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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Distribution: Panama (probably) introduced), Indonesia, Malaya, S.E. Asia, India and Pakistan.
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Subtropical Himalaya, India, Indo-China, Malaya, sometimes cultivated.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

An erect much branched, gregarious, evergreen shrub, up to 2 (-2.5) m. Stem ± quadrangular to nearly terete, young shoots greyish-pubescent Leaves with (1-) 1.5-3.5 (-4.5) cm long petioles; lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 10-20 x 3.5-8 cm, glabrous above, pubescent on nerves beneath, basally attenuate, entire, acuinate. Flowers white, c. 3 cm long, nearly sessile, in terminal and axillary spikes, up to 10 cm long, 2.5-3 cm broad; bracts leafy, broadly-elliptic, 1.5-2.5 x (0.8) 1-1.5 (-1.8) cm, pubescent; bracteoles elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, 1-1.5 (-2) x 0.3-0.5 cm, acute, minutely pubescent. Calyx 5-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, 6-10 x c. 2 mm, acute, puberulous, imbricate. Corolla pale-white, tube 1.2-1.5 cm long, pubescent outside, throat villous, limb 2-lipped, upper lip erect, shortly bifid, galeate, lower lip with 3 elliptic, obtuse lobes. Stamens 2, filaments 1-1.5 cm long, anthers oblong, basally apiculate. Ovary oblong, c. 3 mm long, style 2-2.5 cm long. Capsule stipitate, broadly clavate, c. 2.5 cm long, 4-seeded, pubescent. Seeds ± orbicular, 2-3 mm across, glabrous.
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Elevation Range

500-1600 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"A stiff, evergreen, much-branched perennial shrub with a strong, unpleasant odour, 1.2-6 m tall. Leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, margins entire, apex acute, 5-30 cm long, hairy, light green above, dark beneath, leathery. Flowers large, white with red or yellow-barred throats, borne in compact, axillary, pedunculate spikes with large bracts. Fruits (capsules) clavate, longitudinally channelled, 1.9-2.2 cm long and 0.8 cm wide, pubescent. Seeds globular."
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"In the plains, often planted"
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: November-April (plains); July-October (hills).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Justicia adhatoda

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Justicia adhatoda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Justicia adhatoda

Justicia adhatoda, commonly known in English as Malabar Nut, Adulsa, Adhatoda, Vasa, or Vasaka,[1][2] is a medicinal plant native to Asia, widely used in Siddha Medicine, Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine.[3]

The plant's range includes Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, and China, as well as Panama where it is thought to have been introduced.[3]

Botanical description[edit]

J. adhatoda is a shrub with lance-shaped leaves 10 to 15 centimeters in length by four wide. They are oppositely arranged, smooth-edged, and borne on short petioles. When dry they are of a dull brownish-green colour. They are bitter-tasting. When a leaf is cleared with chloral hydrate and examined microscopically the oval stomata can be seen. They are surrounded by two crescent-shaped cells at right angles to the ostiole. The epidermis bears simple one- to three-celled warty hairs, and small glandular hairs. Cystoliths occur beneath the epidermis of the underside of the blade.

Chemical composition[edit]

Several alkaloids are present in the leaves. The most important is vasicine, a quinazoline alkaloid.[3] The vasicine yield of the herbage has been measured as 0.541 to 1.1% by dry weight.

Pharmacology[edit]

This shrub has a number of traditional medicinal uses in Siddha Medicine, Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine.[3]

Vasicine, the active compound, has been compared to theophylline both in vitro and in vivo.[4] Another, vasicinone, showed bronchodilatory activity in vitro[5] but bronchoconstrictory activity in vivo.[6] Both the alkaloids in combination (1:1) showed pronounced bronchodilatory activity in vivo and in vitro.[7] Both alkaloids are also respiratory stimulants.[7] Vasicine has a cardiac–depressent effect, while vasicinone is a weak cardiac stimulant; the effect can be normalized by combining the alkaloids.[7][8] Vasicine is reported to have a uterine stimulant effect.[8] Vasicinone was shown to have an antianaphylactic action.[8] Clinical trials of a commercial drug containing vasicinone and vasicinone have not revealed any side effects while treating bronchial asthma.[9]

Cultural reference[edit]

It is the Unofficial provincial flower of the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Names[edit]

It is also called Adhatoda vasika, which is derived from a former scientific name. It has different names in different Indian languages.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Common Names for Malabar Nut (Justicia adhatoda)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Aslam, Mohd; Rais, Sumbul; Alam, Masood; Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan (2013). "Adsorption of Hg(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Adulsa (Justicia adhatoda) Leaves Powder: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies". Journal of Chemistry 2013: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2013/174807. ISSN 2090-9063. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Facts about for Malabar Nut (Justicia adhatoda)". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Nepali, Kunal; Sharma, Sahil; Ojha, Ritu; Dhar, Kanaya Lal (2012). "Vasicine and structurally related quinazolines". Medicinal Chemistry Research 22 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1007/s00044-012-0002-5. ISSN 1054-2523. 
  5. ^ Amin, A. H.; Mehta, D. R. (1959). "A Bronchodilator Alkaloid (Vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica Nees". Nature 184 (4695): 1317–1317. doi:10.1038/1841317a0. ISSN 0028-0836. 
  6. ^ Mehta, D. R.; Naravane, J. S.; Desai, R. M. (1963). "Vasicinone. A Bronchodilator Principle from Adhatoda Vasica Nees (N. O. Acanthaceae)". The Journal of Organic Chemistry 28 (2): 445–448. doi:10.1021/jo01037a041. ISSN 0022-3263. 
  7. ^ a b c Avula, B.; et al. (2008). "Quantitative determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica by high performance capillary electrophoresis". Die Pharmazie – An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 63 (1): 20–22. doi:10.1691/ph.2008.7175. 
  8. ^ a b c Rajani, M; Soni, S; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Patel, G (2008). "Validation of different methods of preparation of Adhatoda vasica leaf juice by quantification of total alkaloids and vasicine". Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 70 (1): 36. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.40329. ISSN 0250-474X. 
  9. ^ Roja, G.; Vikrant, B.H.; Sandur, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Asmita; Pushpa, K.K. (2011). "Accumulation of vasicine and vasicinone in tissue cultures of Adhatoda vasica and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activities of the various crude extracts". Food Chemistry 126 (3): 1033–1038. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.115. ISSN 0308-8146. 
  10. ^ Dr. K. M. Nadkarni's Indian Materia Medica, Volume 1, Edited by A. K. Nadkarni, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1976, pp. 40.
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Adhatoda zeylanica


Adhatoda zeylanica is a plant. It is distributed all over the plains of India and in the lower Himalayan ranges, ascending to a height of 1500 meter. Adhatoda zeylanica belongs to family Acanthaceae. Its leaves contain vasicine, attributing several properties to the use of this plant.

Names[edit]

Sanskrit- Vasaka, Hindi- Arusa,

Chemical constituents[edit]

A Bioactive pyrroloquinazoline alkaloid, Vasicine, about 1.3%.[1]

Therapeutic category[edit]

Bronchodilatory and Expectorant [2]

Pharmacology[edit]

The bronchodilatory and expectorant properties of the leaves are attributed to vasicine.[3] The drug possesses abortification activity and significant antimicrobial activity against gingival inflammation and pyorrhoea.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sen, J.N. and Ghosh T.P. Quart. J. Indian Chem. Soc.1, 315 (1925)
  2. ^ Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia new edition (2002). Page-37
  3. ^ Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia new addition (2002). Page-37
  4. ^ Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia new addition (2002). Page-37
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Notes

Comments

In Pakistan, it does well on waste lands up to 1300 m; it is also cultivated as an ornamental.

Widely used in the Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine for treating bronchitis, asthma, fever and jaundice on account of the antispasmodic properties of roots and leaves. The leaves contain an alkaloid vasicine and an essential oil.

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