Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This is a widespread species found across much of Europe, northern Africa, temperate Asia, and western North America (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2012). It occurs from sea level up to 2,000 m asl.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Subspecies 2 (1 in the flora): North America, Europe, n Africa, w Asia.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Equisetum telmateia is a deciduous herb found in open habitats, eroding sea and river cliffs, roadsides and railway embankments growing in base rich clay soils on sites with permanent seepage and on porous clay rocks (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012). In Northern Iran it occurs along shallow rivers in forest zones, forest margins, degraded forests along streams and water runners, road sides, at the margin of wetlands, and sometimes as a weedy plant in wastelands and on the margins of paddy fields.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Conothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Coniothyrium equiseti feeds on Equisetum telmateia

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Equisetum telmateia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Equisetum telmateia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Akhani, H., Zehzad, B. & Brummitt, N.

Reviewer/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Contributor/s
Khela, S., Stanley, C. & Harker, R.

Justification
Although there is habitat degradation across the range of Equisetum telmateia, this is not currently affecting the status of this species or threatening its survival; it does not meet any of the IUCN criteria for threatened or Near Threatened status and hence Least Concern is the most appropriate category for this species.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Occurs in Europe, southwestern Asia, and north Africa (the typical variety) and along the western coast of North America (var. braunii), where common.

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Population

Population

There is no information available on population trends in this species but it is locally widespread and abundant.


Population Trend
Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats

There is evidence of localized habitat degradation in some areas where this species occurs, however, this is not thought to be severe enough to pose a threat to the species currently or in the near future. The species appears to be tolerant of some disturbance as it grows in wastelands and agricultural areas like paddy fields.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It is described as rare in the Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000) and is listed as Critically Endangered in the national red lists of Belarus (Ermakova 2005) and Sweden (Gärdenfors 2010). However, it is classed as Least Concern in a number of countries including Denmark (NERI 2007), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Luxembourg (Colling 2005), Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002) and the United Kingdom (Cheffings and Farrell 2005).

In Sweden, conservation efforts have been made but it is argued that gradual population declines will eventually lead to its unavoidable extinction which may be characteristic for populations of long-lived perennials on drained or otherwise damaged sites. In such situations, it may be questioned whether conservation efforts, known to only postpone the extinction, are worthwhile (Mattiasson 2000).

The few known localities of this plant outside of the forest zone of the East Mediterranean requires conservation specially against converting of its habitat for agricultural purposes.


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Wikipedia

Equisetum telmateia

Equisetum telmateia (great horsetail or northern giant horsetail) is a species of Equisetum (horsetail) with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America.[1][2] The North American subspecies is often simply but ambiguously called "giant horsetail", but that name may just as well refer to the Latin American Equisetum giganteum and Equisetum myriochaetum.

Spore-bearing strobilus

It is a herbaceous perennial plant, with separate green photosynthetic sterile stems, and pale yellowish non-photosynthetic spore-bearing fertile stems. The sterile stems, produced in late spring and dying down in late autumn, are 30–150 cm (rarely to 240 cm) tall (the tallest species of horsetail outside of tropical regions) and 1 cm diameter, heavily branched, with whorls of 14–40 branches, these up to 20 cm long, 1–2 mm diameter and unbranched, emerging from the axils of a ring of bracts. The fertile stems are produced in early spring before the sterile shoots, growing to 15–45 cm tall with an apical spore-bearing strobilus 4–10 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, and no side branches; the spores disperse in mid spring, with the fertile stems dying immediately after spore release. It also spreads by means of rhizomes that have been observed to penetrate 4 meters into wet clay soil, spreading laterally in multiple layers.[3] Occasional plants produce stems that are both fertile and photosynthetic.[2][4][5]

It is found in damp shady places, spring fens and seepage lines, usually in open woodlands, commonly forming large clonal colonies.[2][4]

There are two subspecies:[1][5]

  • Equisetum telmateia subsp. telmateia. Great Horsetail. Europe, western Asia, northwest Africa. Main stem between branch whorls pale greenish white.
  • Equisetum telmateia subsp. braunii (Milde) Hauke. Northern Giant Horsetail. Western North America, from southeastern Alaska and western British Columbia south to California. Main stem between branch whorls green.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network: Equisetum telmateia
  2. ^ a b c Hyde, H. A., Wade, A. E., & Harrison, S. G. (1978). Welsh Ferns. National Museum of Wales ISBN 0-7200-0210-9.
  3. ^ http://www2.fiu.edu/~chusb001/GiantEquisetum/Ecophysiology.html#RhizArch
  4. ^ a b Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G., & Warburg, E. F. (1981). Excursion Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed. ed.). Cambridge: University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-521-23290-2. 
  5. ^ a b Flora of North America: Equisetum telmateia
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