The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 2008. Sea urchin yields key secret of biomineralization. ScienceDaily.
  • Abbott, D., E. Haderline, R. Morris. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Blevins E; Johnsen S. 2004. Spatial vision in the echinoid genus Echinometra. Journal of Experimental Biology. 207: 4249-4253.
  • Calvin, J., J. Hedgepeth, E. Ricketts. 1985. Between Pacific Tides: Fifth edition. Stanford University: Stanford University Press.
  • Ebert (1967) Negative growth and longevity in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson). Science, 157:557–558.
  • Ebert, T., M. Russell. March 1988. Latitudinal variation in size structure of the west coast purple sea urchin: a correlation with headlands. Limnology and Oceanography, 33: 286-294.
  • Killian CE; Metzler RA; Gong YUT; Olson IC; Aizenberg J; Politi Y; Wilt FH; Scholl A; Young A; Doran A; Kunz M; Tamura N; Coppersmith SN; Gilbert PUPA. 2009. Mechanism of calcite co-orientation in the sea urchin tooth. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(51): 18404–18409.
  • Knight K. 2010. Sea urchins use whole body as eye. Journal of Experimental Biology ,
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson, 1857). In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Mead, K., M. Denny,. Feb/Mar 1995. The effects of hydrodynamic shear stress on fertilization and early development of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Biological Bulletin, 188: 46-56.
  • Mortensen, T. 1943. A Monograph of the Echinoidea. III, 3. Camarodonta. II. Echinidæ, Strongylocentrotidæ, Parasaleniidæ, Echinometridæ,
  • Olhausen, P., R. Russo. 1981. Pacific Intertidal Life. Rochester, NY: Nature Study Guild.
  • Politi Y; Metzler RA; Abrecht M, Gilbert B; Wilt FH; Sagi I; Addadi L; Weiner S; Gilbert PU. 2008. Transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium carbonate into calcite in the sea urchin larval spicule. PNAS. 105(45): 17362-6.
  • R. J. Rosenthal, W. D. Clarke, P. K. Dayton, Ecology and natural history of a stand of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off Del Mar, California. Fish. Bull. (Dublin) 72(3):670-684, from p. 683 (1974).
  • Readdie, M. 1998. "UCSC Marine Botany, University California Santa Cruz" (On-line). Accessed October 30, 2000 at
  • Sea Urchin Harvesters Association -California, April 29, 2000. "SUHAC Homepage" (On-line). Accessed November 26, 2000 at
  • Syntype: Stimpson. 1857. Boston J. Nat. Hist. 6: 526.
  • Tenenbaum D. 2009. Dental delight! Tooth of sea urchin shows formation of biominerals. University of Wisconsin News [Internet],
  • Yerramilli D; Johnsen S. 2010. Spatial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea). Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 249-255.


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