The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Encyclopedia Britannica On-line" (On-line). Accessed February 17, 1999 at
  • Banister, , Campbell. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. Oxford: Equinox.
  • Fox, .. 1994. "Invertebrate Anatomy" (On-line). Accessed February 17, 1999 at
  • George, .., .. George. 1979. Marine Life: An Illustrated Encylopedia of Invertebrates in the Sea. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Hendler, G., J. Miller, D. Pawson, P. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of the Caribbean. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A. (2015). Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825). In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2015) World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Lerman, .. 1986. Marine Biology: Environment, Diversity and Ecology. Menlo Park, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc..
  • Pawson, D. L., D. J. Vance, C. G. Messing, F. A. Solis-Marin, and C. L. Mah. 2009. Echinodermata of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Serafy, D. Keith. 1979. Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises, vol. V, pt. III. 1-120
  • Steinberg, .. 1996. The Muscle and Gristle Behind the Sand Dollar Bite. Journal of the NIH Research, July: 29-31.
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.


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