Molecular Biology and Genetics
Material from Cayenne, French Guiana has been phytochemically analyzed.
Barcode data: Spondias dulcis
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Spondias dulcis
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Fruit: Grated fruit mixed with water for a hypotensive beverage; mildly diuretic. Concentrated juice from the outer part of the fruit is reputedly used an hypotensive in French Guiana.
Spondias dulcis (syn. Spondias cytherea), known commonly as ambarella, is an equatorial or tropical tree, with edible fruit containing a fibrous pit. It is known by many other names in various regions, including kedondong in Indonesia, buah long long among the Chinese population in Singapore, pomme cythere in Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, June plum in Bermuda and Jamaica, juplon in Costa Rica, golden apple in Barbados and Guyana, jobo indio in Venezuela, cajá-manga and cajarana in Brazil and São Tomé and Príncipe, quả cóc in Vietnam, manzana de oro in Dominican Republic.
This fast-growing tree can reach up to 60 ft (18 m) in its native range of Melanesia and Polynesia; however, it usually averages 30 to 40 ft (9–12 m) in other areas. Spondias dulcis has deciduous, pinnate leaves, 8 to 24 in (20–60 cm) in length, composed of 9 to 25 glossy, elliptic or obovate-oblong leaflets 3.5 to 4.0 in (6.25–10 cm) long, which are finely toothed toward the apex. The tree produces small, inconspicuous white flowers in terminal panicles. Its oval fruits, 2.5 to 3.5 in (6.25–9 cm) long, are borne in bunches of 12 or more on a long stalk. Over several weeks, the fruit fall to the ground while still green and hard, then turn golden-yellow as they ripen. According to Morton (1987), "some fruits in the South Sea Islands weigh over 1 lb (0.45 kg) each."
S. dulcis has been introduced into tropical areas across the world. It was brought to Jamaica in 1782, and it is cultivated in Panama, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, and eastern Sucre in Venezuela. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Liberia in 1909, but it did not become a popular crop in the US. Nevertheless, it is grown in South Florida as far north as Palm Beach County.The fruit is also widely grown in Somalia's agriculture belt, probably introduced during the colonial times preceding 1960.
Spondias dulcis is most commonly used as a food source. In West Java, its young leaves are used as seasoning for pepes. In Costa Rica, the more mature leaves are also eaten as a salad green though they are tart. However, it is most commonly used for its fruit.
The fruit may be eaten raw; the flesh is crunchy and a little sour. According to Boning (2006): "The fruit is best when fully colored, but still somewhat crunchy. At this stage, it has a pineapple-mango flavor. The flesh is golden in color, very juicy, vaguely sweet, but with a hint of tart acidity." In Indonesia and Malaysia, it is eaten with shrimp paste, a thick, black, salty-sweet sauce called hayko in the Southern Min dialect of Chinese. It is an ingredient in rujak in Indonesia and rojak in Malaysia. The juice is called kedondong in Indonesia, amra in Malaysia, and balonglong in Singapore.
The fruit is made into preserves and flavorings for sauces, soups, and stews. In Fiji it is made into jam. In Samoa and Tonga it is used to make otai. In Sri Lanka the fruit is soaked in vinegar with chili and other spices to make the snack food acharu. In Vietnam the unripe fruit is eaten with salt, sugar, and chili, or with shrimp paste. Children eat the fruit macerated in artificially sweetened licorice extract. In Jamaica, it is mostly considered a novelty, especially by children. It can be eaten with salt or made into a drink sweetened with sugar and spiced with ginger. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is curried, sweetened, salted, or flavored with pepper sauce and spices. In Cambodia it is made into a salad called nhoum mkak. In Suriname, the fruit is dried and made into a spicy chutney, mixed with garlic and peppers.
- Ambade - Tulu
- Ambado - Konkani
- Ambarella (ඇඹරැල්ලා) -Sinhalese
- Ambarella - Dutch
- Ambazhanga - Malayalam
- Amokana - Hokkien
- Amrah - Caribbean Hindustani
- Amra, Biliti - Bengali
- Amte kai - Kannada
- Buah Amra Malay
- Buah Long Long Mandarin (Singapore)
- Casharana - Peru
- Chook-chook plum - Sierra Leone
- Cóc - Vietnamese
- Embe kizungu - Tanzania
- Evi - Réunion
- Fruit Cythère - Mauritius
- Frisiter - Seychelles
- Golden apple - St Lucia, Barbados, Guyana, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada
- Goldpflaume - German
- Golden plum - Belize, Liberia
- Gway - Burmese
- Hevi - the Philippines
- Jocote de Mico - Guatemala
- Jobo indio - Spanish
- June Plum - Jamaica, Bermuda
- Kedondong - Indonesian
- Makok farang - Thai
- Manga zi nsende - Kikongo
- Manzana de oro - Dominican Republic
- Mkak (ម្កាក់) - Khmer
- Mokah - Cambodian
- Naos - Bislaman
- Omora (অমৰা) - Assamese
- Ponm sité, pomme cythère - Dominica
- Prune cythère, pomme cythère - French Trinidad and Tobago
- Sakoa - Malagasy
- Vī - Samoan and Tongan
- Wi apple - Hawaiian
- Adavi Mamidi - Telugu - Andhrapradesh
- Isbaandhees - Somali language - Somali
- Davidson, A. and T. Jaine. The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press, USA, 2006. 805. Print. Retrieved Aug. 09, 2010, from 
- Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. 1996.
- Morton, J. Ambarella. Center for New Crops & Plant Products. Purdue University. 1987.
- Boning, Charles (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 22–23.
- Boning, Charles (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 23.
French Guiana: pomme cythere.
Names and Taxonomy
Spondias dulcis G. Forst.
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