm concentration, which leads to polyspermy and abnormal cleavage. Two drops of diluted sperm are sufficient for a fingerbowl of eggs. Stir the dish immediately.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Procuring Gametes

The following methods may be used, (4) or (5) being preferable because of the present scarcity of Arbacia at Woods Hole:

(1) Cut around the peristome (on the oral surface) and remove the Aristotle's lantern, taking care not to injure the gonads. The perivisceral fluid should then be drained from the body and the animal, aboral surface down, placed to shed on a Syracuse watch glass which has been moistened with sea water. After each animal is opened, the hands of the investigator and all instruments used should be washed with running fresh water, to avoid contamination of the gametes of one sex with those of the other, or with body fluids. If the eggs are shed through the gonopores of the female into the Syracuse dish, they should be transferred within ten minutes to a fingerbowl containing 200 cc. of sea water. The sperm are best kept "dry," just as they exude from the testes.

(2) Cut around the test, about halfway between the mouth and the equator, and proceed as in (1) above. Shedding is more frequently obtained by this method, but there is also more likelihood of cutting the gonads; and of contamination with the perivisceral fluid.

(3) Cut as in (2) above, pour out the body fluid and remove the gonads (at the gonoduct end) with blunt forceps, spatula or spoon. The ovaries should be placed in 200 cc. of sea water in a fingerbowl, and allowed to shed. If undisturbed, the eggs are extruded in compact clumps or strings, without ovarian tissue, and may be removed to a fresh dish by means of a wide-mouth pipette. If large quantities of eggs are desired, the ovaries should be allowed to shed for about 30 minutes, with occasional stirring; then pour them gently through cheesecloth (which has previously been washed in fresh water and soaked in filtered sea water) or bolting silk.

(4) Palmer (1937) induced spawning in Arbacia by injecting isotonic (0.53 M) KCl into the perivisceral cavity, and Tyler (1949) described a similar method, utilizing 0.5 cc. of 0.5 M KCl Ripe animals begin to shed in a few minutes; the eggs can be collected by inverting the female in a dish of sea water, or by washing them gently from the surface of the test with a pipette. The sperm should be collected "dry." This method has the advantage that one is enabled to sex animals without sacrificing them, but there is some evidence (Harvey, 1956b) that eggs obtained in this manner do not develop normally. The animals may be returned to an aquarium, and will produce another batch of gametes in about three weeks, if fed periodically.

(5) Harvey (1953) has reported an electrical method (similar to a technique devised by Iwata, 1950, for Japanese sea urchins) for sexing Arbacia and inducing shedding. An alternating current of 10 volts (reduced by a transformer from ordinary 60-cycle, 110-volt current) is applied, using lead electrodes, to any two points on the test of the animal, which is placed, aboral side up, in a dish and covered with sea water. Almost immediately after the current is passed, the gametes will be extruded from each of the gonopores; when the current is stopped, the shedding ceases, to be resumed when the current is again applied. The gametes should be removed and used at once. Harvey points out that this method is of great value in laboratories where sea urchins have become scarce, since only the quantity of gametes desired is obtained and the animals need not be sacrificed.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Care of Adults

In the laboratory, animals can be kept in aquaria provided with running sea water; they should not be crowded.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Special Methods of Observation

Dark-field illumination shows a bright reddish "luminous" layer on the surface of the unfertilized egg. The luminosity diminishes and becomes paler after fertilization (Runnstrom, 1928; Ohman, 1945). The skeletal spicules and rods are best demonstrated by the use of a polarization microscope.

  • Ball, E. G. 1936. Echinochrome, its isolation and composition. J. Biol. Chem., 114: vi.
  • Boolootian R. A., and A. R. Moore, 1956. Hermaphroditism in echinoids. Biol. Bull., 111: 328-335.
  • Cohn, E. J., 1918. Studies in the physiology of spermatozoa. Biol. Bull., 34: 167-218.
  • Dan, K., 1954. The cortical movement in Arbacia punctulata eggs through cleavage cycles. Embryologia, 2: 115-122.
  • Fry, H. J., 1936. Studies of the mitotic figure. V. The time schedule of mitotic changes in developing Arbacia eggs. Biol. Bull., 70: 89-99.
  • Hartmann M., O. Schartau, R. Kuhn and K. Wallenfels 1939. Über die Sexualstoffe der Seeigel. Naturwiss., 27: 433.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1939. A method of determining the sex of Arbacia, and a new method of producing twins, triplets and quadruplets. Coll. Net, 14: 211.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1940. A note on determining the sex of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 79: 363.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1953. A simplified electrical method of determining the sex of sea urchins and other marine animals. Biol. Bull., 105: 365.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956a. The American Arbacia and Other Sea Urchins. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
  • Harvey, E. B., 1956b. Sex in sea urchins. Pubbl. Stas. Zool., Napoli, 28: 127-135.
  • Harvey, E. B., and T. F. Anderson,, 1943. The spermatozoon and fertilization membrane of Arbacia punctulata as shown by the electron microscope. Biol. Bull., 85: 151-156.
  • Hayashi, T., 1945. Dilution medium and survival of the spermatozoa of Arbacia punctulata. I. Effect of the medium on fertilizing power. Biol. Bull., 89: 162-179.
  • Hoadley, L., 1934. The relation between the position of the female pronucleus and the polar bodies in the unfertilized egg of Arbacia punctulata. Biol. Bull., 67: 220-222.
  • Hörstadius, S., 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development, studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev., 14: 132-179.
  • Iwata, K. S., 1950. A method of determining the sex of sea urchins and of obtaining eggs by electric stimulation. Annot. Zool. Jap., 23: 39-42.
  • Just, E. E., 1939. Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
  • Lillie, F. R., 1915. Studies of fertilization. Vii. Analysis of variations in the fertilizing power of sperm suspensions of Arbacia. Biol. Bull., 28: 229-251.
  • Marx, W., 1932. Zum Problem der Determination der Bilateralität im Seeigelkeim. (Nebst einem Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Geschlechtsdimorphismus einiger Seeigel.) Arch. f. Entw., 125: 96-147.
  • Moser, F., 1939. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents m the Arbacia egg. Parts I and Ii. J. Exp. Zool., 80: 423-471.
  • Moser, F., 1940. Studies on a cortical layer response to stimulating agents in the Arbacia egg. Parts Iii and Iv. Biol. Bull., 78: 68-91.
  • Ohman, L. -O., 1945. On the lipids of the sea-urchin egg. Arch. f. Zoologi, 36A: no. 7, 1-95. Palmer, L., 1937. The shedding reaction in Arbacia punctulata. Physiol. Zool., 10: 352-367.
  • Runnström J., 1928. Die Veranderung der Plasmakolloide bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleis. Protoplasma, 4: 388-514.
  • Runnström, J., L. MonnÉ and E. Wicklund, 1944. Mechanisms of formation of the fertilization membrane in the sea urchin egg. Nature, 153: 313-314.
  • Tyler, A., 1939. Crystalline echinochrome and spinochrome: Their failure to stimulate the respiration of eggs and of sperm of Strongylocentrotus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 25: 523528.
  • Tyler, A., 1949. A simple non-injurious method for inducing repeated spawning of sea urchins and sand-dollars. Coll. Net, 19: 19-20.
  • Zeuthen, E., 1955. Mitotic respiratory rhythms in single eggs of Psammechinus miliaris and of Ciona intestinalis., Biol. Bull., 105: 366-385.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley

Source: Egg Characteristics and Breeding Season for Woods Hole Species

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Arbacia punctulata

Arbacia punctulata is a species of sea urchins from the Arbaciidae family.

Description[edit]

It is a spherical dark purple-spined sea urchin, with a nearly flat oral face. It can reach up to 6-8cm in diameter.

Habitat and range[edit]

Its natural habitat is in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Arbacia punctulata can be found in shallow water from Massachusetts to Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula, from Texas to Florida in the Gulf of Mexico, the coast from Panama to French Guiana and in the Lesser Antilles, usually on rocky, sandy, or shelly bottoms.[1]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

A. punctulata is omnivorous, consuming a wide variety of preys[2] although Karlson[3] classified it as a generalized carnivore. It has been shown that it is galactolipids, rather than phlorotannins, that act as herbivore deterrents in Fucus vesiculosus against A. punctulata.[4]

Uses in science[edit]

For more than a century, developmental biologists have valued the sea urchin as an experimental model organism. Sea urchin eggs are transparent and can be manipulated easily in the research laboratory. Their eggs can be easily fertilized and then develop rapidly and synchronously.[5][6]

For decades, the sea urchin embryo has been used to establish the chromosome theory of heredity, the description of centrosomes, parthenogenesis, and fertilization.[7][8][9] Research work during the last 30 years established such important phenomena as stable mRNA and translational control, isolation and characterization of the mitotic apparatus, and the realization that the major structural proteins of the mitotic apparatus are microtubules.[10][11] Sea urchin studies provided the first evidence of actin in non-muscle cells.[12][13]

Arbacia punctulata is also a model organism of marine sediments toxicity[14][15] and sperm study.[16][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Serafy, D. K., 1979: Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Mem. Hourglass Cruises, 5: 1 – 120.
  2. ^ Sharp, D. T.; Gray, I. E. (1962). "Studies on factors affecting the local distribution of two sea urchins, Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus". Ecology 43: 309–313. doi:10.2307/1931986. 
  3. ^ Karlson, R., 1978: Predation and space utilization patterns in a marine epifaunal community. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 31: 225 – 239.
  4. ^ Galactolipids rather than phlorotannins as herbivore deterrents in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Michael S. Deal, Mark E. Hay, Dean Wilson and William Fenical, Oecologia, June 2003, Volume 136, Issue 1, pages 107-114, doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1242-3
  5. ^ RULON O (December 1947). "The modification of developmental patterns in Arbacia eggs with malonic acid". Anat. Rec. 99 (4): 652. PMID 18895450. 
  6. ^ Kanungo J (June 2002). "Prolonged incubation in seawater induces a DNA-dependent protein phosphorylation activity in Arbacia punctulata eggs". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294 (3): 667–71. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00539-9. PMID 12056821. 
  7. ^ FAILLA PM (June 1965). "RECOVERY FROM DIVISION DELAY IN IRRADIATED GAMETES OF ARBACIA PUNCTULATA". Radiat. Res. 25 (2): 331–40. doi:10.2307/3571975. JSTOR 3571975. PMID 14295124. 
  8. ^ Sachs MI, Anderson E (October 1970). "A cytological study of artificial parthenogenesis in the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata". J. Cell Biol. 47 (1): 140–58. doi:10.1083/jcb.47.1.140. PMC 2108410. PMID 4327513. 
  9. ^ Kite GL (October 1912). "THE NATURE OF THE FERTILIZATION MEMBRANE OF THE EGG OF THE SEA URCHIN (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA)". Science 36 (930): 562–564. doi:10.1126/science.36.930.562-a. PMID 17812420. 
  10. ^ ZIMMERMAN AM, MARSLAND D (July 1964). "CELL DIVISION: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE ON THE MITOTIC MECHANISMS OF MARINE EGGS (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA)". Exp. Cell Res. 35 (2): 293–302. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(64)90096-5. PMID 14195437. 
  11. ^ SCOTT A (October 1950). "A cytological analysis of the effects of cyanide and 4,6-dinitro-orthocresol on the mitotic phases in Arbacia punctulata". Biol. Bull. 99 (2): 362–3. PMID 14791535. 
  12. ^ Henson JH, Schatten G (1983). "Calcium regulation of the actin-mediated cytoskeletal transformation of sea urchin coelomocytes". Cell Motil. 3 (5-6): 525–34. doi:10.1002/cm.970030519. PMID 6420068. 
  13. ^ Kabat-Zinn J, Singer RH (April 1981). "Sea urchin tube feet: unique structures that allow a cytological and molecular approach to the study of actin and its gene expression". J. Cell Biol. 89 (1): 109–14. doi:10.1083/jcb.89.1.109. PMC 2111775. PMID 6894447. 
  14. ^ Jäntschi L, Bolboaca SD (2008). "A structural modelling study on marine sediments toxicity". Mar Drugs 6 (2): 372–88. doi:10.3390/md20080017. PMC 2525494. PMID 18728732. 
  15. ^ Rudolph A, Medina P, Urrutia C, Ahumada R (July 2008). "Ecotoxicological sediment evaluations in marine aquaculture areas of Chile". Environ Monit Assess 155 (1-4): 419–29. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0444-x. PMID 18633720. 
  16. ^ Lillie FR (March 1915). "The Fertilizing Power of Sperm Dilutions of Arbacia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1 (3): 156–60. doi:10.1073/pnas.1.3.156. PMC 1090763. PMID 16575966. 
  17. ^ Inamdar MV, Kim T, Chung YK, Was AM, Xiang X, Wang CW, Takayama S, Lastoskie CM, Thomas FI, Sastry AM (November 2007). "Assessment of sperm chemokinesis with exposure to jelly coats of sea urchin eggs and resact: a microfluidic experiment and numerical study". J. Exp. Biol. 210 (Pt 21): 3805–20. doi:10.1242/jeb.005439. PMID 17951422. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!