Overview

Comprehensive Description

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., 1788

Distribution

Native to tropics in Asia and Oceania.

  • Ito, Yu, Barfod, Anders S. (2014): An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1019: 1019-1019, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1019
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Description

This introduced perennial plant is an emergent aquatic that produces individual leaves and flowers directly from the root system. The blades of the leaves either float on the surface of the water, or they are held up to 6' above the water surface by their petioles (often the latter). These circular peltate blades are ¾–2½' across, medium green or blue-green, and hairless. Their margins are smooth, often undulating up and down. Each leaf blade above the water surface is depressed toward the middle where it is joined by the petiole. Many veins radiate from its center in all directions; these veins become forked as they approach the outer margin of the blade. The stout petioles are light green, terete, hairless, and either smooth or somewhat prickly. The interior of each petiole contains hollow chambers that keep the petiole erect and convey oxygen to the root system. Individual flowers are held up to 6' above the water surface by their peduncles (flowering stalks). Each flower is 4-8" across, consisting of about 15 pink tepals, a golden yellow receptacle, and a dense ring of golden yellow stamens (although the anthers are often white). The receptacle, which is located in the center of the flower, is shaped like an upside-down cone. Along its flat upper surface, there are 15-35 short styles that look like small bumps. The blooming period occurs during the summer and can last 2-3 months. The short-lived flowers open up during the morning and begin to lose their petals by the afternoon; they have a pleasant fragrance. Each flower is replaced by a seedpod spanning 3-4" across and ¾" deep; this seed pod becomes dark brown at maturity. Along the upper surface of the seedpod, individual seeds are exposed in small chambers. Eventually, each seedpod bends downward to release its seeds into the water. The root system has thick rhizomes with fibrous roots. Sacred Lotus spreads by its rhizomes or seeds; it often forms sizable colonies.
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Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., 1788

Distribution

Native to tropics in Asia and Oceania.

  • Ito, Yu, Barfod, Anders S. (2014): An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1019: 1019-1019, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1019
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Freshwater ponds and Lakes. Cultivated, Also grown as ornamental"
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General Description

Petiole 1-2 m long, terete, fistulous, glabrous or papillae hard and scattered; leaf blade abaxially blue-green, orbicular, 25-90 cm in diameter, papery, glabrous, glaucous, water-repellent, margin entire. Flowers 10-23 cm in diameter; peduncles longer than petioles, glabrous or sparsely spinulate. Tepals caducous, pink or white, oblong-elliptic to obovate, 5-10 cm long, 3--5 cm wide. Stamens slightly longer than receptacle; filament slender; anther linear, 1-2 mm long; connective appendage clavate, to 7 mm, incurved. Receptacle accrescent, turbinate, 5-10 cm in diameter. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 1.0-2.0 cm long, 7-15 cm wide, glabrous; pericarp thick, hardened.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Thus far, there are no records of the Sacred Lotus escaping from cultivation and naturalizing into new areas within the state of Illinois (see Distribution Map). However, many states in southeastern United States have records of such escaped plants, and there is some evidence that Sacred Lotus has escaped in Ohio, West Virginia, New Jersey, and New York. There is really no reason why this plant can't escape from cultivation in Illinois. Habitats include small ponds and shallow areas of lakes and rivers. Sacred Lotus is native to southern and eastern areas of Asia.
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N.Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
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introduced; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Mass., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Tex., W.Va.; naturalized, s Europe; Asia; n Australia.
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Nelumbo nucifera is occurring in throughout China except Nei Mongol, Qinghai, and Xizang, Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java), Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia (Far East), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; SW Asia, Australia.
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India, N. China, Ussuri, widely cultivated.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

600-800 m
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Description

Petiole 1--2 m, terete, fistulous, glabrous or papillae hard and scattered; leaf blade abaxially blue-green, orbicular, 25--90 cm in diam., papery, glabrous, glaucous, water-repellent, margin entire. Flowers 10--23 cm in diam.; peduncles longer than petioles, glabrous or sparsely spinulate. Tepals caducous, pink or white, oblong-elliptic to obovate, 5--10 × 3--5 cm. Stamens slightly longer than receptacle; filament slender; anther linear, 1--2 mm; connective appendage clavate, to 7 mm, incurved. Receptacle accrescent, turbinate, 5--10 cm in diam. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 1.0--2.0 × 7--15 cm, glabrous; pericarp thick, hardened. Fl. Jun--Aug. 2n = 16.
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Description

Leaves: petiole to 2 m or more. Leaf blade to 6 dm or more. Flowers: tepals normally all caducous, pink, pink-tinged, or fading to white, 1-13 cm; anthers 1-2 cm. Fruits ovoid, 10-20 × 7-13 mm, mostly more than 1.5 times longer than wide; receptacle to 1 dm diam. at maturity, gradually tapered or rounded from flattened top to base, base rounded or very slightly obtuse-tapered, lateral surface rugose or only weakly striate.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Synonym

Nelumbo komarovii Grossheim; N. nucifera var. macrorhizomata Nakai; Nelumbium speciosum Willdenow; Nymphaea nelumbo Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Thus far, there are no records of the Sacred Lotus escaping from cultivation and naturalizing into new areas within the state of Illinois (see Distribution Map). However, many states in southeastern United States have records of such escaped plants, and there is some evidence that Sacred Lotus has escaped in Ohio, West Virginia, New Jersey, and New York. There is really no reason why this plant can't escape from cultivation in Illinois. Habitats include small ponds and shallow areas of lakes and rivers. Sacred Lotus is native to southern and eastern areas of Asia.
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Habitat & Distribution

Lakes, ponds, cultivated. Throughout China except Nei Mongol, Qinghai, and Xizang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java), Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia (Far East), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; SW Asia, Australia].
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Ponds and lakes; 0-400m.
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Growing in Lakes, ponds, cultivated.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

Information about floral-faunal relationships is unavailable for Sacred Lotus in North America. However some floral-faunal relationships of the native Nelumbo lutea (American Lotus) are known, which may generalize to the Sacred Lotus. For the American Lotus, typical flower visitors are various bees, including the small oligolectic bees Hylaeus nelumbonis, Lasioglossum nelumbonis, and Lasioglossum nymphaearum. These floral visitors collect pollen from the flowers. Caterpillars of two moths, Bellura obliqua (Cattail Borer Moth) and Ostrinia penitalis (Lotus Borer Moth), bore through the pedicels of the leaves and peduncles of the flowers. Among waterfowl, the Canada Goose, Mallard, and Northern Shoveler eat the seeds of American Lotus.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late spring-summer.
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Flowering from July to August.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The floral development of Nelumbo nucifera was compared with that noted in previous studies of Nelumbo, Nymphaeaceae, and other basal angiosperms. Important features include developmental evidence of only two sepals, development of an androecial ring meristem, and an apocarpous gynoecium composed of ascidiate carpels that become embedded in an expanded receptacle. Secretory papillate trichomes cover the stigma and line the stylar canal. This pattern of floral development, as well as the pattern of carpel closure by secretion, is common in several paleoherbs and eudicots and indicates phylogenetic affinity between Nelumbonaceae and basal angiosperms. Because of its unique floral development and anatomy, Nelumbo appears to be an isolated member of the eudicot clade (Hayes et al., 2000). Analyses of genetic relationships in Nelumbo nucifera using nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data, ISSR and RAPD markers showed Chinese and Japanese lotus comprise a single cluste (Han et al., 2007).
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Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Hydrophobic surface allows self-cleaning: sacred lotus
 

Leaves of the sacred lotus are self-cleaning thanks to nanoscale bumps.

     
 
"The microrelief of plant surfaces, mainly caused by epicuticular wax crystalloids, serves different purposes and often causes effective water repellency. Furthermore, the adhesion of contaminating particles is reduced. Based on experimental data...it is shown here for the first time that the interdependence between surface roughness, reduced particle adhesion and water repellency is the keystone in the self-cleaning mechanism of many biological surfaces. The plants were artificially contaminated with various particles and subsequently subjected to artificial rinsing by sprinkler or fog generator. In the case of water-repellent leaves, the particles were removed completely by water droplets that rolled off the surfaces independent of their chemical nature or size. The leaves of N. nucifera afford an impressive demonstration of this effect, which is, therefore, called the 'Lotus-Effect' and which may be of great biological and technological importance." (Barthlott and Neinhuis 1997:1)

  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Barthlott, W.; Neinhuis, C. 1997. Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces. Planta. 202(1): 1-8.
  • Neinhuis, C.; Barthlott, W. 1997. Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning plant surfaces. Annals of Botany. 79(6): 667-677.
  • Nature's Raincoats. Nottingham Trent University, University of Oxford.
    http://www.naturesraincoats.com/index.html.
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Functional adaptation

Seed coat and enzymes protect seed: lotus
 

Seeds of lotus remain viable for thousands of years via hard seed coat and repair enzymes.

             
  "In the West, lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is relatively little known. However, for more than 3000 years, lotus plants have been cultivated as a crop in Far-East Asia, where they are used for food, medicine and play a significant role in religious and cultural activities. Holder of the world's record for long-term seed viability (1300 years) is a lotus fruit (China Antique) from Xipaozi, Liaoning Province, China. Five offspring of this variety, from 200-500-year-old fruits (14C dates) collected at Xipaozi, have recently been germinated, and are the first such seedlings to be raised from directly dated fruits. The fruits at Xipaozi, preserved in a dry ancient lakebed, have been exposed to low-dose γ-radiation for hundreds of years (having an accumulated soil irradiation of 0.1-1.0 Gy). Offspring from these old fruits show abnormalities that resemble those in various modern seedlings irradiated at much higher doses. Although these lotus offspring are phenotypically abnormal, the viability of old seeds was evidently not affected by accumulated doses of up to 3 Gy. Growth characteristics of first- and second-year lotus offspring of these fruits, products of the longest-term radiobiological experiment on record, are summarized here (rapid early growth, phenotypic abnormalities, lack of vigour, poor rhizome development and low photosynthetic activity during second-year growth). Aspects of their chromosomal organization, phenotype and physiology (rapid recovery from stress, heat-stable proteins, protein-repair enzyme) are discussed. Important unsolved problems are suggested to elicit interest among members of the seed science community to the study of old fruits recently collected at Xipaozi, with particular emphasis on aspects of ageing and repair." (Shen-Miller 2002:131)

"'The secret of the sacred lotus may be its seed coat,' says Shen-Miller. 'The coat is very hard, built to prevent water and air from entering and degrading the seed.' The sacred lotus is also blessed with a hardy collection of repair enzymes, such as L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase and other proteins that minimize seed damage, resist attacks by fungi, and help the seed survive harsh temperatures. 'The lotus is a scientific treasure,' remarks Shen-Miller, adding that the flower could reveal biochemical traits that boost quality of life by repairing the molecular damage of aging." (Brown 2001:1884-1885)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Shen-Miller, J. 2007. Sacred lotus, the long-living fruits of China Antique. Seed Science Research. 12(03): 131-143.
  • Brown K. 2001. Patience Yields Secrets of Seed Longevity. Science. 291(5510): 1884-1885.
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Functional adaptation

Electron flow generates heat: sacred lotus
 

The sacred lotus attracts pollinators by producing heat through a nonphosphorylating electron transport pathway that releases energy by electron flow through an alternative respiratory pathway.

     
  The alternative pathway of respiration, catalysed by the Alternative Oxidase (AOX), is responsible for heat production in the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

"We report results from in vivo measurements, using oxygen isotope discrimination techniques, of fluxes through the alternative and cytochrome respiratory pathways in thermogenic plant tissue, the floral receptacle of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Fluxes through both pathways were measured in thermoregulating flowers undergoing varying degrees of thermogenesis in response to ambient temperature. Significant increases in alternative pathway flux were found in lotus receptacles with temperatures 16oC to 20oC above ambient, but not in those with lesser amounts of heating. Alternative pathway flux in the hottest receptacles was 75% of the total respiratory flux. In contrast, fluxes through the cytochrome pathway did not change significantly during thermogenesis. These data support the hypothesis that increased flux through the alternative pathway is responsible for heating in the lotus and that it is unlikely that uncoupling proteins, which would have produced increased fluxes through the cytochrome pathway, contribute significantly to heating in this tissue. Comparisons of actual flux, with capacity determined using inhibitors, suggested that the alternative pathway was operating at close to maximum capacity in heating tissues of lotus. However, in nonheating tissues the inhibitor data significantly overestimated the alternative pathway flux. This confirms that isotopic measurements are necessary for accurate determination of fluxes through the two pathways." (Watling et al. 2006:1367)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Watling, J. R.; Robinson, S. A.; Seymour, R. S. 2006. Contribution of the alternative pathway to respiration during thermogenesis in flowers of the sacred lotus. Plant Physiology. 140(4): 1367-1373.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

There are some reports for the chromosomal data of Nelumbo nucifera. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 (Wang et al., 1985; Uchiyama et al., 1986; Wei et al., 1994; Yang et al., 1998).
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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nelumbo nucifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, water up to 6' deep, mucky submerged soil, and a sheltered location with little exposure to wind and waves. This introduced plant can spread aggressively and completely take over a shallow pond. Some cultivars of the Sacred Lotus are hardy to Zone 5. The seeds of Sacred Lotus can remain viable for several centuries.
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Uses

Nelumbo nucifera is cultivated for its edible rhizomes and seeds.
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Wikipedia

Nelumbo nucifera

"Lotus Flower" redirects here. For the Woody Shaw album, see Lotus Flower (Woody Shaw album). For the Radiohead song, see Lotus Flower (song).

Nelumbo nucifera known by numerous common names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus, is one of two species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. The Linnaean binomial Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) is the currently recognized name for this species, which has been classified under the former names, Nelumbium speciosum (Willd.) and Nymphaea nelumbo, among others. Names other than Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) are obsolete synonyms and should not be used in current works. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China.[1]

A common misconception is confusion of the lotus with the water lilies (Nymphaea, in particular Nymphaea caerulea, sometimes called the "blue lotus"); they are practically unrelated; far from being in the same family, Nymphaea and Nelumbo are members of different orders (Nymphaeales and Proteales respectively).

Native to Tropical Asia and Queensland, Australia,[2][3] it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. It is also the national flower of India and Vietnam.

Classification[edit]

See also: Nelumbo

While all plant taxonomy systems unanimously agree that this species belongs in the genus Nelumbo, the systems disagree as to which family Nelumbo should be placed in, or whether the genus should belong in its own unique family and order.

Botany[edit]

Flower bud

The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface or are held well above it. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. The plant normally grows up to a height of about 150 cm and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters, but some unverified reports place the height as high as over 5 meters. The leaves may be as large as 60 cm in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter.

Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do.[4] Dr. Roger S. Seymour and Dr. Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30–35 °C (86–95 °F), even when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C (50 °F). They suspect the flowers may be doing this to attract coldblooded insect pollinators. The study, published in the journal Nature, is the latest discovery in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, plants. Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum.

An individual lotus can live for over a thousand years and has the rare ability to revive into activity after stasis. In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at roughly 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was successfully germinated.[5][6]

As mentioned earlier, the traditional Sacred Lotus is only distantly related to Nymphaea caerulea, but possesses similar chemistry. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine.

The genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013.[7][8][9]

Uses[edit]

Boiled, sliced lotus roots used in various Asian cuisines
Lotus roots
Lotus root, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy278 kJ (66 kcal)
16.02 g
Sugars0.50 g
Dietary fiber3.1 g
0.07 g
1.58 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(11%)
0.127 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(1%)
0.01 mg
Niacin (B3)
(2%)
0.3 mg
(6%)
0.302 mg
Vitamin B6
(17%)
0.218 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
8 μg
Choline
(5%)
25.4 mg
Vitamin C
(33%)
27.4 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(3%)
26 mg
Iron
(7%)
0.9 mg
Magnesium
(6%)
22 mg
Manganese
(10%)
0.22 mg
Phosphorus
(11%)
78 mg
Potassium
(8%)
363 mg
Sodium
(3%)
45 mg
Zinc
(3%)
0.33 mg
Other constituents
Water81.42 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The distinctive dried seed heads, which resemble the spouts of watering cans, are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging.

The flowers, seeds, young leaves, and "roots" (rhizomes) are all edible. In Asia, the petals are sometimes used for garnish, while the large leaves are used as a wrap for food, not frequently eaten (for example, as a wrapper for zongzi). In Korea, the leaves and petals are used as a tisane. Yeonkkotcha (연꽃차) is made with dried petals of white lotus and yeonipcha (연잎차) is made with the leaves. Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine. The rhizome (called ǒu () in pinyin Chinese, ngau in Cantonese, thambou in Manipuri, kamal kakri in Hindi, renkon (レンコン, 蓮根 in Japanese), yeongeun (연근 in Korean) is used as a vegetable in soups, deep-fried, stir-fried, and braised dishes and the roots are also used in traditional Asian herbal medicine. Petals, leaves, and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski): it is therefore recommended that they be cooked before eating.

Lotus rootlets are often pickled with rice vinegar, sugar, chili and/or garlic. It has a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours. In Asian cuisine, it is popular with salad, prawns, sesame oil and/or coriander leaves. Lotus roots have been found to be rich in dietary fiber, vitamin C, potassium, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, phosphorus, copper, and manganese, while very low in saturated fat.[citation needed]

The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea called liánhuā cha (蓮花) in Chinese, or (particularly in Vietnam) used to impart a scent to tea leaves. This Vietnamese lotus tea is called trà sen, chè sen, or chè ướp sen. The lotus seeds or nuts (called liánzĭ, 蓮子; or xiān liánzĭ, 鲜莲子, in Chinese) are quite versatile, and can be eaten raw or dried and popped like popcorn, phool makhana. They can also be boiled until soft and made into a paste, or boiled with dried longans and rock sugar to make a tong sui (sweet soup). Combined with sugar, lotus seed paste becomes one of the most common ingredients used in pastries such as mooncakes, daifuku, and rice flour pudding.[10]

In South Indian states, the Lotus Stem is sliced, marinated with salt to dry, and the dried slices are fried and used as a side dish. In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this end product is called " Thamara Vathal". In Sri Lanka, the sliced Lotus Stem curry is a popular dish called "Nelum Ala". In Vietnam, the bitter tasting germs of the lotus seeds are also made into a tisane (trà tim sen).

A unique fabric from the lotus plant fibers is produced only at Inle lake, Union of Myanmar and is used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya thingahn (lotus robe).

Cultural significance[edit]

Main article: Padma (attribute)
Hindu goddess Lakshmi holding and standing on a lotus.

From ancient times the lotus has been a divine symbol in Asian traditions representing the virtues of sexual purity and non-attachment.

Hindus revere it with the divinities Vishnu and Lakshmi often portrayed on a pink lotus in iconography. In the representation of Vishnu as Padmanabha (Lotus navel), a lotus issues from his navel with Brahma on it. Goddess Sarasvati is portrayed on a white-colored lotus.

Often used as an example of divine beauty, Vishnu is often described as the 'Lotus-Eyed One'. Its unfolding petals suggest the expansion of the soul. The growth of its pure beauty from the mud of its origin holds a benign spiritual promise. In Hindu iconography, other deities, like Ganga and Ganesha are often depicted with lotus flowers as their seats.

The lotus plant is cited extensively within Puranic and Vedic literature, for example:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water.

Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

In Chinese culture Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi wrote:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

Chinese: 予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染。[11]

Most deities of Asian religions are depicted as seated on a lotus flower. In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire. According to legend[citation needed], Gautama Buddha was born with the ability to walk, and lotus flowers bloomed everywhere he stepped.

In the classical written and oral literature of many Asian cultures the lotus is present in figurative form, representing elegance, beauty, perfection, purity and grace, being often used in poems and songs as an allegory for ideal feminine attributes. In Sanskrit the word lotus (padma पद्म) has many synonyms. Since the lotus thrives in water, ja (denoting birth) is added to synonyms of water to derive some synonyms for the lotus, like ambuja (ambu= water + ja=born of), neeraj (neera=water + ja= born of), pankaj, pankaja, kamal, kamala, kunala, aravind, arvind, nalin,nalini and saroja[12] and names derived from the lotus, like padmavati (possessing lotuses) or padmini (full of lotuses).[13] These names and derived versions are often used to name girls, and to a lesser extent boys, in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as in many other countries influenced by Indic culture, like Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos.

Drawing in turn on these beliefs, the international Bahá'í community adopted this symbolism in the design of the Lotus Temple in New Delhi, India.

Other uses[edit]

Fruit of Nelumbo nucifera; the dried seed cup is commonly used in flower arrangements.

Chemical composition[edit]

The flavonol miquelianin (Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide), as well as the alkaloids (+)-1(R)-coclaurine and (-)-1(S)-norcoclaurine, can be found in the leaves of N. nucifera.[14] The plant also contains nuciferine and aporphine.

See also[edit]

Vishnu holding the lotus, also sitting on it and wearing a lotus-bud crown.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shen-Miller, J.; Schopf, J. W.; Harbottle, G.; Cao, R.-j.; Ouyang, S.; Zhou, K.-s.; Southon, J. R.; Liu, G.-h. (2002). "Long-living lotus: Germination and soil -irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring". American Journal of Botany 89 (2): 236–47. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.236. PMID 21669732. 
  2. ^ Perry, F. Flowers of the World Bonanza Books, 1972. p. 192-193
  3. ^ Serventy, V; Raymond, R. Lakes & Rivers of Australia Summit Books, 1980. p. 102-103
  4. ^ CAROL KAESUK YOONPublished: October 01, 1996 (1996-10-01). "Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects And Scientists". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  5. ^ Shen-Miller et al; Mudgett, M. B.; William Schopf, J.; Clarke, S.; Berger, R. (1995). "Exceptional seed longevity and robust growth: Ancient sacred lotus from China". American Journal of Botany 82 (11): 1367–1380. doi:10.2307/2445863. JSTOR 2445863. 
  6. ^ Shen-Miller et al (2002). "Long-living lotus: germination and soil gamma-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation, growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring". American Journal of Botany. Retrieved 2010-02-03. "Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) has been cultivated as a crop in Asia for thousands of years. An ~1300-yr-old lotus fruit, recovered from an originally cultivated but now dry lakebed in northeastern China, is the oldest germinated and directly 14C-dated fruit known. In 1996, we traveled to the dry lake at Xipaozi Village, China, the source of the old viable fruits." 
  7. ^ Ray Ming, Robert VanBuren, Yanling Liu, Mei Yang, Yuepeng Han, et al. Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Genome Biology, 2013; 14 (5): R41 DOI: 10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r41
  8. ^ "Sacred Lotus Genome Sequence Enlightens Scientists". Science Daily. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Stuart Wolpert (10 May 2013). "Scientists sequence genome of 'sacred lotus,' which likely holds anti-aging secrets". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Dharmananda, Subhuti. "itmonline". itmonline. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  11. ^ "周敦颐:《爱莲说》". Book.qq.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  12. ^ Indian baby names (English)
  13. ^ Sanskrit-based names (English)
  14. ^ Kashiwada, Y.; Aoshima, A.; Ikeshiro, Y.; Chen, Y. P.; Furukawa, H.; Itoigawa, M.; Fujioka, T.; Mihashi, K.; Cosentino, L. M.; Morris-Natschke, S. L.; Lee, K. H. (2005). "Anti-HIV benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure–activity correlations with related alkaloids". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 13 (2): 443–448. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.10.020. PMID 15598565.  edit
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Nelumbo nucifera is an ornamental species sporadically naturalized from cultivation over the area mapped in the southeastern United States. Although Virginia, Kentucky, and Delaware are within the range, I know of no collections from Virginia or Delaware and of no wild-growing specimens of N . nucifera in Kentucky. The species was listed in a flora of New York (R. S. Mitchell 1986); I have not seen a voucher specimen for the report. 

 The seeds of Nelumbo nucifera have been shown to remain viable for several hundred years under certain conditions (D. A. Priestley and M. A. Posthumus 1982).

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This species is cultivated for its edible rhizomes and seeds.
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