Overview

Comprehensive Description

Shoebutton ardesia, Ardisia elliptica, is a tropical shrub or small tree not native to Florida but now occurring as an invasive species in the southern half of the state. The typical growth form in undamaged plants is a single, smooth stem that gives rise to short, perpendicular branches. Plants may send up additional stems from the rootstock, particularly after damage. Individuals produce strong taproots that produce highly branched lateral roots.The leaves are alternate, oblong to oval, pointed at the tips, smooth and leathery/rubbery, 8-20 cm long, pink to reddish in young plants and turning dark green with age. Star-shaped flowers, to 13 mm wide with pale violet-colored petals occur in axillary clusters. Fruits are round, berry-like drupes, 6 mm wide that are white when young and turning red and then dark purple to black when ripe, and capable of staining fingers. The flesh of the ripe fruit is juicy when broken and white in color, and each fruit contains a single seed (Langland and Burks 1998, Francis undated, ISSG).
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

The native distribution of Ardisia elliptica is not entirely certain, and the original range of the species has variously included India, Sri Lanka, China Taiwan, Malaya, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the Philippines (Tomlinson 1986, Langland and Burks 1998, Yuen-Po 1999).The plant is an introduced exotic that now occurs in the East Indies and Okinawa, Japan, and has become naturalized in south Florida, Hawaii, and the Caribbean (Langland and Burks 1998, Francis undated). Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council collection records indicate that Ardisia elliptica is present in the southern half of the India River Lagoon watershed in St. Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach counties. Wunderlin et al. (1995) also indicate the plant is present in Brevard County, based on vouchered specimens. Brevard is the northernmost county from which the plant has been collected.
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Range Description

An endemic species to the Philippines.
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Source: IUCN

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs 1-2 m tall, glabrous. Branchlets angular, 3-4.5 mm in diam., glabrous, conspicuously black punctate-lineate, longitudinally ridged. Petiole marginate, 5-10 mm; leaf blade oblanceolate or obovate, 6-12(-16) × 3-5(-7) cm, subleathery, dull and densely punctate abaxially, especially along margin, base cuneate, margin revolute, entire, apex obtuse or acute; lateral veins 12-34 on each side of midrib, marginal vein present. Inflorescences axillary or subterminal on basally thickened lateral branches, subumbellate or umbellate. Flowers leathery, pink or white, 6(-8) mm. Pedicel ca. 1-2 cm, minutely and densely white verruculose, densely punctate. Sepals broadly ovate, ca. 1 mm, densely black punctate, base rugose and subauriculate, margin subentire, scarious, minutely ciliate, apex rounded. Petals almost free, broadly ovate, densely punctate, glabrous, margin hyaline, scarious, entire, apex long attenuate. Stamens subequalling petals; anthers linear-lanceolate, punctate dorsally, longitudinally dehiscent, transversely septate-lobed, apex apiculate. Pistil as long as petals; ovary glabrous, pellucid punctate; ovules numerous, multiseriate. Fruit subglobose, red or purplish black, ca. 8 mm in diam., minutely punctate, fleshy. Fl. Feb-Apr, fr. Sep-Nov. 2n = 48*
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Size

Adult trees can reach a height of 6 m and attain a basal trunk diameter of 15 cm. Adult mortality due to old age is rare in Florida and Francis (undated) suggests a likely lifespan of 10-25 years or more.
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Ardisia kotoensis Hayata; A. squamulosa Presl; Bladhia kotoensis (Hayata) Nakai; Tinus squamulosa (Presl) Kuntze.
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Look Alikes

Two native Florida plants, marlberry (Ardisia escallonioides) and myrsine (Rapanea punctata) are related to Ardisia elliptica and similar in appearance. Langland and Burks (1998) note that A. elliptica can be distinguished from these native plants by its larger growth habit and conspicuous clusters of violet axillary flowers.A. elliptica may also be confused in Florida with a non-native congener, the coral ardisia A. crenata, whose distribution in the state is broader but still partly overlaps that of A. elliptica. The scalloped leaf margins and persistent bright red fruits of A. crenata aid in distinguishing it from A. elliptica.
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

Roadsides, scrub, near villages, edges of fields, along coasts. Taiwan [India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam; cultivated and naturalized throughout tropics]
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Trophic Strategy

Autotrophic (photosynthetic).
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Associations

Ardisia elliptica tends to form monotypic thickets where conditions permit. It relies on pollinating insects and frugiverous birds and mammals to complete its life cycle.A measurable amount of insect herbivory is directed at Florida A. elliptica populations, but there has been no discernable effect on curtailing the spread of the species (Dominguez and others 2002).Invasion History: Ardisia elliptica had already been imported to Florida for use as an ornamental plant by 1900 and by 1933 the species had been reported as having escaped from cultivation in south Florida (Small 1933, Morton 1976, Austin 1978, Gordon and Thomas 1997).Unintentional release to natural areas through animal-facilitated seed dispersal is likely the principal route of entry for this species in Florida. Although A. elliptica is no longer commercially sold as an ornamental, a large number of ornamental plantings remain in south Florida. Potential to Compete With Natives: Ardisia elliptica forms dense single-species thickets below the forest canopy to crowd out native understory plants (Langland and Burks 1998). Shade-tolerance and tolerance for wet soil conditions contribute to the success of this species as an aggressive invader. Possible Economic Consequences of Invasion: Prior to recognizing its invasive potential, Ardisia elliptica was a much-utilized ornamental species in south Florida. The fruits are edible but bland, and have little commercial potential. The plant is utilized for fuel wood in some parts of the world (Morton 1974, Francis undated).None of these marginal economic benefits offset the fact that A. elliptica is extremely invasive and ecologically damaging. It is listed by ISSG as among "100 of the Worst" global invasive organisms. It is also listed as a Category I invasive exotic plant in Florida, indicating that the species is currently altering native plant communities by displacing native species and changing community structures or ecological functions. A PIER species risk assessment considering potential impacts on Hawaii and other Pacific islands scored A. elliptica as a "high risk" species likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm.Resource managers in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and staff at Everglades National Park have initiated costly eradication programs targeting A. elliptica (Langland and Burks 1998).
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Population Biology

Shoebutton ardisia is an understory species that forms dense monotypic thickets in moderately wet soil conditions. This invasive plant is now established in south Florida and is abundant in natural areas such as hammocks, marsh islands, cypress and mangrove habitats, and also in disturbed systems such as altered wetlands and fallow fields (Langland and Burks 1998).
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Reproduction in Ardisia elliptica is sexual and the species flowers and fruits sporadically throughout the year in south Florida (Long and Lakela 1971, Langeland and Burks 1998). Individuals attain sexual maturity in 2-4 years. Flowers are insect-pollinated Individual plants possess both male and female flowers and there is a high degree of autogamy or self-fertilization (Pascarella 1997).Fruit production is moderate, up to 400 fruits on large adults in bright forested sites (ISSG), but year-round production likely increases the overall reproductive capacity of individuals.
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Growth

Propagules remain viable after gut passage and seed dispersal has been reported as primarily through frugiverous birds (Langeland and Burks 1998, Francis undated), particularly the gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) in Florida. However, recent studies examining the spread of Ardisia elliptica in Everglades national Park suggest that long-distance dispersal by raccoons (Procyon lotor), although less frequent than bird dispersal, may be of primary importance in determining invasion rates (Horvitz and Koop 2005, Koop and Horvitz 2006).Seeds reportedly do not remain viable for more than 6 months (ISSG). Experimental evidence suggests germination rates are high; 75% of seeds planted in commercial potting mix with no pretreatment germinated 42-81 days after sowing. Seedlings may grow up to 1 m in the first year, but 0.25 to 0.5 m/year is a more typical rate for both seedlings and established shrubs (Francis undated).
  • Adams C.D. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona (Jamaica). University of the West Indies. 848 p.
  • Austin D.E. 1978. Exotic plants and their effects in southeastern Florida. Environmental Conservation 5:25-34.
  • Braun S. 2006. Predicting the distributions of two invasive exotics, Ardisia crenata and A. elliptica (Myrsinaceae). Poster presented at Botany 2006 Conference. July 28-August 2, 2006, California State University, Chico. Abstract available online.
  • Dominguez J., Scott A., Scott T., Valdes G., Glenn C., and C. Moore. 2002. Herbivore damage on the invasive exotic Ardisia elliptica and the native A. escallonioides in Southeastern Florida. NSF Research in Ecology: Invasive Species. 3 p.
  • Francis J.K. (ed.). Undated. Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories: Thamnic descriptions. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. Available online.
  • Gordon D.R. and K.P. Thomas. 1997. Florida's invasion by non-indigenous plants: History, screening, and regulation. In: Simberloff D. Schmitz D.C., and T.C. Brown (eds.). Strangers in paradise: Impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Island Press, washington D.C. 467 p.
  • Horvitz C.C. and A.Koop. 2005. Relative importance of avian and mammalian seed dispersers to wavespeed of an invasive shrub in Everglades National Park. Paper presented at University of Miami Institute of Theoretical and Mathematical Ecology Workshop on Spatial Ecology: The Interplay between Theory and Data. January 7-10, 2005, Miami, FL.
  • Koop A.L. and C.C. Horvitz. 2006. Population dynamics and invasion rate of an invasive tropical understory shrub. Paper presented at the8th International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, May 23-25, 2006, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Langeland K.A. and K.C. Burks (Eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. UF/IFAS. 165 p.
  • Long R.W, and O. Lakela .1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables. 962 p.
  • Morton J.F. 1974. 500 plants of South Florida. Miami. E.A. Seamann Publishing. 163 p.Pascarell, J.B. 1997. Breeding systems of Ardisia Sw. (Myrsinaceae). Brittonia 49:45-53.
  • Small J.K. 1933. Manual of the southeastern flora, part one and two. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC. 1554 p.
  • Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, London. 413 p.Wagner et al. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. 1948 p.
  • Wunderlin R.P., Hansen B.F., and B.L. Bridges. 1995. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Available online.
  • Yuen-Po Y. 1999. An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica 40:39-47.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A1cd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Vulnerable
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Major Threats
Rates of habitat loss through logging and shifting cultivation have led to considerable population declines.
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Wikipedia

Ardisia elliptica

Ardisia elliptica is an evergreen tree, also known as the Shoebutton Ardisia, native to the west coast of India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea. It is a prolific reproducer which has made it a successful invasive species in other locations in the tropics where it has been introduced as a garden ornamental.

Description[edit]

A. elliptica is a tropical understory shrub that can reach heights of up 5 meters. Undamaged plants in forest habitats are characterized by a single stem, producing short, perpendicular branches. Leaves are ellipic to elliptic-obovate, entire, leathery and alternate. Umbellate inflorescences develop in leaf axils of branch leaves. Petals are light pink. Fruits are drupes that first turn red as they mature and then deep purple / black. Pulp staining fingers a deep purple. Seeds are approximately spherical with a diameter of about 5 mm.

Status[edit]

Ardisia solanacea and Ardisia humilis are considered to be included in the single variable species Ardisia elliptica by some botanists.[1]

Invasive Species[edit]

It is grown in gardens as an ornamental and has become an invasive species in Puerto Rico, tropical Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory), Southern Florida in the USA, the Caribbean, the Mascarene Islands, the Seychelles, and on several Pacific islands such as Hawaii.[2]

Given ideal conditions, individuals can reach reproductive maturity in 2–4 years in the field and 1–2 years in a shade house. Large adults in bright forested sites have been measured producing up to 400 fruits. However, adults can also successfully set fruit under shady conditions. Seeds do not have any long-term dormancy (i.e., greater than 6 months), however, seedlings and juveniles can survive under very shady conditions for many years. Given enough light, juveniles rapidly develop into reproductive adults. Its fruit is readily consumed by both avian and mammalian frugivores and rapid spread across a landscape is possible.

Phytoconstituents[edit]

The benzoquinone rapanone, the terpenoids bauerenol and amyrin, and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, isorhamnetin, quercetin, bergenin, 5-(Z-Heptadec-4'-enyl)resorcinol and 5-pentadecylresorcinol can be found in A. elliptica.[3]

Pharmacology[edit]

Antiplatelet and Antibacterial.[4]

EthnoPharmacology[edit]

In Malaysia, a decoction of leaves is said to assuage retrosternal pains,[5] and a paste made from the leaves is used to treat herpes and measles. In Thai traditional medicine, the fruits are used to cure diarrhoea with fever.[6] In Southeast Asia leaves are used to treat scabies, and fruit for intestinal worms.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “Shoebutton ardisia: Ardisia elliptica” Weeds of Australia website, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Ardisia_elliptica.htm (retrieved 28.2.2013)
  2. ^ “Shoebutton ardisia: Ardisia elliptica” Weeds of Australia website, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Ardisia_elliptica.htm (retrieved 28.2.2013)
  3. ^ Koh Hwee Ling, Chua Tung Kian, and Tan Chay Hoon. "A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach", p. 14. World Scientific Publishing 2009, ISBN 981-283-709-4. Preview available at Google Books http://books.google.com.
  4. ^ Koh Hwee Ling, Chua Tung Kian, and Tan Chay Hoon. "A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach", p. 14. World Scientific Publishing 2009, ISBN 981-283-709-4. Preview available at Google Books http://books.google.com.
  5. ^ Wiart, Christophe. "Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific", p. 56. CRC Press 2006, ISBN 0-8493-7245-3. Preview available at Google Books http://books.google.com.
  6. ^ Koh Hwee Ling, Chua Tung Kian, and Tan Chay Hoon. "A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach", p. 14. World Scientific Publishing 2009, ISBN 981-283-709-4. Preview available at Google Books http://books.google.com.
  7. ^ Giesen, Wulffraat, Zieren, and Scholten. "Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia", p. 671. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Wetlands International, 2006. ISBN 974-7946-85-8. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ag132e/ag132e10.pdf
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Biota of North America (Kartesz, May 2010 draft) accepts Ardisia elliptica and A. solanacea as distinct. FNA (Vol. 8, 2009) says the names A. solanacea Roxburgh and A. polycephala Wight have been misapplied to this species.

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