Woodwardia areolata (L.) Moore
Wet pine savannas (SPS-RF, VWLPS), borrow pits, ditches.
Occasional. May-Sep. Thornhill 752, 876 (NCSU). Specimens seen in the vicinity: Sandy Run [Hancock]: Taggart SARU 78 (WNC!). [= RAB, FNA, Weakley].
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Woodwardia areolata
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Woodwardia areolata
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
Comments: Woodwardia areolata is primarily threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and to a lesser degree by forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern) is a species of fern native to eastern North America. It is usually treated in the genus Woodwardia, in the eupolypods II clade of the order Polypodiales, in the class Polypodiopsida. It is sometimes transferred to the monotypic genus Lorinseria as Lorinseria areolata (L.) C.Presl, on the basis of its anastamosing veins and lobed frond form, as well as its more marked frond dimorphism; however, the genus name Lorinseria is invalid, being an orthographical variant of Lorinsera Opiz (Flora of North America).
The sterile fronds are 40–60 cm long, and the fertile fronds 50–70 cm long.
It is superficially similar to Onoclea sensibilis and sometimes confused with it.
Distribution and Habitat
This species is native to the southeast United States, but ranges all the way up the East Coast of the United States and Canada to southern Nova Scotia. It favors moist, sandy, acid soils, and has appeared in areas in the interior of the US around acid mine seeps, thus being one of the few species to benefit from acid mine drainage.
- Carl J. Rothfels, Anders Larsson, Li-Yaung Kuo, Petra Korall, Wen- Liang Chiou, Kathleen M. Pryer (2012). "Overcoming Deep Roots, Fast Rates, and Short Internodes to Resolve the Ancient Rapid Radiation of Eupolypod II Ferns". Systematic Biology 61 (1): 70.
- Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Xian-Chun Zhang & Harald Schneider (2011). "A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and ferns". Phytotaxa 19: 7–54.
- Alan R. Smith, Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider & Paul G. Wolf (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646.
Features such as extreme leaf dimorphism, sunken sori, and expanded persistent indusia set Woodwardia areolata apart from all others in the genus. The existence of closely related transitional species in Asia, however, makes generic segregation uncertain. Those who wish to recognize a monotypic generic segregate based on Woodwardia areolata must coin a new name because Lorinseria C. Presl (1849) is an orthographic variant of Lorinsera Opiz (1839). For a detailed discussion of the ecology and geography of this species, see R. Cranfill (1983). Sterile specimens of this species are sometimes confused with Onoclea sensibilis .
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