The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Czerepanov, S. K. . Sosud. Rast. SSSR. 509 pages.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora 22: 305. 1839. (Flora)
  • Musci Alleghanienses 27. 1901. (Musci Allegh.)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany 1: 369. 1843[1842]. (Nov 1842) (Phytologist)
  • Synopsis Florae Germanicae et Helveticae (ed. 2) 3: 967. 1845. (Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. (ed. 2))
  • Type collection: Gilbert, B. D. 1901. List N. Amer. Pterid. 8: 27.


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