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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herb with tuberous rootstock. Scapes are 10-25 cm and 1- flowered. Leaves are radical, long-petiolate and compound. The segments deeply dissected into coarsely toothed lobes. Involucre leaves are sessile and dissected. Flowers 5-8 cm diameter, mauve, rose, crimson, blue or cream. The anthers are purple. Achenes are subglobose, and densely woolly. Style is filiform and persistent.

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Distribution

Distribution in Egypt

Mareotic Sector, North Sinai and Isthmic Desert.

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Global Distribution

Mediterranean Region, Sinai.

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Ecology

Habitat

Barley Fields, Sand Plains.

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe aquilegiae var. ranunculi parasitises Anemone coronaria

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora anemones parasitises live Anemone coronaria
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora ficariae parasitises live Anemone coronaria

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Plasmopara pygmaea parasitises live leaf of Anemone coronaria
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, gregarious, immersed, dark brown pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria anemones causes spots on live, mature leaf of Anemone coronaria
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Tranzschelia discolor parasitises live leaf of Anemone coronaria

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Wikipedia

Anemone coronaria

Anemone coronaria (poppy anemone, Spanish marigold, "dağ lalesi" in Turkish, "Calanit" in Hebrew, "Shaqa'iq An-Nu'man" in Arabic) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Anemone, native to the Mediterranean region.

Description[edit]

Anemone coronaria is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 20–40 cm tall (rarely to 60 cm), with a basal rosette of a few leaves, the leaves with three leaflets, each leaflet deeply lobed. The flowers are borne singly on a tall stem with a whorl of small leaves just below the flower; the flower is 3–8 cm diameter, with 5-8 red, white or blue petal-like tepals.

Cultivation[edit]

Anemone coronaria is widely grown for its decorative flowers. Numerous cultivars have been selected and named, the most popular including the De Caen and St Brigid group of cultivars.[1] The De Caen group are hybrids cultivated in the districts of Caen and Bayeux in France in the 18th century.

Etymology[edit]

Anemone coronaria means crown anemone, evoking regal associations.

The Arabic name is "شقائق النعمان | Shaqa'iq An-Nu'man" translated literally as the wounds, or "pieces", of Nu'man.[2][3] One possible source of the name traces back to the Sumerian god of food and vegetation, Tammuz, whose Phoenician epithet was "Nea'man".[4] Tammuz is generally considered to have been drawn into the Greek pantheon as "Adonis". Adonis died of his wounds while hunting wild boar. The deity is transformed into a flower, stained by the blood of Adonis.[4] Tammuz's Phoenician epithet "Nea'man" is believed to be both the source of "An-Nu'man" in Arabic which came through Syriac, and of "Anemone" which came through Greek.[4] Another possible source of the name is An-Nu'man III Bin Al-Munthir, the last Lakhmid king of Al-Hirah (582-c.609 AD) and a Christian Arab. An-Nu'man is known to have protected the flowers during his reign.[2] According to myth, the flower thrived on An-Nu'man's grave, paralleling the death and rebirth of Adonis.

In Hebrew, the anemone is "כלנית מצויה" (Calanit metzouya). "Calanit" comes from the Hebrew word "Cala כלה" which means "bride", "metzouya" means "common." The calanit earned its name because of its beauty and majesty, evoking a bride on her wedding day.[5] In 2013 the Anemone coronaria was elected as the national flower of the State of Israel, in a poll arranged by the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (החברה להגנת הטבע) and Ynet.[6]

The Anemone coronaria grows wild all over Israel and Jordan. During the British Mandate for Palestine, British soldiers were nicknamed "Kalaniyot" for their red berets[citation needed].

Gallery[edit]

Red carpet of Anemone coronaria flowers in Shokeda Forest, Israel, 2012. The vast red carpets of Anemones have become a major tourist attraction of the northern Negev region of Israel, in recent years.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BBC Gardeners' World
  2. ^ a b Arabic-English lexicon, Volume 1, Part 4 By Edward William Lane, p. 1578, http://books.google.com/books?id=3p4OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1578
  3. ^ The poetics of anti-colonialism in the Arabic qaṣīdah Hussein N. Kadhim, p. 158, http://books.google.com/books?id=80JtT6_MEmwC&pg=PA158
  4. ^ a b c History Of Syria: Including Lebanon And Palestine By Philip Khuri Hitti, p. 117, http://books.google.com/books?id=91YymsCw5DIC&pg=PA117
  5. ^ Anemone coronaria in WildFlowers.co.il (Hebrew).
  6. ^ הכלנית: הזוכה בתחרות "הפרח של ישראל", ynet, November 25th, 2013.
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