Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Rue Anemone is one of many showy wildflowers that develop in deciduous woodlands during the spring. Both the flowers and foliage are quite attractive. Because the flowers move around easily in the wind, it is sometimes called 'Windflower.' Another scientific name of this species is Anemonella thalictroides. Rue Anemone resembles Enemion biternatum (False Rue Anemone), but its flowers have more petaloid sepals (typically 6-9), while the flowers of False Rue Anemone have only 5 petaloid sepals. Furthermore, its leaves and flowers are arranged in whorls to a greater extent than those of False Rue Anemone. Other Thalictrum spp. in Illinois are much larger plants with wind-pollinated flowers. While the leaflets of these species are similar to those of Rue Anemone, their flowers are quite distinct.
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Description

This native perennial wildflower is 4-8" tall. A non-flowering plant produces a whorl of trifoliate basal leaves on slender stems; each basal leaf typically has 3 leaflets on a long slender petiole. The basal stems are light green to reddish purple, unbranched, terete, and hairless; the stems of flowering plants are similar. Individual leaflets are up to 1½" long and 1" across; they are obovate or broadly oblong in shape. The outer margin of each leaflet has 3 blunt lobes, otherwise the margins are usually smooth. Sometimes there are 1-2 blunt teeth along the outer margin of a leaflet. The upper surface of each leaflet is medium green to purplish green and hairless, while the lower surface is pale green and hairless. A reticulate network of veins is conspicuous on the lower surface. At the base of each leaflet, there is a slender stalk (petiolule) about ¼" long. Toward the middle of its stem, a flowering plant sometimes produces a whorl of cauline leaves that resembles the whorled basal leaves. At its apex, this stem terminates in a whorl of trifoliate leaves or simple leaflets (sometimes including a combination of the two). These terminal leaves and leaflets resemble the leaves and leaflets of the basal and cauline leaves. Immediately above the terminal leaves or leaflets is a loose umbel of 1-5 flowers. The slender pedicels of the flowers are up to 1½" long. The diurnal flowers are ½–1" across; the central flower is usually a little larger in size than any lateral flowers. Each flower has 5-10 petal-like sepals, a dense cluster of small green pistils in the center, and a ring of conspicuous stamens. The petal-like sepals are white or pinkish white, while the stamens have white filaments and yellow anthers. There are no true petals. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring for about 3 weeks. Each flower is replaced by a cluster of 4-15 achenes. Each achene is about 1/3" in length, terminating in a slightly hooked beak. Inside each achene, there is a single seed. The root system consists of fibrous roots; the upper roots near the base of a plant are somewhat fleshy and swollen. This wildflower spreads by reseeding itself.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rue Anemone is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to dry deciduous woodlands, wooded slopes, and thinly wooded bluffs. This native wildflower is usually found in above-average to high quality woodlands where the original ground flora is largely intact.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Roots black, tuberous. Stems erect, scapose, 10-30 cm, glabrous. Leaves basal; petiole 10-30 cm. Leaf blade 2×-ternately compound; leaflets widely ovate or obovate to nearly rotund, apically 3-lobed, 8-30 mm wide, surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences umbels or flowers solitary, (1-)3-6-flowered; involucral bracts usually 3-foliolate, petiolate and opposite, or sessile with leaflets appearing to be whorls of 6 petiolate leaves, otherwise similar to basal leaves. Flowers: sepals not caducous, white to pinkish, showy, elliptic to obovate, 5-18 mm, longer than stamens; filaments narrowly clavate, 3-4 mm; anthers 0.4-0.7 mm. Achenes (4-)8-12(-15), short-stipitate; stipe 0.1-0.4 mm; body ovoid to fusiform, 3-4.5 mm, prominently 8-10-veined.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Anemone thalictroides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 542. 1753; Anemonella thalictroides (Linnaeus) Spach; Syndesmon thalictroides (Linnaeus) Hoffmannsegg; Thalictrum anemonoides Michaux
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Rue Anemone is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include mesic to dry deciduous woodlands, wooded slopes, and thinly wooded bluffs. This native wildflower is usually found in above-average to high quality woodlands where the original ground flora is largely intact.
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Deciduous woods, banks, and thickets; 0-300m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The flowers offer only pollen as a reward to insect visitors. Typical floral visitors include various bees, Syrphid flies, and bee flies; the bees usually collect pollen, while the flies feed on pollen. Some of these insects explore the showy flowers for nectar in vain. Honeybees, Little Carpenter bees (Ceratina spp.), Cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.), Mason bees (Osmia spp.), Halictid bees, and Andrenid bees have been observed as visitors to the flowers. Because the foliage is toxic and relatively inconspicuous, it is usually ignored by mammalian herbivores. Photographic Location
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Rue Anemone in Illinois

Anemonella thalictroides (Rue Anemone)
(Bees collect pollen, feed on pollen, or explore the flowers in vain for nectar; flies and beetles feed on pollen or explore the flowers in vain for nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Motten and MacRae as indicated below; Robertson assumed incorrectly that the flowers produce nectar, however Motten states that the flowers are nectarless)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera exp; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata cp/exp (Mtt), Ceratina dupla dupla exp/icp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada sp. exp (Mtt), Nomada ovatus exp; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia sp. cp/exp (Mtt), Osmia conjuncta exp/cp, Osmia pumila cp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata exp/fp, Halictus confusus exp/fp fq, Halictus rubicunda exp, Lasioglossum spp. cp/exp (Mtt), Lasioglossum coriaceus exp, Lasioglossum imitatus exp/fp, Lasioglossum macoupinensis cp/exp (Mtt), Lasioglossum pectoralis exp, Lasioglossum versatus exp/fp fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis exp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini exp, Andrena crataegi exp, Andrena cressonii sn, Andrena erigeniae exp (Mtt), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix exp

Flies
Syrphidae: Unidentified spp. fp/exp (Mtt), Brachypalpus oarus exp, Eristalis dimidiatus exp, Sphaerophoria contiqua fp; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major fp/exp fq (Rb, Mtt); Tachinidae: Gonia sp. fp/exp fq (Mtt)

Beetles
Brachypteridae: Boreades abdominalis exp/fp fq; Buprestidae: Acmaeodera tubulus exp/fp (McR)

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring (Mar-Jun).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Thalictrum thalictroides

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Thalictrum thalictroides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Rue Anemone is best planted under deciduous trees. It prefers dappled sunlight during the spring, but tolerates considerable shade later in the year. Moisture levels should be mesic to slightly dry, and the soil should contain loose loam and rotting organic material. Most growth and develop occurs during the spring; it is not aggressive.
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Wikipedia

Thalictrum thalictroides

Thalictrum thalictroides (Rue-anemone) is a spring ephemeral plant in the buttercup family, prized for its white to pink flowers, native to woodland in eastern North America.

Description[edit]

T. thalictroides is a hairless plant growing from tuberous roots, with upright 10-30 cm tall, stems which end with flowers. The basal leaves have 10 to 30 cm long petioles and leaf blades that are 2×-ternately compound. The leaflets are widely rounded in shape and the ends are three lobed.

It flowers in early spring and the flowers are borne singularly, or in umbel-like inflorescences with 3 to 6 flowers. The flowers have short stems that hold the fully opened flowers above the foliage. The involucral bracts are 3-foliolate, and shaped like the leaves. The showy rounded flowers have many yellow stamens in the middle, and a cup of white to pinkish-lavender sepals.

In late spring, 3 to 4.5 mm long, ovoid to fusiform shaped fruits called achenes are released. The green achenes have 8 to 10 prominent veins and become dark brown when ripe.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Originally described as Anemone thalictroides by Linnaeus in 1753. It was transferred to a new, monospecific genus, Anemonella, by Édouard Spach in 1839.[2] Although similar to plants in the genus Thalictrum, Sprach considered the diminutive size, umbelliform inflorescence, and tuberous roots of this species to be distinctive enough to designate a new genus. JRB Boivin considered this distinction suspect, and transferred the species to the genus Thalictrum in 1957.[3] Molecular evidence supports the placement of the species within Thalictrum,[4] and this placement is accepted by several modern treatments.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flora of North America
  2. ^ Spach, E. 1839. Histoire naturelle des vegetaux Phanerogames, 7:186-409
  3. ^ Eames A. J. & B. Boivin. 1957. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique. 89: 319.
  4. ^ Ro K. and B. A. McPhearson. 1997. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 25:445
  5. ^ Park, M. M. and D. Festerling. 1997. Thalictrum. In: Flora of North America. Vol. 3
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Notes

Comments

In Thalictrum , T . thalictroides is unique in having umbelliform inflorescences and is therefore easy to identify. Based on this one distinction, many botanists still place it in the genus Anemonella . The leaflets, flowers, and fruits, however, are not unlike those of Thalictrum

 The Cherokee used infusions prepared from the roots of Thalictrum thalictroides to treat diarrhea and vomiting (D. E. Moerman 1986).

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