The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. database, Thelypteridaceae of North America Update
  • American Fern Journal 12: 75. 1922. (Amer. Fern J.)
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez & S. Knapp. 1995. Psilotaceae a Salviniaceae. 1: i–xxi, 1–470. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Fl. Mesoamer. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F.
  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. 389 pp.
  • Long, R. W. & O. K. Lakela. 1971. Fl. Trop. Florida i–xvii, 1–962. University of Miami Press, Coral Cables.
  • Mickel, J. T. & A. R. Smith. 2004. The Pteridophytes of Mexico. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 88: 1–1054.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Stolze, R. G. 1981. Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part II. Polypodiaceae. Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 6: 1–522.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


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