Overview

Distribution

Field sagewort is a circumboreal species with a wide distribution and altitudinal range in North America [27,49]. It occurs in nearly all US states and Canadian territories.

Infrataxa:
Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata is widely distributed but is most common in the eastern and central United States and is occasional in the west [49,56]. It occurs as far north as New Brunswick and Saskatchewan and as far south as Florida and Texas [75,105]. Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris is an introduced species, native to Eurasia. It occurs occasionally in the Atlantic Coast states [49]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis is most common in the northern part of North America. It occupies sites from the Bering Strait and throughout Alaska, to Labrador, Canada and occurs in the Great Lakes states and in Colorado as well [2,59,93]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana occurs primarily in the western United States and Canada. It occupies habitats from the Yukon Territory to western Nebraska and New Mexico [49,62]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. petiolata is endemic and restricted to Utah [60,110]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. wormskioldii is rare in Washington and, while historically present in Oregon, is considered extirpated today [60]. Plants Database provides a distributional map of field sagewort and its infrataxa. Additional information regarding the distribution of field sagewort and its infrataxa is available in [49,56,60].

Note: The following distribution lists may or may not provide field sagewort habitat. Field sagewort is rarely mentioned in vegetation descriptions because it is rarely a community dominant and is often restricted to early-seral communities or open or disturbed sites. The following vegetation classification lists should be considered potential field sagewort habitat.
  • 2. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 27. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 59. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 62. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 75. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 93. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 60. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 110. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2007. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
United States
AL AK AZ CA CO CT DE
FL ID IL IN IA KS ME
MA MI MN MS MO MT NE
NV NH NJ NM NY ND OH
OK OR PA RI SC SD TX
UT VT VA WA WI WY

Canada
AB BC MB NB NF NS ON
PE PQ SK YK

Mexico

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [12]:

1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

6 Upper Basin and Range

7 Lower Basin and Range

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

11 Southern Rocky Mountains

12 Colorado Plateau

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

15 Black Hills Uplift

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
  • 12. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Artemisia campestris L.:
Japan (Asia)
Russian Federation (Asia)
United States (North America)
China (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 2.0 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: caudex, forb, monocarpic, organic soils, pappus, perfect, presence

This description provides characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [43,46,56,67,114,123]).

Aboveground description: Field sagewort is a native forb (with 1 nonnative subspecies) with highly variable forms and habits. Plants are biennials or short-lived perennials and produce 1 to many stems that may reach 4.9 feet (1.5 m) [11,33,43]. Stems arise from a woody caudex [27,59]. Growth forms vary from mounded to spreading [49,59]. Basal leaves are crowded and measure 0.8 to 4 inches (2-10 cm) long by often less than 2 mm wide. Basal leaves may or may not persist. Leaf hairiness ranges from glabrous to densely villous. Stem leaves are smaller and have less pronounced dissection than basal leaves [43,67]. Flowers are inconspicuous and occur in spike- or panicle-like inflorescences. Field sagewort produces 5 to 20 ray and 6 to 40 disk flowers, but only ray flowers are fertile [11,49]. Fruits are achenes measuring around 0.8 mm long and lacking a pappus [11]. Shipley and Parent [99] report that seeds weigh about 0.003 g, based on an average of at least 25 seeds.

Infrataxa: Because there is little available information on field sagewort, and available information often refers to a single subspecies and/or variety, this review will identify subspecies and varieties consistent with the literature cited. Descriptions of field sagewort infrataxa are summarized below:

Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata is most often described as a single-stemmed biennial [34,56]. However, of A. c. subsp. caudata plants observed throughout Alberta, approximately 20% were perennial and at least 50% had 2 or more stems [80]. Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata may be more aptly described as a monocarpic perennial [102,132], but in populations studied along the eastern shore of Lake Huron, some plants survived after their reproductive period, and a small percentage of plants (4.5%) flowered in more than 1 growing season [102]. Stems range from 1 to 4.9 feet (0.3-1.5 m) tall, are often unbranched, and arise from a large taproot [46,89,105]. Numerous basal leaves are present in the first growing season. Both basal and stem leaves are deeply and finely dissected. Leaves may be pubescent when young but become glabrous with age [30,49,56]. Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata produces 20 to 40 flowers/head, and heads are arranged in elongate narrow panicles. Outer pistillate flowers are fertile, and inner flowers are perfect but have abortive ovaries [30,46,75]. Glabrous achenes measure 0.8 to 1 mm long [89]. Seeds are small. One thousand seeds weigh approximately 0.1 g [103,105].

Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris is a nonnative perennial. It is the only nonnative subspecies described in this review. Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris commonly produces several stems of 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.5 m) tall. Plants are very leafy at the base and much less so above. Leaves are pubescent when young but glabrous when mature [49].

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis is a perennial that grows as a 0.3- to 1-foot (0.1-0.3 m)-tall mound [2,34]. Stems are simple or branched [59]. Leaves, concentrated at the plant base, are dissected into long narrow lobes [2,59,93]. Few flower heads occur in the raceme- or spike-like inflorescences [2,34].

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana is a perennial growing 1 to 3 feet (0.3-1 m) tall [56,86]. Several clustered stems grow from a compact, branching caudex [27]. Basal and stem leaves are silky with hairs. Basal leaves are persistent [27,49,75,86,123]. Head flowers consist of 5 to 20 fertile pistillate flowers and 12 to 30 functionally staminate disk flowers. Inflorescences are large, relaxed or open, and contain many heads [27,56,123].

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. petiolata and A. c. subsp. b. var. wormskioldii have the most restricted distributions and are not well described. For more information on these species, see [56,122].

Belowground growth: Field sagewort produces a large taproot [11,89,105]. The often biennial root of A. c. subsp. caudata is also considered large, especially on sand dunes [49]. Mature A. c. subsp. caudata in Benzie County, Michigan, produced lateral roots that extended 20 to 30 feet (6-9 m). However, extension direction was not described. Young plants that were about 4 inches (10 cm) tall had short taproots, and "very prominent" taproots were only occasionally observed. Root length decreased with increased presence of organic matter or humus layers, and lateral roots were shorter and finer in organic soils than sandy soils [117].

Roots of mature A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis excavated from relatively undisturbed sites in the Great Plains were primarily confined to the top 3 inches (8 cm) of soil. Maximum root spread, lateral root abundance, and lateral root branching were within the top 3 inches (8 cm) of soil. Just 4 to 6 moderately branched roots extended to depths of 2 to 3 feet (0.6-1 m) [118]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis plants excavated from sandhills near Yuma, Colorado, had taproots reaching 8 feet (2 m) and lateral roots extending 1 to 2.5 feet (0.3-0.8 m) from the taproot. Excavated plants were 1 to 1.5 feet (0.3-0.5 m) tall and had between 5 and 10 large branches. "Strong, woody taproots" had diameters of 6 to 11 mm near the soil surface, but diameter quickly tapered to less than 1.5 mm at depths of 1 foot (0.3 m) or more. Numerous laterals ranging from "threadlike" to over 2 mm in diameter occurred just below the soil surface to a depth of 1.5 feet (0.5 m). All lateral roots were multibranched with very fine sublaterals 1 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) long [119].

  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 2. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 27. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 30. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 33. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 34. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
  • 43. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 46. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 59. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 67. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 75. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 80. Moss, E. H. 1940. Interxylary cork in Artemisia with a reference to its taxonomic significance. American Journal of Botany. 27(9): 762-768. [48735]
  • 86. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]
  • 89. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 93. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 99. Shipley, B.; Parent, M. 1991. Germination responses of 64 wetland species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology. 5(1): 111-118. [14554]
  • 102. Stairs, Anne Felicite. 1986. Life history variation in Artemisia campestris on a Lake Huron sand dune system. London, ON: University of Western Ontario. 241 p. Dissertation. [66396]
  • 103. Stevens, O. A. 1932. The number and weight of seeds produced by weeds. American Journal of Botany. 19: 784-794. [47817]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 114. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61/University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 117. Waterman, W.G. 1919. Development of root systems under dune conditions. Botanical Gazette. 68(1): 22-53. [63561]
  • 118. Weaver, J. E. 1958. Classification of root systems of forbs of grassland and a consideration of their significance. Ecology. 39(3): 393-401. [65391]
  • 119. Weaver, John E. 1920. Root development in the grassland formation: A correlation of the root systems of native vegetation and crop plants. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 151 p. [66366]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L. 1993. New taxa and new nomenclatural combinations in the Utah Flora. Rhodora. 95: 392-421. [23464]
  • 123. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 132. Yun, Kyeong W.; Maun, M. A. 1997. Allelopathic potential of Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on Lake Huron sand dunes. Canadian Journal of Botany. 75: 1903-1912. [28273]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Biennials or perennials, (10–)30–80(–150) cm, faintly aromatic; taprooted, caudices branched. Stems usually 1–5, turning reddish brown, (often ribbed) tomentose or glabrous. Leaves persistent or deciduous, mostly basal; basal blades 4–12 cm, cauline gradually reduced, 2–4 × 0.5–1.5 cm, 2–3-pinnately lobed, lobes linear to narrowly oblong, apices acute, faces densely to sparsely white-pubescent. Heads (pedunculate) in (mostly leafless) paniculiform arrays. Involucres broadly turbinate, 2.5–3(–5) × 2–3.5(–7) mm. Phyllaries (margins scarious) glabrous or villous-tomentose. Florets: pistillate 5–20; functionally staminate 12–30; corollas pale yellow, sparsely hairy or glabrous. Cypselae oblong-lanceoloid, somewhat compressed, 0.8–1 mm, faintly nerved, glabrous.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: presence, serpentine soils, shrubs, tundra

Dry, sandy, open habitats occupied by field sagewort commonly include forest and woodland openings, sand beaches and dunes, gravelly or rocky shores, dry prairies, roadsides, meadows, old fields, and alpine communities [11,34,54,56,114,129].

Aspect: In the badlands of North Dakota, A. c. subsp. caudata occurred on south- but not north-facing slopes. Southern aspects were drier and had shallower soils with less organic matter than north slopes. Herbaceous vegetation dominated southern aspects. Northern aspects were dominated by trees and shrubs. The study did not determine which, if any, factors most affected A. c. subsp. caudata presence [23].

Climate: Field sagewort's wide distribution implies wide climatic tolerances. Temperatures average 10 °F (-4 °C) in field sagewort habitat in alpine vegetation in Quebec's Gaspe Provincial Park, and annual precipitation averages 65.4 inches (1,660 mm). Snow accounts for 33% of the annual precipitation [100]. In Lesser Slave Lake Provincial Park, Alberta, field sagewort habitats experience a humid continental climate with short, cool summers and long, cold winters. Frost-free days average average 80/year [70]. A continental climate with wide annual and diurnal temperature fluctuations is described for field sagewort habitats in North Dakota. Temperatures average 12 °F (-11 °C) in January and 70 °F (21 °C) in July. Annual precipitation averages 15 inches (380 mm), and 110 to 119 frost-free days are typical in field sagewort habitats in North Dakota [23]. A semiarid to desert-like climate prevails in western Texas field sagewort habitats. In Bailey County, January and July temperatures average 36 °F (2.4 °C) and 77.2 °F (25.1 °C), respectively, and in Winkler County temperatures average 44 °F (6.9 °C) in January and 84 °F (28.9 °C) in July. Precipitation averages 11 inches (282 mm)/year in Winkler County and 17 inches (442 mm)/year in Bailey County [106].

Elevation:

Elevation tolerances for field sagewort subspecies

State/region

Subspecies/variety

Elevation (feet)

Arizona A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana 5,500-8,500 [62]
California A. c. subsp. borealis ±7,200 [54]
Colorado A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis 11,500-12,000
A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana 4,500-9,000
A. c. subsp. caudata 5,000-7,500 [50]
Nevada (Elko County) A. c. subsp. borealis 5,500-6,500 [61]
New Mexico A. c. subsp. caudata 5,000-7,000
A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana 6,000-8,000 [75]
Utah A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana 4,100-8,000 [123]
Intermountain West A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana 4,900-8,900 [27]

Researchers report that A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis occurs in subalpine and alpine sites in Montana, Colorado, and Wyoming [34,56]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana commonly occupies lower elevation sites than A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis [56].

Soils: Sandy soils are most often described for field sagewort habitats. Salty and serpentine soils are also tolerated. In southern Saskatchewan, A. c. subsp. caudata occurs in semi-halophytic vegetation types with saline and calcareous soils. Vegetation is likely affected by salts only during times of high soil moisture [32]. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis occurs in arctic coastal tundra on Alaska's North Slope that is inundated with salt water when winds are strong. Soils in this area are sandy loams and have a pH of 7.3 [21]. On Mount Albert in Quebec's Gaspe Provincial Park, A. c. subsp. borealis is most frequent in alpine vegetation occupying serpentine-rich soils [100].

  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 21. Bruce, L. B.; Panciera, M. T.; Gavlak, R. G.; Tilman, B. A.; Cadle, J. M. 1995. Observation: botanical and other characteristics in arctic salt-affected coastal areas. Journal of Range Management. 48(3): 206-210. [26497]
  • 23. Butler, Jack; Goetz, Harold. 1986. Vegetation and soil--landscape relationships in the North Dakota Badlands. The American Midland Naturalist. 116(2): 378-386; 1986. [573]
  • 27. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 32. Dodd, J, D.; Coupland, R. T. 1966. Vegetation of saline areas in Saskatchewan. Ecology. 47(6): 958-968. [11209]
  • 34. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
  • 50. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 62. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 70. Lesko, G. L. 1974. Species suitability for sand dune reclamation at Lesser Slave Lake, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-86. Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre: 26 p. [65376]
  • 75. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 106. Sullivan, John C. 1980. Differentiation of sand shinnery oak communities in west Texas. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University. 100 p. Thesis. [62419]
  • 114. Voss, Edward G. 1996. Michigan flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae--Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61/University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan. 622 p. [30401]
  • 123. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 129. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida. 472 p. [13125]
  • 61. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 100. Sirois, L.; Grandtner, M. M. 1992. A phyto-ecological investigation of the Mount Albert serpentine plateau. Roberts, B. A.; Proctor, J., eds. In: The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks. [Dordrecht], The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 115-133. [65373]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: association

Field sagewort is almost never a dominant species in vegetation classifications. However, a field
sagewort-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) association was described for what is now the
southern portion of Illinois Beach State Park. See Gates 1912, in [18].
  • 18. Bowles, Marlin; Flakne, Robyn; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction of the federally threatened pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 13(3): 164-176. [22355]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the terms: cover, hardwood, mesic, shrub

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [98]:

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

110 Ponderosa pine-grassland

213 Alpine grassland

301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama

302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass

303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass

308 Idaho fescue-tufted hairgrass

309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass

310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama

311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass

312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue

316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue

322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass

323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue

324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue

401 Basin big sagebrush

402 Mountain big sagebrush

403 Wyoming big sagebrush

404 Threetip sagebrush

410 Alpine rangeland

411 Aspen woodland

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

413 Gambel oak

414 Salt desert shrub

415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany

416 True mountain-mahogany

422 Riparian

501 Saltbush-greasewood

502 Grama-galleta

503 Arizona chaparral

504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland

505 Grama-tobosa shrub

509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

605 Sandsage prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

611 Blue grama-buffalo grass

612 Sagebrush-grass

614 Crested wheatgrass

615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama

704 Blue grama-western wheatgrass

705 Blue grama-galleta

706 Blue grama-sideoats grama

707 Blue grama-sideoats grama-black grama

708 Bluestem-dropseed

709 Bluestem-grama

710 Bluestem prairie

714 Grama-bluestem

715 Grama-buffalo grass

716 Grama-feathergrass

717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass

720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes)

721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains)

722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie

730 Sand shinnery oak

731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma

735 Sideoats grama-sumac-juniper

801 Savanna

802 Missouri prairie

808 Sand pine scrub

809 Mixed hardwood and pine

810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills

910 Hairgrass

912 Low scrub shrub birch-ericaceous

914 Mesic sedge-grass-herb meadow tundra

920 White spruce-paper birch
  • 98. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [37]:

1 Jack pine

12 Black spruce

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

21 Eastern white pine

40 Post oak-blackjack oak

42 Bur oak

43 Bear oak

46 Eastern redcedar

52 White oak-black oak-northern
red oak

53 White oak

57 Yellow-poplar

59 Yellow-poplar-white oak-northern red oak

63 Cottonwood

64 Sassafras-persimmon

65 Pin oak-sweetgum

66 Ashe juniper-redberry (Pinchot) juniper

69 Sand pine

70 Longleaf pine

71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak

72 Southern scrub oak

75 Shortleaf pine

76 Shortleaf pine-oak

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine

81 Loblolly pine

82 Loblolly pine-hardwood

83 Longleaf pine-slash pine

84 Slash pine

85 Slash pine-hardwood

107 White spruce

108 Red maple

110 Black oak

201 White spruce

220 Rocky Mountain juniper

235 Cottonwood-willow

236 Bur oak

237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

239 Pinyon-juniper

241 Western live oak

253 Black spruce-white spruce
  • 37. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

KUCHLER [66] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:

K005 Mixed conifer forest

K011 Western ponderosa forest

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K017 Black Hills pine forest

K018 Pine-Douglas-fir forest

K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland

K024 Juniper steppe woodland

K031 Oak-juniper woodland

K032 Transition between K031 and K037

K034 Montane chaparral

K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub

K038 Great Basin sagebrush

K040 Saltbush-greasewood

K047 Fescue-oatgrass

K050 Fescue-wheatgrass

K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass

K052 Alpine meadows and barren

K053 Grama-galleta steppe

K054 Grama-tobosa prairie

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K057 Galleta-threeawn shrubsteppe

K058 Grama-tobosa shrubsteppe

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K076 Blackland prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K083 Cedar glades

K084 Cross Timbers

K089 Black Belt

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K104 Appalachian oak forest

K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine

K112 Southern mixed forest

K115 Sand pine scrub
  • 66. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [42]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES30 Desert shrub

FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe

FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie

FRES40 Desert grasslands

FRES44 Alpine
  • 42. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe artemisiae parasitises Artemisia campestris

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Oxyna parietina feeds within stem of Artemisia campestris
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire regime, forbs, frequency, natural, shrub

Although field sagewort occurs in many habitats, very few studies describe field sagewort's response to fire,
and of the few fire studies mentioning field sagewort, all lack specifics. All that can be concluded from
these studies is that field sagewort appears in early postfire communities and persists on repeatedly burned
sites.
Researchers noted that A. c. subsp. b. var. scouleriana was important in the
first year following an early fall fire in shrub live oak (Quercus turbinella)-dominated chaparral in
central Arizona's Sierra Ancha Experimental Forest. Herbaceous vegetation was reportedly "almost
nonexistent" before and increased "greatly" after the fire. Forbs were present for the first
5 postfire sampling years. Abundance values were not reported [83].
Field sagewort abundance increased in the first postfire year on little bluestem (Schizachyrium
scoparium)-dominated plots in south-central Minnesota's Cedar Creek Natural History Area that was
spring burned at 4-year intervals (5 fires in 17 years). Field sagewort abundance was not reported on
similar plots that were spring burned annually or every other year, but the researcher reported that fire
frequency differences produced only minor changes in species composition and did not affect aboveground
productivity [64].
Fossil pollen and charcoal records from Fariya Lake within jack pine forests of northern Alberta
indicate that field sagewort is likely abundant following fire. Researchers found significant
(P<0.05) positive correlations of Artemisia spp. (likely field sagewort on dry sites)
within 5 years after peaks in the macroscopic charcoal accumulation rate. For information on the fire
regime in this area, see FIRE REGIMES [68].
  • 64. Knops, Johannes M. H. 2006. Fire does not alter vegetation in infertile prairie. Oecologia. 150: 477-483. [66397]
  • 68. Larsen, C. P. S.; MacDonald, G. M. 1998. Fire and vegetation dynamics in a jack pine and black spruce forest reconstructed using fossil pollen and charcoal. Journal of Ecology. 86(5): 815-828. [30105]
  • 83. Pase, Charles P.; Lindenmuth, A. W., Jr. 1971. Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and sediment in oak-mountain mahogany chaparral. Journal of Forestry. 69: 800-805. [1829]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

Field sagewort is top-killed by fire.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: root crown, secondary colonizer

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [104]:
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
  • 104. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. FEIS postfire regeneration workshop--April 12: Seral origin of species comprising secondary plant succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [20090]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: fire cycle, fire regime, fire-return interval, top-kill, tundra

Fire adaptations: As of this writing (2007), information regarding the effects of fire on field sagewort is lacking. Vegetative regeneration following top-kill has not been described, and no studies address the heat tolerance of field sagewort seed. However, field sagewort is described in early postfire communities [64,83] suggesting rapid recolonization through vegetative sprouting, germination of on-site seed, or movement of seed from off-site sources.

FIRE REGIMES: Field sagewort occupies a variety of habitats in a wide range of environments making it impossible to describe a single fire regime for this species. Field sagewort likely experiences and tolerates a wide range of FIRE REGIMES. Field sagewort's intolerance of shade and tolerance of disturbance suggests that it may be favored by recurrent fire. In Wisconsin, dry prairies and oak barrens providing field sagewort habitat are maintained by recurrent fire [28,29].

Researchers found increases in sagebrush (assumed to be field sagewort in dry areas) pollen after each fire recorded in a 580-year fossil pollen and charcoal record from Fariya Lake in northern Alberta. Sixteen fires were detected in 580 years, and the estimated fire-return interval was 34 years. This estimate closely matched the fire cycle estimated from dendrochronology studies done in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in the adjacent Wood Buffalo National Park. Current vegetation surrounding the lake includes jack pine on the benches and slopes, paper birch (Betula papyrifera) between ridges, and black spruce (Picea mariana) in moist depressions. For more on this study, see Discussion and Qualification of Plant Response to Fire [68].

The following table provides fire-return intervals for plant communities and ecosystems where field sagewort may be important. For further information, see the FEIS review of the dominant species listed below.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
California chaparral Adenostoma and/or Arctostaphylos spp. <35 to <100 [84]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 65,84]
Nebraska sandhills prairie Andropogon gerardii var. paucipilus-Schizachyrium scoparium <10 [84]
silver sagebrush steppe Artemisia cana 5-45 [53,88,128]
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [84]
basin big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata 12-43 [95]
mountain big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana 15-40 [6,22,78]
Wyoming big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata var. wyomingensis 10-70 (x=40) [113,131]
saltbush-greasewood Atriplex confertifolia-Sarcobatus vermiculatus <35 to <100
desert grasslands Bouteloua eriopoda and/or Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 [84]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. <35 [84,128]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass Bouteloua gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii <35 [84,94,128]
blue grama-buffalo grass Bouteloua gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides <35 [84,128]
grama-galleta steppe Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis jamesii <35 to <100
blue grama-tobosa prairie Bouteloua gracilis-Pleuraphis mutica <35 to <100 [84]
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum 85,126]
California montane chaparral Ceanothus and/or Arctostaphylos spp. 50-100 [84]
curlleaf mountain-mahogany* Cercocarpus ledifolius 13-1,000 [7,96]
mountain-mahogany-Gambel oak scrub Cercocarpus ledifolius-Quercus gambelii <35 to <100 [84]
tundra ecosystems Deschampsia caespitosa, Carex bigelowii, Carex macrochaeta, Chamerion latifolium, Festuca altaica, Potentilla nana, Sibbaldia procumbens, Saxifraga spp., Trifolium dasphyllum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea >100 to 500 [36,112,125]
Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei <35
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70
Rocky Mountain juniper Juniperus scopulorum <35 [84]
cedar glades Juniperus virginiana 3-22 [48,84]
yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera <35 [115]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii <5-47+ [84,88,128]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200
northeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35-200 [36]
southeastern spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to >200 [115]
black spruce Picea mariana 35-200 [36]
pinyon-juniper Pinus-Juniperus spp. <35 [84]
jack pine Pinus banksiana 25,36]
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata 2-15
shortleaf pine-oak Pinus echinata-Quercus spp. <10 [115]
Colorado pinyon Pinus edulis 10-400+ [40,45,63,84]
slash pine Pinus elliottii 3-8
slash pine-hardwood Pinus elliottii-variable <35
sand pine Pinus elliottii var. elliottii 25-45 [115]
longleaf-slash pine Pinus palustris-P. elliottii 1-4 [81,115]
longleaf pine-scrub oak Pinus palustris-Quercus spp. 6-10 [115]
interior ponderosa pine* Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [5,9,69]
red-white pine* (Great Lakes region) Pinus resinosa-P. strobus 3-200 [25,52,73]
eastern white pine Pinus strobus 35-200
loblolly pine Pinus taeda 3-8
loblolly-shortleaf pine Pinus taeda-P. echinata 10 to <35
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana 10 to <35
Virginia pine-oak Pinus virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to <35 [115]
aspen-birch Populus tremuloides-Betula papyrifera 35-200 [36,115]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [5,47,76]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (x=10) [4,5]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. <35 [115]
oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. <35 to <200 [84]
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to <35
southeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. <10
white oak-black oak-northern red oak Quercus alba-Q. velutina-Q. rubra <35
northern pin oak Quercus ellipsoidalis <35
bear oak Quercus ilicifolia <35
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa <10 [115]
oak savanna Quercus macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [84,115]
shinnery Quercus mohriana <35 [84]
northern red oak Quercus rubra 10 to <35
post oak-blackjack oak Quercus stellata-Q. marilandica <10
black oak Quercus velutina <35
live oak Quercus virginiana 10 to<100
blackland prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Nassella leucotricha <10
Fayette prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Buchloe dactyloides <10 [115]
little bluestem-grama prairie Schizachyrium scoparium-Bouteloua spp. <35 [84]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species review
  • 4. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
  • 5. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 6. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
  • 7. Arno, Stephen F.; Wilson, Andrew E. 1986. Dating past fires in curlleaf mountain-mahogany communities. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 241-243. [350]
  • 9. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
  • 22. Burkhardt, Wayne J.; Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Causes of juniper invasion in southwestern Idaho. Ecology. 57: 472-484. [565]
  • 28. Curtis, John T. 1959. Prairie. In: Curtis, John T. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press: 261-307. [60526]
  • 29. Curtis, John T. 1959. Savanna. In: Curtis, John T. The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press: 325-351. [60528]
  • 36. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 40. Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications. 10(6): 1666-1680. [37590]
  • 45. Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L. 1995. Pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. [26188]
  • 47. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
  • 48. Guyette, Richard; McGinnes, E. A., Jr. 1982. Fire history of an Ozark glade in Missouri. Transactions, Missouri Academy of Science. 16: 85-93. [5170]
  • 52. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forests. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Symposium proceedings; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 64. Knops, Johannes M. H. 2006. Fire does not alter vegetation in infertile prairie. Oecologia. 150: 477-483. [66397]
  • 68. Larsen, C. P. S.; MacDonald, G. M. 1998. Fire and vegetation dynamics in a jack pine and black spruce forest reconstructed using fossil pollen and charcoal. Journal of Ecology. 86(5): 815-828. [30105]
  • 69. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
  • 73. Loope, Walter L. 1991. Interrelationships of fire history, land use history, and landscape pattern within Pictured Rocks National Seashore, Michigan. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(1): 18-28. [5950]
  • 76. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
  • 78. Miller, Richard F.; Rose, Jeffery A. 1995. Historic expansion of Juniperus occidentalis (western juniper) in southeastern Oregon. The Great Basin Naturalist. 55(1): 37-45. [25666]
  • 81. Myers, Ronald L. 2000. Fire in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 161-173. [36985]
  • 83. Pase, Charles P.; Lindenmuth, A. W., Jr. 1971. Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and sediment in oak-mountain mahogany chaparral. Journal of Forestry. 69: 800-805. [1829]
  • 84. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; Gottfried, Gerald J.; Haase, Sally M.; Harrington, Michael G.; Narog, Marcia G.; Sackett, Stephen S.; Wilson, Ruth C. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 88. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
  • 94. Rowe, J. S. 1969. Lightning fires in Saskatchewan grassland. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 83: 317-324. [6266]
  • 95. Sapsis, David B. 1990. Ecological effects of spring and fall prescribed burning on basin big sagebrush/Idaho fescue--bluebunch wheatgrass communities. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 105 p. Thesis. [16579]
  • 96. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. [7064]
  • 112. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6; BLM/AK/TR-80/06. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [28862]
  • 113. Vincent, Dwain W. 1992. The sagebrush/grasslands of the upper Rio Puerco area, New Mexico. Rangelands. 14(5): 268-271. [19698]
  • 115. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; Grace, James B.; Hoch, Greg A.; Patterson, William A., III. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 125. Whelan, Robert J. 1995. Fire - the phenomenon. In: Whelan, Robert J., ed. The ecology of fire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press: 8-56. [52342]
  • 126. Whisenant, Steven G. 1990. Postfire population dynamics of Bromus japonicus. The American Midland Naturalist. 123: 301-308. [11150]
  • 128. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]
  • 131. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]
  • 25. Cleland, David T.; Crow, Thomas R.; Saunders, Sari C.; Dickmann, Donald I.; Maclean, Ann L.; Jordan, James K.; Watson, Richard L.; Sloan, Alyssa M.; Brosofske, Kimberley D. 2004. Characterizing historical and modern FIRE REGIMES in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecology. 19: 311-325. [54326]
  • 63. Keeley, Jon E. 1981. Reproductive cycles and FIRE REGIMES. In: Mooney, H. A.; Bonnicksen, T. M.; Christensen, N. L.; Lotan, J. E.; Reiners, W. A., tech. coords. FIRE REGIMES and ecosystem properties: Proceedings of the conference; 1978 December 11-15; Honolulu, HI. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 231-277. [4395]
  • 53. Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Berry, Dawn; Agee, James K. 1994. Fire history database of the western United States. Final report. Interagency agreement: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency DW12934530; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service PNW-93-0300; University of Washington 61-2239. Seattle, WA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station; University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. 28 p. [+ appendices]. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [27979]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: climax, cover, density, forb, frequency, presence, severity, succession, tree

Field sagewort is described as a "pioneer" [49] and a "climax" [49,109] species. However, descriptions of field sagewort as a climax species are typically restricted to prairies or other grassland habitats. Field sagewort is often present only in openings or along the edges of woodlands and forests. Disturbances are tolerated. Field sagewort occurs on "waste" areas [61], annually plowed fire breaks, roadsides [74], active sand dunes [58], grazed sites [31], and old fields [72].

Shade tolerance: Available studies (2007) suggest that field sagewort is intolerant of shading. In southern Wisconsin, A. c. subsp. caudata occurred in prairies and savannahs but was absent from upland forests [19]. On Eagle Bluff near Eagle, Alaska, A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis occurred in steppe but not forested vegetation. Steppe dominants were fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata). Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), black cottonwood (P. balsamifera) and white spruce (Picea glauca) characterized the forest canopy. Forested sites had 79% tree cover, received 57% full sun, and were less disturbed than steppe sites that received 94% full sun and had 5% tree cover [124].

Old fields: Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata occurred in old fields abandoned for 1 to 22 years in Colorado's Black Forest. Frequency was 10% on 1-year-old fields dominated by annual weeds. On 4-year-old fields with perennial grasses and weeds, the frequency of A. c. subsp. caudata was 80%. Its frequency was 100% in perennial weed-ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) vegetation dominating 9-year-old fields and 90% in 22-year-old fields characterized as ponderosa pine-grasslands [72].

Stream banks: Along eastern Colorado's Plum Creek, A. c. subsp. caudata occurred on stable bars but not on "recently reworked channel sediments". Stable bars, adjacent to the channel bed, were inundated for a few days in the spring. Whether or not inundation period alone restricts A. c. subsp. caudata from the earliest formed sand substrates could not be determined from this study [41].

Sand dunes/lake shores: Field sagewort is an early colonizer [35,82,130] and often persists in mid- and late-seral sand dunes and lake shore communities. In southern Saskatchewan, field sagewort occurs on both active and stabilized dunes. Active dunes experience current erosion and/or deposition, and stabilized dunes lack evidence of recent erosion [58]. In the Point Beach State Forest in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, field sagewort is "fairly common" from interdune troughs to forest margins [111]. In Great Lake sand dune systems, A. c. subsp. caudata occurs in communities characterized as being in early, mid, late, and advanced stages of succession [18]. Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata occurs as a pioneer in sand succession of the Platte Plains region of Benzie County, Michigan, and occupies sites at mixed pine-oak forest edges nearest the lake [116]. On the east shore of Lake Ontario, A. c. subsp. caudata occurs in communities receiving high and low levels of recreation use [16].

In 1993, increasing water levels facilitated sand accumulation on newly exposed dunes on Lake Huron shores in Cheboygan County, Michigan. Sand accumulation varied from 1.6 to 13 inches (4-32 cm). Field sagewort stem density increased 166% from 1992 to 1996 [8]. When a 2,375-year-old dune chronosequence was sampled in Wilderness State Park on northern Lake Michigan, field sagewort occurred only on young dunes (25-175 years old). Young dune environments were characterized by strong winds, sand burial and erosion, high insolation, high evaporation, and low nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Conditions were less harsh with increased distance from the lake. Establishment of forest species began on 145-year-old dunes [71].

Forests: In boreal forests of western Canada, A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis occurs, although not abundantly, as a pioneer on open sites with sandy soils [1].

Prairies: Climax and disturbed prairies provide field sagewort habitat. Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana occurs in mixed-prairie climax communities [49]. In south-central South Dakota, A. c. subsp. caudata is considered a "chief" forb in climax grasslands dominated by needle-and-thread grass (Hesperostipa comata), threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia), and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) [109]. Field sagewort occurred in relatively high-quality prairie remnants dominated primarily by native species and in prairies with a history of disturbance which may have included tilling, herbicide treatment, and/or season-long grazing [55]. In Alberta's Wood Buffalo National Park, field sagewort was more common and had a greater abundance on disturbed than undisturbed shortbristle needle-and-thread (H. curtiseta)-dominated dry grasslands. Compaction and erosion were characteristic of disturbed sites [91].

Alpine communities: While field sagewort is considered a colonizer of disturbed alpine sites [20], severity of disturbance can affect its presence. On the Beartooth Plateau in south-central Montana, field sagewort occurred in a late-seral alpine community disturbed only by pocket gophers but was absent from an early-seral gravel pit. Top and subsoil were removed from the gravel pit 35 years earlier [24].

  • 1. Amundson, Donna C.; Wright, H. E., Jr. 1979. Forest changes in Minnesota at the end of the Pleistocene. Ecological Monographs. 49(1): 1-16. [66398]
  • 8. Bach, Catherine E. 2001. Long-term effects of insect herbivory and sand accretion on plant succession on sand dunes. Ecology. 82(5): 1401-1416. [65387]
  • 16. Bonanno, Sandra E.; Leopold, Donald J.; St. Hilaire, Lisa R. 1998. Vegetation of a freshwater dune barrier under high and low recreational uses. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 125(1): 40-50. [65377]
  • 18. Bowles, Marlin; Flakne, Robyn; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel. 1993. Recovery planning and reintroduction of the federally threatened pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Illinois. Natural Areas Journal. 13(3): 164-176. [22355]
  • 19. Bray, J. Roger. 1960. The composition of savanna vegetation in Wisconsin. Ecology. 41(4): 721-732. [24440]
  • 20. Brown, Ray W.; Chambers, Jeanne C. 1989. Reclamation of severely disturbed alpine ecosystems: new perspectives. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Proceedings of the conference: Reclamation, a global perspective; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 59-68. [14365]
  • 24. Chambers, Jeanne C. 1993. Seed and vegetation dynamics in an alpine herb field: effects of disturbance type. Canadian Journal of Botany. 71: 471-485. [21652]
  • 31. Dix, Ralph L. 1959. The influence of grazing on the thin-soil prairies of Wisconsin. Ecology. 40(1): 36-49. [60674]
  • 35. Dowding, Eleanor S. 1929. The vegetation of Alberta: III. The sandhill areas of central Alberta with particular reference to the ecology of Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. The Journal of Ecology. 17(1): 82-105. [63560]
  • 41. Friedman, Jonathan M.; Osterkamp, W. R.; Lewis, William M., Jr. 1996. Channel narrowing and vegetation development following a Great Plains flood. Ecology. 77(7): 2167-2181. [55984]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 55. Higgins, Jeremy J.; Larson, Gary E.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 2001. Floristic comparisons of tallgrass prairie remnants managed by different land stewardships in eastern South Dakota. In: Bernstein, Neil P.; Ostrander, Laura J., eds. Seeds for the future; roots of the past: Proceedings of the 17th North American prairie conference; 2000 July 16-20; Mason City, IA. Mason City, IA: North Iowa Area Community College: 21-31. [46489]
  • 58. Hulett, G. K.; Coupland, R. T.; Dix, R. L. 1966. The vegetation of dune sand areas within the grassland region of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 44: 1307-1331. [43303]
  • 71. Lichter, John. 1998. Primary succession and forest development on coastal Lake Michigan sand dunes. Ecological Monographs. 68(4): 487-510. [29313]
  • 72. Livingston, Robert B. 1949. An ecological study of the Black Forest, Colorado. Ecological Monographs. 19(2): 123-144. [65386]
  • 74. Maier, Chris T. 1976. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Sand Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Sciences. 69(2): 153-175. [37897]
  • 82. Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170. [10557]
  • 91. Redmann, Robert E.; Schwarz, Arthur G. 1986. Dry grassland plant communities in Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. 100(4): 526-532. [4030]
  • 109. Tolstead, W. L. 1941. Plant communities and secondary succession in south-central South Dakota. Ecology. 22(3): 322-328. [5887]
  • 111. van Denack, Julia Marie. 1961. An ecological analysis of the sand dune complex in Point Beach State Forest, Two Rivers, Wisconsin. Botanical Gazette. 122(3): 155-174. [49642]
  • 116. Waterman, W. G. 1922. Development of plant communities of a sand ridge region in Michigan. Botanical Gazette. 74(1): 1-31. [63565]
  • 124. Wesser, Sara D.; Armbruster, W. Scott. 1991. Species distribution controls across a forest-steppe transition: a casual model and experimental test. Ecological Monographs. 61(3): 323-342. [15629]
  • 130. Yarranton, G. A.; Morrison, R. G. 1974. Spatial dynamics of a primary succession: nucleation. The Journal of Ecology. 62(2): 417-428. [55049]
  • 61. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: caudex, cover, density, forbs, natural, pappus, top-kill

Field sagewort reproduces from seed [11,99,105]. As of this writing (2007), vegetative regeneration following top-kill has not been described.

Pollination: Field sagewort flowers are wind-pollinated [3,102].

Breeding system: Field sagewort produces fertile pistillate flowers and functionally staminate flowers with abortive ovaries [27]. Cross pollination is predominant [102].

Seed production: Flower and seed production by field sagewort is variable, and likely influenced by plant size and site conditions [102]. Research suggests that abundant flower production may not necessarily result in abundant seed production [57]. In Colorado's Rocky Mountain National Park, many A. c. subsp. b. var. borealis produced abundant flowers but failed to produce mature fruits or seeds [57]. In south-central Montana, field sagewort seed rain was measured in late-seral alpine vegetation characterized as Ross avens (Geum rossii) turf. Field sagewort seed rain averaged 0 in 1988, 8±6 (SE) seeds/m² in 1989, and 85±54 seeds/m² in 1990 where field sagewort cover was 0.01% in mid-August of 1988 [24]. In North Dakota, a single "average, well developed (A. c. subsp. caudata) plant, growing with comparatively little competition" produced 215,000 mature seeds. The researcher noted many immature seeds. Seed counts were conducted when the number of mature seeds was likely at a maximum [103].

In A. c. subsp. caudata populations in Pinery Provincial Park of Lambton County, Ontario, plants that flowered had a rosette diameter of at least 5.1 inches (13 cm) in the preceding growing season, and the majority of flowering plants were 3 years old. Seed production by A. c. subsp. caudata, while variable from year to year, showed patterns among sites. Seed production was consistently lowest in the "transition zone" where dunes were 800 to 2,100 years old and supported dense ground cover of forbs and grasses. Seed production was consistently highest in the "slack area" where dunes were 100 to 400 years old, vegetation was sparse, and conditions were "harshest". Average seed production ranged from 250 seeds/plant in the transition zone to 2,000 seeds/plant in the slack area. All immature, mature, and deformed seeds were counted to estimate seed production, and plants in the transition zone had the greatest percentage of immature and deformed seeds and produced the lightest seeds. Around 50% of total seeds produced came from about 15% of the population [102].

Seed dispersal: Field sagewort seed is primarily wind-dispersed. Without a pappus, seed typically remains near the parent plant or is dispersed short distances by wind. Stairs [102] observed zero dispersal distance when seed germinated on a parent plant that had fallen over and become partially buried in sand [102].

Seed of A. c. subsp. borealis was recovered from wind-blown debris collected from St Mary's Glacier on the eastern slope of Colorado's Front Range. Debris collections were made for 2 years at an elevation of about 11,000 feet (3,350 m). Five A. c. subsp. borealis seeds germinated from collections made in one of the years. Distance between debris and A. c. subsp. borealis populations was not reported [17].

Seed banking: Information on the density and longevity of field sagewort seed in the soil seed bank under true field conditions is lacking. Studies indicate that field sagewort seed has a clumped distribution in sand dune habitats [10,102]. Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata seedling emergence was 335 seedlings/m² from 1 of 4 soil samples in coastal sand dune sites on the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. On the site with abundant A. c. subsp. caudata emergence, the density of adult plants was 1.9 plants/m². Soil samples were collected in mid-March. There were no adult plants present on the other soil collection sites where A. c. subsp. caudata emergence was 0 to 1 seedling/m². Researchers suggested that the trapping of seed by other vegetation or in depressions, and/or the burial of seed still attached to the inflorescence may have created the clumped distribution [10].

Greenhouse and field experiments using field sagewort seed from southern Ontario indicate that seed may remain viable in the soil for at least 16 months. Researchers collected seed from native populations from June 1996 to June 1997. Seed was stored in a freezer for up to 1 year. In late spring, known quantities of seed were buried in pots in old fields. Pots were treated with fungicide, made inaccessible to invertebrates, or left unprotected. After 4 months, 11 months, and 16 months of burial, pots were removed, and seedling emergence was monitored in a greenhouse. After 4 months, germination was about 20%, regardless of treatment. After 11 and 16 months, germination was again around 20% for control pots, but was about 40% in pots treated to keep out fungi and invertebrates [15].

Germination: Beyond a requirement of adequate moisture, information on the natural conditions facilitating field sagewort germination is lacking. Waterman [117] reports that A. c. subsp. caudata "germinates freely" on open dunes and along forest edges. In the available literature (2007), 40% germination was the maximum reported for field sagewort [14]. Studies of A. c. subsp. caudata populations in Pinery Provincial Park revealed emergence flushes with periods of heavy spring and fall rainfall. Seedlings emerged in clumps, again indicating poor seed dispersal by this species [102].

Field sagewort seed collected in southeastern Canada germinated rapidly, and the maximum germination rate was 33%. Researchers monitored the germination of 100 field sagewort seeds for 30 days. Seeds, collected in September or October, were kept at 40 °F (4 °C) for 9 months before being encouraged to germinate in greenhouse conditions. It was 3 days before the first seed germinated, and a maximum of 23 seeds germinated in a single day [99].

Cold temperatures were apparently not required for A. c. subsp. caudata seed germination in western North Dakota. Seed collected through October was evaluated after dry-room temperature, dry-cold, and moist-cold storage. Germination tests occurred monthly after at least 1 month of storage. Seeds stored at room temperature under dry conditions had a maximum average monthly germination rate of 40% following 3 months of storage and a minimum rate of 8% after 6 months. Under dry-cold conditions, where temperatures mimicked western North Dakota's normal outdoor temperature fluctuations, germination reached 25% after 2 months of storage with a minimum of 12% after 6 months. In moist-cold conditions, the highest germination rate was 36% after 4 months of storage, and lowest was 11% after 5 months [14].

Seedling establishment/growth: Optimal conditions for field sagewort seedling establishment and growth likely include adequate or above-average precipitation. Information on safe sites and substrate preferences is lacking.

Growth: In the first year after cattle were removed from the mixed-grass Arapaho Prairie in Arthur County, Nebraska, field sagewort was abundant, and vegetative growth and flowering were described as "massive"; but in the next year field sagewort was rare. Growing season precipitation levels were much above average when field sagewort was abundant and were at their lowest in 4 years when field sagewort was rare [87].

In Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, a researcher found that increased A. c. subsp. caudata rosette size (based on diameter measurements) was correlated with a decreased probability of over-wintering mortality and mortality in the next year. Desiccation was considered the primary cause of plant mortality. Survival probability also decreased with increased A. c. subsp. caudata age [102].

Vegetative regeneration: As of this writing (2007), sprouting from the caudex after top-kill has not been described. Populations of A. c. subsp. caudata observed in Pinery Provincial Park, however, did produce new stems following tissue damage. There were a greater number of single-stemmed plants on sites where plants received the least amount of aboveground damage [102].

  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 3. Anderson, Roger C.; Schelfhout, Stephen. 1980. Phenological patterns among tallgrass prairie plants and their implications for pollinator competition. The American Midland Naturalist. 104(2): 253-263. [60672]
  • 10. Baptista, Tony L.; Shumway, Scott W. 1998. A comparison of the seed banks of sand dunes with different disturbance histories on Cape Cod National Seashore. Rhodora. 100(903): 298-313. [65375]
  • 14. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Proceedings of the conference: Reclamation, a global perspective; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354]
  • 15. Blaney, C. Sean; Kotanen, Peter M. 2002. Persistence in the seed bank: the effects of fungi and invertebrates on seeds of native and exotic plants. Ecoscience. 9(4): 509-517. [45878]
  • 17. Bonde, Eric K. 1969. Plant disseminules in wind-blown debris from a glacier in Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research. 1(2): 135-139. [62703]
  • 24. Chambers, Jeanne C. 1993. Seed and vegetation dynamics in an alpine herb field: effects of disturbance type. Canadian Journal of Botany. 71: 471-485. [21652]
  • 27. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 57. Holway, J. Gary; Ward, Richard T. 1965. Phenology of alpine plants in northern Colorado. Ecology. 46(1/2): 73-83. [62668]
  • 87. Potvin, M. A.; Harrison, A. T. 1984. Vegetation and litter changes of a Nebraska Sandhills prairie protected from grazing. Journal of Range Management. 37(1): 55-58. [25456]
  • 99. Shipley, B.; Parent, M. 1991. Germination responses of 64 wetland species in relation to seed size, minimum time to reproduction and seedling relative growth rate. Functional Ecology. 5(1): 111-118. [14554]
  • 102. Stairs, Anne Felicite. 1986. Life history variation in Artemisia campestris on a Lake Huron sand dune system. London, ON: University of Western Ontario. 241 p. Dissertation. [66396]
  • 103. Stevens, O. A. 1932. The number and weight of seeds produced by weeds. American Journal of Botany. 19: 784-794. [47817]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 117. Waterman, W.G. 1919. Development of root systems under dune conditions. Botanical Gazette. 68(1): 22-53. [63561]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [90] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
  • 90. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

Information regarding fire's effect on field sagewort and field sagewort's response to fire is lacking. Without more information, recommendations regarding the use or management of fire in field sagewort habitats cannot be made.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

Although field sagewort is described in early postfire communities [64,83], available literature (2007) does not indicate whether vegetative sprouting, establishment from seed, or both occur on burned sites.
  • 64. Knops, Johannes M. H. 2006. Fire does not alter vegetation in infertile prairie. Oecologia. 150: 477-483. [66397]
  • 83. Pase, Charles P.; Lindenmuth, A. W., Jr. 1971. Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and sediment in oak-mountain mahogany chaparral. Journal of Forestry. 69: 800-805. [1829]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Flowering dates for field sagewort

State/region

Subspecies/variety

Flowering date

Arizona A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana July-October [62]
Carolinas A. c. subsp. caudata September-October [89]
Florida A. c. subsp. caudata summer-fall [129]
Illinois (Mason County) A. c. subsp. caudata July-August [74]
Kansas not given July-October, achenes mature late [11]
Nevada (Elko County) A. c. subsp. borealis July-September [61]
New Mexico A. c. subsp. caudata July-September [75]
A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana
Texas A. c. subsp. caudata September-October [30]
Chicago Region
(parts of WI, IL, IN, MI)
A. c. subsp. caudata 11 August-27 October [107]*
Great Plains A. c. subsp. caudata August-September [46]
Intermountain West A. c. subsp. borealis var. scouleriana July-September [27]
New England A. c. subsp. caudata 22 July-4 October
A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis 2 July-20 September [97]
Northeast not given July-September [43]
*Presented are earliest and latest flowering dates based on 9 years of observations.
  • 11. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 27. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; Reveal, James L.; Holmgren, Patricia K. 1994. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 5: Asterales. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 496 p. [28653]
  • 30. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 43. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 46. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 62. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 74. Maier, Chris T. 1976. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Sand Ridge State Forest, Mason County, Illinois. Transactions, Illinois State Academy of Sciences. 69(2): 153-175. [37897]
  • 75. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 89. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 97. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 107. Swink, Floyd A. 1952. A phenological study of the flora of the Chicago region. The American Midland Naturalist. 48(3): 758-768. [55183]
  • 129. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1982. Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida. Tampa, FL: University Presses of Florida. 472 p. [13125]
  • 61. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Artemisia campestris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 20
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Information on state-level protected status of varieties and subspecies of field sagewort in the United States is available at Plants Database.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: cover, litter, monocarpic

Allelopathy: Artemisia
campestris subsp. caudata litter may indirectly inhibit the growth of other species. In a
greenhouse, plants native to the sand dunes of Lake Huron, Ontario, were sown in soil with
A. c. subsp. caudata leaf litter. Seeds and seedlings in litter soil had reduced germination
or growth when compared to seeds and seedlings in soils without A. c. subsp. caudata leaf
litter. Allelopathic compounds were identified as metabolites formed during leaf litter decomposition by
microorganisms. Researchers noted several reasons that the allelopathic impact A. c. subsp.
caudata on neighboring species is likely to be low in sand dune habitats. The unstable and
well-draining nature of sand facilitates a continuous decrease in released metabolites through rapid
leaching and dissipation; and sand dunes lack organic matter, support a weak microfauna,
and have slow litter decomposition. Also, A. c. subsp. caudata is
a monocarpic perennial that loses inhibitory compounds
soon after death [132].
Health: Field sagewort is a common allergen [49,105].
Host: Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata
is the only known host to clustered broomrape (Orobanche fasciculata), an herbaceous, obligate, root
parasite [92]. Clustered broomrape is threatened or endangered in several Great Lakes states
[110]. In Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, larger A. c. subsp. caudata plants supported
larger, clustered broomrape plants [92].
Nonnative species: Field sagewort growth and/or recruitment
may be restricted by leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In "heavily infested" mixed-grass
prairie in south-central Manitoba, field sagewort occurred only where biocontrol agents, flea beetles
(Aphthona nigriscutis), had been released 6 years earlier. Field sagewort did not occur in 2- or
4-year-old release sites or in nearby nonrelease areas. Average leafy spurge cover around 6-year-old release
sites was 98% lower than nearby nonrelease sites. At 2- year-old and 4-year-old release sites, leafy spurge
cover was 20% and ~38% lower than nonrelease sites [77].
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 132. Yun, Kyeong W.; Maun, M. A. 1997. Allelopathic potential of Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata on Lake Huron sand dunes. Canadian Journal of Botany. 75: 1903-1912. [28273]
  • 77. Mico, Michelle A.; Shay, Jennifer M. 2002. Effect of flea beetles (Aphthona nigriscutis) on prairie invaded by leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in Manitoba. Great Plains Research. 12(1): 167-184. [46033]
  • 92. Reuter, Barbara C. 1986. The habitat, reproductive ecology and host relations of Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. (Orobanchaceae) in Wisconsin. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113(2): 110-117. [65399]
  • 110. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2007. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, tundra

Field sagewort occurs in high-use habitats and may make up a small part of wildlife diets. Sharptail grouse, rabbits, and other small mammals feed on A. c. subsp. caudata seeds and fruits [105].

In the winter in the Bridger Mountains of Montana's Gallatin County, Rocky Mountain mule deer fed on A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis. Observations of feeding on A. c. subsp. borealis var. borealis constituted 4% of the total 505, year-long feeding observations [127].

Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. borealis was common in arctic coastal tundra sites used by caribou and migratory Canada geese on Alaska's North Slope. Consumption of seeds or herbaceous growth was not noted [21]. Artemisia caudata subsp. caudata was abundant in eastern cottontail winter habitats in Allegan County, Michigan, but was not frequently consumed [51].

In the Gateway National Recreation Area in the New York and New Jersey harbors, researchers monitored a protected diamond-backed terrapin nest. Seven of nine eggs were penetrated by roots. The nearest plants were A. c. subsp. caudata and bayberry (Myrica pennsylvanica), but roots that penetrated the eggs were not identified [38].

Palatability/nutritional value: Field sagewort is considered highly unpalatable to livestock, and its use can indicate overgrazing [49].

Cover value: No information is available on this topic.

  • 21. Bruce, L. B.; Panciera, M. T.; Gavlak, R. G.; Tilman, B. A.; Cadle, J. M. 1995. Observation: botanical and other characteristics in arctic salt-affected coastal areas. Journal of Range Management. 48(3): 206-210. [26497]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]
  • 38. Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Burke, Russell L. 2003. Nesting ecology and predation of diamondback terrapins, Malaclemys terrapin, at Gateway National Recreation Area, New York. Journal of Herpetology. 37(3): 517-526. [65385]
  • 51. Haugen, Arnold O. 1942. Life history studies of the cottontail rabbit in southwestern Michigan. The American Midland Naturalist. 28(1): 204-244. [65413]
  • 127. Wilkins, Bruce T. 1957. Range use, food habits, and agricultural relationships of the mule deer, Bridger Mountains, Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 21(2): 159-169. [1411]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Field sagewort cuttings and seeds have been used with varying degrees of success in the revegetation of alpine sites [20], sand dunes [70], and coal mine spoils [13,14]. Field sagewort is a frequent colonizer of disturbed alpine sites in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana [20]. Ten of twenty A. c. subsp. caudata cuttings were successful in the revegetation of severely disturbed sand dunes in central Alberta's Lesser Slave Lake Provincial Park. Disturbances were a result of recreation "overuse" and sand excavation [70]. Emergence of A. c. subsp. caudata seeded on coal mine spoils in North Dakota ranged from 1 seedling/m² to 269 seedlings/m² [13,14].
  • 14. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Proceedings of the conference: Reclamation, a global perspective; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354]
  • 20. Brown, Ray W.; Chambers, Jeanne C. 1989. Reclamation of severely disturbed alpine ecosystems: new perspectives. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Proceedings of the conference: Reclamation, a global perspective; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 59-68. [14365]
  • 70. Lesko, G. L. 1974. Species suitability for sand dune reclamation at Lesser Slave Lake, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-86. Edmonton, AB: Environment Canada, Forestry Service, Northern Forest Research Centre: 26 p. [65376]
  • 13. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great Plains. In: Proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas, Nevada. Cheyenne, WY: Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies: 257-271. [2932]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

Native people used field sagewort in cooking and in medicines. Some referred to field sagewort as a "wild hair tonic", suggesting it may have been an early hair care product [49]. Lakota people made a tea from A. c. subsp. caudata roots to treat constipation and other ailments [105].
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 105. Stubbendieck, James; Coffin, Mitchell J.; Landholt, L. M. 2003. Weeds of the Great Plains. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 605 p. In cooperation with: University of Nebraska - Lincoln. [50776]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Artemisia campestris

Artemisia near Baltic Sea

Artemisia campestris (also known as: field wormwood, beach wormwood,[1] northern wormwood,[2] Breckland wormwood[3] boreal wormwood, Canadian wormwood, field sagewort or field mugwort) is a species of herbaceous biennial or perennial plants in the genus Artemisia that grows in open sites on dry sandy soils throughout the Boreal region.

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Artemisia campestris varies; each morphologic form grades into another. The present circumscription is conservative in that only three subspecies are recognized; the subspecies usually can be separated geographically as well as morphologically. Populations in western North America consist primarily of subsp. pacifica; east of the continental divide, plants are assigned to subsp. canadensis in northern latitudes and to subsp. caudata in southern latitudes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

Artemisia borealis Pallas [2,59]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Artemisia borealis var. purshii Hook [2,56]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. canadensis (Michx.) Scoggan [39]=

   Artemisia campestris L. subsp. borealis (Pallas) Hall & Clements [49,54,56,60]

Artemisia campestris var. douglasiana (Bess.) Boivin [101]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. pacifica (Nutt.) Hall & Clements [39,49,75,86]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [60]

Artemisia camporum Rydb. [26,80]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [56,60]

Artemisia canadensis (Michx.) [2,59,97]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Artemisia caudata (Michx.) [50,80,89,97]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements [60]

Artemisia caudata var. calvens Lunell [82]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements [60]

Artemisia forwoodii S. Wats [80]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements [60]

Artemisia pacifica (Nutt.) [50,62,80]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [60]

Artemisia spithamea Pursh. [50,57]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Oligosporus campestris subsp. pacificus (Nutt.) Weber [120]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [56,60]

Oligosporus caudatus (Michx.) Poljakov [121]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements [60]

Oligosporus groenlandicus (Hornem.) Löve & Löve [120,121]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Oligosporus pacificus (Nutt.) Poljakov [121]=

    Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [60]   
  • 2. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 50. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2nd ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press, Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 57. Holway, J. Gary; Ward, Richard T. 1965. Phenology of alpine plants in northern Colorado. Ecology. 46(1/2): 73-83. [62668]
  • 59. Hultén, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 62. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 75. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 80. Moss, E. H. 1940. Interxylary cork in Artemisia with a reference to its taxonomic significance. American Journal of Botany. 27(9): 762-768. [48735]
  • 82. Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170. [10557]
  • 86. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy, eds. 1994. Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Publishing. 526 p. [25159]
  • 89. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 97. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 26. Coupland, Robert T.; Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1953. The fescue grassland in Saskatchewan. Ecology. 34(2): 386-405. [701]
  • 101. Stahevitch, A. E.; Wojtas, W. A. 1988. Chromosome numbers of some North American species of Artemisia (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 672-676. [4515]
  • 120. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 121. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 39. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 60. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

The scientific name of field sagewort is Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) [39,43,46,60].
Field sagewort's taxonomy is complex, and the recognition of subspecies and
varieties is inconsistent. Taxonomic treatment of field sagewort follows Kartesz and Meacham [60].



Infrataxa:

Subspecies:

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis (Pallas) Hall & Clements [49,54,56,60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements [39,49,56,60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. campestris L. [46,49]
Varieties:

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. borealis (Pallas) M.E. Peck [60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. petiolata Welsh [60,122]

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. scouleriana (Hook.) Cronq. [56,60]

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis var. wormskioldii (Bess.) Cronq. [56,60]
  • 43. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 46. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 49. Hall, Harvey M.; Clements, Frederic E. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy: the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Publication No. 326. Washington, DC: The Carnegie Institute of Washington. 355 p. [43183]
  • 54. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 56. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L. 1993. New taxa and new nomenclatural combinations in the Utah Flora. Rhodora. 95: 392-421. [23464]
  • 39. Flora of North America Association. 2007. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 60. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. In: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

field sagewort

beach wormwood

field sagebrush

field wormwood

prairie sagewort

tall wormwood

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!