Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The distribution area of this species includes the northwestern Mediterranean, eastern Atlantic from the south of the Canary Islands to the north of Ireland, and western Atlantic, Antilles and Gulf of Mexico (Ramon et al. 2010). This species is also known from the coast of Turkey, particularly between 25-90 m depth in the Marmara Sea (Aydin 2008).

However, this species' distribution in the Western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico is based on reports that need further validation.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found at 5-800 m depth in sandy and muddy benthos, sometimes in the presence of rocks and coral.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 8 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 76 - 597
  Temperature range (°C): 14.062 - 14.196
  Nitrate (umol/L): 20.445 - 23.787
  Salinity (PPS): 35.408 - 35.424
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.813 - 1.928
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.395 - 1.640
  Silicate (umol/l): 9.920 - 11.327

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 76 - 597

Temperature range (°C): 14.062 - 14.196

Nitrate (umol/L): 20.445 - 23.787

Salinity (PPS): 35.408 - 35.424

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.813 - 1.928

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.395 - 1.640

Silicate (umol/l): 9.920 - 11.327
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Classification

Clark, H.L. (1922) erected the genus Parastichopus with as main characteristic the presence of Thelenota-like dichotomous branching rods. This is a characteristic of the species regalis and tremulus. According to this fact, Rowe (unpublished data) put regalis and tremulus in the genus Parastichopus. In contrast to Cutress & Miller (1982) who included regalis in the genus Eostichopus.
  • Massin, Claude
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Parastichopus regalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Mercier, A. & Hamel, J.-F.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B., Knapp, L., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a wide distribution and although it is commercially fished in Catalonia, Spain there does not seem to be other major threats affecting it. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Although this species is a large and common sea cucumber that can be found in a wide depth range in the Mediterranean, there is little information on this species. Abad et al. (2007) described the composition and abundance of the megabenthic fauna captured by the commercial trawl fleet in the Alboran Sea, where this species was found to be abundant (4.99 ± 1.19 kg*h−1) in the small seamount Seco de los Olivos otherwise known as Chella Bank (310–360 m) (Ramon et al. 2010). In the Islands of Mallorca and Menorca, Spain, it has been collected at depths between 50-800 m (Ramon et al. 2010). This species is found between 5-800 m depth (Tortonese 1965). Biomass of this species in the years 2001-2008 ranged between 0-270 kg*km-2.

The weight of the total amount of this species landed by unit of effort is usually low; 75% of instances are below 2kg, and the mean (2000–2007) is 1.78 kg per boat per day (Ramon et al. 2010). This species is not a target species per se. It is only commercialized when a minimum number of individuals, able to yield around 0.5 kg of edible product, are caught. This weight corresponds to roughly 20 specimens (Ramon et al. 2010). Annual average CPUE between the years 2000-2007 was 1.78 kg*boat-1day-1.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known threats occurring to this species. It is caught as by-catch in a small area of its range, and is a minor commercial species at least in Turkey (Aydin 2008), but the affect this activity is having on the population of this species is unknown.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species specific regulations addressing fisheries for this species.
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