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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated as ornamentals
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Karnataka: Mysore Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean regions.

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Global Distribution

Native of tropical Africa.

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Distribution: Asia from India to China and Japan in the north and Indonesia in the south; also in New Guinea and New Hebrides and smaller Pacific Island groups (Fiji etc.). Introduced and/or cultivated in Africa, West Indies etc. Only habitat in Pakistan noted as “fields”.
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Pantropical.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual herb, ascending or erect, attaining c. 1.25 m or more in cultivation. Stem stout, usually much-branched, it and the branches angular, glabrous or furnished in the upper parts with sparse (or denser in the inflorescence), ± crisped hairs. Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary venation, green or purplish-suffused, very variable in size, long-(up to c. 8 cm) petiolate, the lamina broadly ovate, rhomboid-ovate or broadly elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, emarginate to obtuse or acute at the apex, at the base shortly cuneate to attenuate, decurrent along the petiole. Flowers green to crimson in ± globose clusters c. 4-25 mm in diameter, all or only the lower axillary and distant, the upper sometimes without subtending leaves and increasingly approximate to form a thick terminal spike of variable length, male and female flowers intermixed. Bracts and bracteoles broadly or deltoid-ovate, bracteoles subequalling or shorter than the perianth, pale-membranous, broadest near the base and narrowed upwards to the green midrib, which is excurrent to form a long, pale-tipped awn usually at least half as long as the basal portion and not rarely equalling it. Perianth segments 3, 3-5 mm long, elliptic or oblong-elliptic, narrowed above, pale-membranous, the green midrib excurrent into a long, pale-tipped awn; female flowers with the perianth segments slightly accrescent in fruit. Stigmas 3, erect or recurved, c. 2 mm. Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short neck below the style-base, 2.25-2.75 mm, circumscissile, membranous, obscurely wrinkled. Seed 1-1.5 mm, black or brown, shining, very faintly reticulate, lenticular.
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Elevation Range

200 m
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Description

Stem green or red, 80-150 cm tall, stout, often branched. Petiole green or red, 2-6 cm; leaf blade green, red, purple, or yellow, ovate, ovate-rhombic, or lanceolate, 4-10 × 2-7 cm, glabrous, base cuneate, margin entire or undulate, apex obtuse or notched, with a mucro. Flowers in dense clusters at leaf axils or in spike at apex; male and female flowers in same inflorescences. Bracts and bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-3 mm, transparent, apex long pointed. Stamens 3. Stigmas 3. Utricles included in perianth, ovate-oblong, 2-2.5 mm, circumscissile. Seeds brownish black, subglobose or obovoid, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 34*, 68, 85*.
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Description

Plants annual, glabrous. Stems erect, often branched, 0.8-1.5 m. Leaves: petiole 1/2 as long as blade; blade ovate, elliptic, rhombic, or lanceolate, mostly 4-12 × 1.4-6 cm, base tapering, margins entire, usually undulate, apex acuminate and short-mucronate; distal leaf blades green, red, scarlet, maroon, purple, yellow, and cream (unique to A. tricolor). Inflorescences axillary glomerules. Bracts of pistillate flowers ovate to lanceolate, 5-6 mm. Pistillate flowers: tepals 3, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 5-6 mm, apex aristate; style branches spreading; stigmas 2-3. Staminate flowers intermixed with pistillate; tepals 3; stamens 3. Utricles ovoid, 2-2.5 mm, rugose, dehiscence regularly circumscissile. Seeds black or brownish black, subglobose, 1 mm diam., shiny.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Amaranthus gangeticus Linnaeus; A. gangeticus var. angustior Bailey; A. mangostanus Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Grown as a summer garden plant and also escape from cultivation.

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Habitat & Distribution

Widely cultivated. in China [probably native to tropical Asia; cultivated and naturalized throughout that region].
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Habitat & Distribution

Flowering summer-fall. Locally escaped from cultivation, disturbed areas; introduced; La., Mich., Mo.; native in tropical Asia.
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amaranthus tricolor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amaranthus tricolor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: Cereal

Comments: This potherb possess a fair amount of protein and is rich in vitamins A and C, as well as minerals. However, it also contains slight amounts of antinutritional factors, especially oxalates and nitrates.

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Wikipedia

Amaranthus tricolor

Amaranthus tricolor is an ornamental plant known as Tandaljo or Tandalja bhaji in India,[3] callaloo in the Caribbean and Joseph's coat after the Biblical figure Joseph, who is said to have worn a coat of many colors. Although it is native to South America, many varieties of amaranth can be found across the world in a myriad of different climates due to it being a C4 carbon fixation plant, which allows it to convert carbon dioxide into biomass at an extremely efficient rate when compared to other plants. Cultivars have striking yellow, red and green foliage.

The leaves may be eaten as a salad vegetable as well as the stems. In Africa, it is usually cooked as a leafy vegetable.[4] It is usually steamed as a side dish in both China and Japan.

It appears on the coat of arms of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge where it is called "flowers gentle".

Amaranthus gangeticus[edit]

Amaranthus gangeticus is considered a synonym of A. tricolor,[5] but has been recognized as a separate species in the past. Amaranthus gangeticus is also known as elephant-head amaranth. It is an annual flowering plant with deep purple flowers. It can grow from 2–3 feet in height. In Bangladesh, it has been used as a leafy vegetable. Scientific study suggests that it may inhibit calcium retention.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John H. Wiersema (2003-02-04). "Amaranthus melancholicus information from NPGS/GRIN". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". 
  3. ^ Michel H. Porcher. "Sorting Amaranthus names". 
  4. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  5. ^ "Amaranthus gangeticus L.". The Plant List. 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Larsen, T.; Thilsted, S. H.; Biswas, S. K.; Tetens, I. (2007). "The leafy vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus) is a potent inhibitor of calcium availability and retention in rice-based diets". British Journal of Nutrition 90 (3): 521–527. doi:10.1079/BJN2003923. PMID 13129457.  edit
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Notes

Comments

I do not find the infraspecific divisions of this species devised by Aellen (in Hegi, Illust. Fl. Mitteleuropa ed. 2, Band 3/2 Lief. l:494-496) to be practicable. All three “subspecies” there recognised are sympatric, and all manner of difficulties arise in attempting to apply the system to material at hand. For example, two of the W. Pakistan specimens seen (Rahman s.n. and Stewart 15372) are identical in every character (including leaf shape, which is that of the type of Amaranthus mangostanus L.) except that one has developed a terminal spike (on the main stem only) but the other has not. One finds, too, on the same sheet as part of the same gathering, specimens with terminal spikes but one with leaves shaped as in the type of Amaranthus mangostanus and another with leaves as in the types of Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus melancholicus L.; similar leaf variation occurs in a single gathering of plants with axillary inflorescences only. Thus, since the significant characters alleged to separate the subspecies are to be found in all combinations, I prefer to regard Amaranthus tricolor as a polymorphic species with no attempt to subdivide. The only alternative would be to name the Pakistani specimens mentioned above as belonging to different subspecies, which would be absurd; had a large branch only been gathered of the specimen with a spike on the main stem, the two would have been virtually identical.
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Comments

Amaranthus tricolor is widely cultivated as a garden plant for its showy, often variegated, distal leaves of striking colors---red, scarlet, maroon, purple, yellow, cream, and green. Other cultivated varieties with green leaves are sometimes cultivated as a potherb. Escaped plants sometimes occur near places of cultivation; we have no evidence of widespread establishment.
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