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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Among the several hickories (Carya spp.) in Illinois, Shagbark Hickory is one of two species that has older trees with very shaggy bark. The other species, Kingnut Hickory (Carya laciniosa), usually has 7 leaflets per compound leaf, while Shagbark Hickory usually has 5 leaflets. A third species, Carya ovalis (Sweet Pignut Hickory), occasionally has somewhat shaggy bark, but it has smaller fruits (less than 1½") than the preceding two species. The commercially important wood of Shagbark Hickory is highly regarded for its strength and hardness
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Description

This tree is typically 60-80' tall at maturity, forming a straight trunk 2-3½' across and an ovoid crown. Larger branches in the upper part of the crown are ascending, while those in the middle part are widely spreading, and those in the lower part are descending. Smaller branches and twigs are crooked. Trunk bark is light to medium gray, rough-textured, fissured, and shaggy from narrow plates that peel away from the trunk at their tips and/or bottoms. Branch bark is light gray and more smooth, while the glabrous stout twigs are light gray, light brown, or reddish brown with scattered white lenticels. Young shoots that develop from the twigs are light green and usually pubescent. The compound leaves are odd-pinnate with 5 leaflets (less often with 3 or 7 leaflets) and about 8-14" long (see photo of Compound Leaf). The rachis (central stalk) of each compound leaf is light green and either glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent. At maturity, individual leaflets are 3-8" long and about one-half as much across; the terminal leaflet is the largest, while the lowest lateral leaflets (first pair of a compound leaf) are the smallest. The leaflets are obovate or broadly elliptic in shape and their margins are serrated; tiny tufts of hair occur along the teeth of the margins, although these tend to fade away with age. For mature leaves, the upper leaflet surface is medium to dark green, shiny, and hairless, while the lower leaflet surface is pale green, dull, and hairless (or nearly so). Sometimes the lower leaflet surface of mature leaves has short fine hairs along the veins. At the base of each leaflet, there is a short petiolule (basal stalklet) that is light green and either glabrous or short-pubescent. The petiolules of the lateral leaflets are about 1/8" long, while the petiolule of each terminal leaflet is about ½" long. The petioles of the compound leaves are 3-6" long, light green, and either glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent. Shagbark Hickory is monoecious, producing separate male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on the same tree. The male flowers are produced in drooping yellowish green catkins near the tips of twigs; these catkins are arranged in groups of 3 (catkins in each group sharing the same basal stalk) and they are 3-6" long. Individual male flowers are less than 1/8" across, consisting of several stamens and an insignificant calyx; each male flower is partially hidden by a 3-lobed bract. The female flowers are produced in short greenish spikes (about 1/3" long) at the tips of young shoots; there is typically 2-3 female flowers per spike. Individual female flowers are about 1/8" long and ovoid in shape, consisting of a calyx and a pistil with spreading stigmata at its apex. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring as the leaves develop. The flowers are cross-pollinated by the wind. Fertile female flowers are replaced by nearly sessile clusters of 1-3 fruits that develop during the summer and mature during autumn of the same year. Individual fruits are 1½-2" long and 1½-2" across (or a little less); they are globoid to ovoid-globoid in shape. The thick hairless husks of the fruits are light green while immature, becoming brownish black at maturity. Each husk is divided into 4 segments that are indented at their margins, providing the fruit with a ribbed appearance. The nut of each fruit is light tan, ovoid-globoid in shape, slightly 4-angled, and somewhat compressed; the meat of each nut is edible and sweet. The root system has a deep taproot with spreading lateral roots.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Shagbark Hickory is occasional to common in Illinois, occurring in every county of the state (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland woodlands, drier areas of floodplain woodlands, lower wooded slopes, bluffs, and edges of limestone glades. This tree is often found in upland habitats that are dominated by oaks, but it also occurs in more mesic habitats where maples and other trees occur. These habitats usually consist of old-growth woodlands that are little disturbed, although some old trees have persisted in more disturbed areas. Shagbark Hickory is more resistant to fire than maples, but less resistant to fire than oaks. Sometimes young seedlings pioneer in burned-over areas.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Shagbark hickory occurs throughout most of the eastern North America but
is largely absent from the southeastern and Gulf coastal plains and the
lower Mississippi Delta. It is found from southeastern Nebraska and
southeastern Minnesota eastward through southern Ontario and Quebec to
Maine and extends southward to Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
and eastern Texas [23]. Disjunct populations have been reported in the
mountains of northeastern Mexico [23,36].

The variety ovata encompasses most of the species' range and grows
westward to southeastern Missouri and eastward to Louisiana. The
variety australis occurs in southeastern North America [36].
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 36. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952]

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Occurrence in North America

AL AR CT DE GA IL IN IA KS KY
LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO NE NH
NJ NY NC OR OK PA RI SC TN TX
VT VA WV WI ON PQ MEXICO

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: monoecious, tree

Shagbark hickory is a medium to large deciduous tree which commonly
grows to 60 or 80 feet (20-25 m) in height and up 20 inches (51 cm) in
diameter [21,29]. On favorable sites, trees may grow to 131 feet (40 m)
or more in height and reach up to 9 feet 8 inches (295 cm) in diameter
[57]. Open-grown plants are characterized by an oblong crown, whereas
those growing in forested areas tend to have a straight, slender
columnar crown [29]. The shaggy gray bark exfoliates in long platelike
strips [2,24,57]. Shagbark hickory has a deep taproot [29].

Shagbark hickory is monoecious [54]. Staminate flowers are borne on
long-stalked catkins at the tip of old wood or in the axils of the
previous season's leaves [23,24,54]. Pistillate flowers occur in short
terminal spikes [23,54]. The fruit is a smooth, globose or subglobose
nut [46]. Nuts are borne singly or in clusters of two or three [24].
  • 24. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 21. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 29. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 2. Aikman, John M. 1926. Distribution and structure of the forests of eastern Nebraska. University Studies. 26(1-2): 1-75. [6575]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 46. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 54. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 57. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]

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Description

Trees , to 46 m. Bark light gray, fissured or exfoliating, separating freely into long strips or broad plates that persist, ends often curling away from trunk. Twigs greenish, reddish, or orangish brown, retaining color or turning black on drying, stout or slender, hirsute or glabrous. Terminal buds tan to dark brown to black, ovoid, 6-18 mm, tomentose or nearly glabrous; bud scales imbricate; axillary buds protected by bracteoles fused into hood. Leaves 3-6 dm; petiole 4-13 cm, petiole and rachis hirsute or mainly glabrous. Leaflets (3-)5(-7), lateral petiolules 0-1 mm, terminal petiolules 3-17 mm; blades ovate, obovate, or elliptic, not falcate, 4-26 × 1-14 cm, margins finely to coarsely serrate, with tufts of hairs in axils of proximal veins of serrations, often weathering to only a few in fall, apex acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially hirsute with unicellular and 2-4-rayed fasciculate hairs, occasionally restricted to midrib and major veins or essentially without hairs, with few to many large peltate scales and small round, irregular, and 4-lobed peltate scales. Staminate catkins pedunculate, to 13 cm, stalks and bracts without hairs; anthers hirsute. Fruits brown to reddish brown, spheric to depressed-spheric, not compressed, 2.5-4 × 2.5-4 cm; husks rough, 4-15 mm thick, dehiscing to base, sutures smooth; nuts tan, ovoid, obovoid, or ellipsoid, compressed, 4-angled, rugulose; shells thick. Seeds sweet.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Juglans ovata Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Juglans no. 6. 1768; Hicoria ovata (Miller) Britton
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Shagbark Hickory is occasional to common in Illinois, occurring in every county of the state (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland woodlands, drier areas of floodplain woodlands, lower wooded slopes, bluffs, and edges of limestone glades. This tree is often found in upland habitats that are dominated by oaks, but it also occurs in more mesic habitats where maples and other trees occur. These habitats usually consist of old-growth woodlands that are little disturbed, although some old trees have persisted in more disturbed areas. Shagbark Hickory is more resistant to fire than maples, but less resistant to fire than oaks. Sometimes young seedlings pioneer in burned-over areas.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Habitat characteristics

More info for the term: swamp

Shagbark hickory is most commonly associated with upland slopes in the
North, and with river bottoms and coves in the South [23]. It also
grows on the lower slopes of wooded bluffs, in ravines, valleys, and at
the edges of swamps [21,29]. Shagbark hickory generally occurs as
scattered individuals or in small groups but rarely forms pure stands
[2,51].

Plant associates: Shagbark hickory occurs as a principal dominant in
drier parts of the upper Midwest with oaks (Quercus spp.) and other
hickories. [59]. It also grows as aminor component in bur oak (Q.
macrocarpa), chestnut osk (Q. prinus), white oak (Q. alba)-black
oak-northern red oak, pine (Pinus spp.)-oak-sweetgum (Liquidambar
styraciflua),loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)-hardwood, and swamp chestnut
oak (Quercus prinoides)-cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia)
[23]. Many oaks, including white oak, northern red oak, black oak,
northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis), southern red oak (Q. falcata),
chinkapin oak (Q. muehlenbergii), bur oak, and other hickories are
generally prominent overstory associates [1,23,59]. Red maple (Acer
rubrum), sugar maple (A. saccharum), hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana),
shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), American basswood (Tilia americana),
redbud (Cercis canadensis), and sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica) also commonly
occur with shagbark hickory [2,48].

Understory associates are numerous and varied throughout the species'
range. Raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp.), blueberries and
huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.),
serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), gooseberries (Ribes spp.), hawthorn
(Crataegus spp.), hazel (Corylus cornuta), muscadine grape (Vitis
rotundifolia), common greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia), western
snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), common witch-hazel (Hamamelis
virginiana), wild ginger (Asarum caudatum), nettle (Urtica spp.), and
Canada beadruby (Maianthemum canadense) are important understory
components in many areas [2,3,9].

Climate: Shagbark hickory grows across a wide range of climatic
conditions but grows best in a humid climate. It can survive
temperature extremes of -40 degrees F (-40 deg C) and 115 degrees F (46
deg C). Growing season length varies from 140 days in the North to 260
days in the South [23].

Soils: Shagbark hickory reaches greatest abundance on deep, rich, moist
soils [29,42]. It occurs on soils derived from a variety of sedimentary
and metamorphic parent materials and grows across a wide range of soil
fertility conditions [23]. It appears to be tolerant of soils with high
concentrations of lead and zinc [6]. In Arkansas, it is common on
clayey soils derived from Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shales [23].

Elevation: Shagbark hickory generally occurs at high elevations in much
of the North [42]. It typically occurs below 3,000 feet (910 m) in the
foothills of West Virginia [15]. In the Blue Ridge Mountains of North
and South Carolina, it occurs up to 3,000 feet (910 m) and in northern
Arkansas at elevtions below 2,000 feet (610 m) [23].
  • 21. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 9. Braun, E. Lucy. 1942. Forests of the Cumberland Mountains. Ecological Monographs. 12(4): 413-447. [9258]
  • 29. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 2. Aikman, John M. 1926. Distribution and structure of the forests of eastern Nebraska. University Studies. 26(1-2): 1-75. [6575]
  • 3. Auclair, Allan N.; Cottam, Grant. 1971. Dynamics of black cherry (Prunus serotina Erhr.) in southern Wisconsin oak forests. Ecological Monographs. 41(2): 153-177. [8102]
  • 6. Blewett, Thomas J. 1988. Natural forest recovery of lead pit mines. Restoration & Management Notes. 6(2): 92-93. [6140]
  • 15. Core, Earl L. 1929. Plant ecology of Spruce Mountain, West Virginia. Ecology. 10(1): 1-13. [9218]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 42. Merz, Robert W., compiler. 1978. Forest atlas of the Midwest. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Forest System Cooperative Forestry, Forestry Research. 48 p. [St. Paul, MN: North Central Forest Experiment Station; Upper Darby, PA: Northeastern Forest Experiment Station; St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, College of Forestry]
  • 48. Risser, Paul G.; Rice, Elroy L. 1971. Phytosociological analysis of Oklahoma upland forest species. Ecology. 52(5): 940-945. [7868]
  • 51. Simpson, Benny J. 1988. A field guide to Texas trees. Austin, TX: Texas Monthly Press. 372 p. [11708]
  • 59. Wanek, Wallace James. 1967. The gallery forest vegetation of the Red River of the North. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 190 p. Dissertation. [5733]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: association, codominant

In certain floodplain communities, shagbark hickory grows as a
codominant with black oak (Quercus velutinus), green ash (Fraxinus
pennsylvanica), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Shagbark hickory
is included as a codominant or indicator in the following community type
(cts) and plant association (pas) classifications:

Area Classification Authority

IL general veg., cts Thomson and Anderson 1976
NE general veg., cts Aikman 1926
NE, KS general veg., cts Weaver 1960
NE, KS general veg., cts Weaver and Albertson 1945
OH general veg., cts Hamilton and Limbird 1982
sw OH general veg., pas Braun 1936

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the terms: hardwood, swamp

21 Eastern white pine
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
45 Pitch pine
51 White pine - chestnut oak
52 White oak - black oak - norther red oak
53 White oak
57 Yellow poplar
59 Yellow poplar - white oak - northern red oak
60 Beech - sugar maple
64 Sassafras - persimmon
65 Pin oak - sweet gum
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
78 Virginia pine - oak
80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
81 Loblolly pine
82 Loblolly pine - hardwood
87 Sweet gum - yellow poplar
91 Swamp chestnut oak - cherrybark oak

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES16 Oak - gum - cypress
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K081 Oak savanna
K089 Black Belt
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K102 Beech - maple forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K111 Oak - hickory pine forest

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Associations

Faunal Associations

A large number of insects feed on the wood, foliage, plant juices, and other parts of hickories (Carya spp.). Caterpillars of the butterflies Satyrium caryaevorum (Hickory Hairstreak) and Satyrium calanus falacer (Banded Hairstreak) feed on these trees, as do caterpillars of many moths (see Moth Table). Among these moth species, Catocala angusi (Angus Underwing), Catocala judith (Judith Underwing), and Catocala residua (Residua Underwing) feed on Shagbark Hickory exclusively (Wagner et al., 2009).  Larvae of several beetles bore through the wood or bark of these trees (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table). Examples of these species include Lepturges discoidea (Hickory Saperda), Megacyllene caryae (Hickory Borer), and Scolytus quadrispinosus (Hickory Bark Borer). Larvae of the weevil Conotrachelus aratus (Hickory Shoot Curculio) feed on the shoots of hickories, while larvae of the weevil Conotrachelus hicoriae (Hickory Nut Curculio) feed on the meat of nuts. A large number of treehopper species have been observed to feed on Shagbark Hickory (Dennis, 1952); see the Treehopper Table for a list of these species. Other insect feeders include the leaf beetles Cryptocephalus guttulatus and Xanthonia striata, the leafhoppers Eratoneura era and other Eratoneura spp., the aphids Monellia caryella and Monelliopsis nigropunctata, the plant bugs Lygocoris caryae and Plagiognathus albatus, and the lace bug Physatocheila plexus. For a more complete list of insect species that feed on hickories, see the Insect Table. Vertebrate animals also use Shagbark Hickory and other hickories as sources of food. The sweet edible nuts of Shagbark Hickory are an important source of food for the Fox Squirrel, Gray Squirrel, Red Squirrel, Southern Flying Squirrel, and Eastern Chipmunk; these nuts are also consumed by the Black Bear, Raccoon, and White-Footed Mouse. Among birds, such species as the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Wild Turkey, Crow, Blue Jay, and Red-Bellied Woodpecker eat the nuts. These animals help to distribute the nuts to new locations. White-Tailed Deer browse on the foliage and twigs of hickories sparingly, while the Cottontail Rabbit gnaws on the bark of young trees during the winter. Because hickory trees attract so many insects, they attract many species of flycatchers, vireos, chickadees, gnatcatchers, warblers, tanagers, and other insectivorous birds that prefer wooded habitats. Because of the crevices provided by its peeling bark, Shagbark Hickory in particular provides protective cover for many insects, particularly during the winter. These bark crevices also provide summer roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana Bat and nesting habitat for a small bird, the Brown Creeper.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associated Forest Cover

Hickories are consistently present in the broad forest association  commonly called oak-hickory but are not generally abundant (20).  Shagbark hickory is specifically listed as a minor component in  six forest cover types (7): Bur Oak (Society of American  Foresters Type 42), Chestnut Oak (Type 44), White Oak-Black  Oak-Northern Red Oak (Type 52), Pin Oak-Sweetgum (Type 65),  Loblolly Pine-Hardwood (Type 82), and Swamp Chestnut  Oak-Cherrybark Oak (Type 91). It is also a probable associate in  the Eastern White Pine (Type 21), Beech-Sugar Maple (Type 60),  White Oak (Type 53), and Northern Red Oak (Type 55) forest cover  types. Through most of its range, shagbark hickory is associated  with oaks, other hickories, and various mixed upland hardwoods.  In the South it is also associated with a number of bottom-land  hardwood species.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Diseases and Parasites

Damaging Agents

Shagbark hickory at all ages is  susceptible to damage by fire. Light fires can result in top kill  of reproduction and saplings (most of which later sprout). Hotter  fires may kill larger trees and wound others, making them subject  to butt rot and resultant degrade of lumber, loss of sound  volume, or both (15,16). Holes made through the bark by  sapsuckers (birdpeck) cause a discoloration of the wood that  results in the rejection of a considerable amount of hickory  lumber (18).

    Hickories are affected by at least 133 known fungi and 10 other  diseases (9). Most of the fungi are saprophytes but a few may  cause damage to foliage, produce cankers, or cause trunk or root  rots.

    Canker rot caused by the fungus Poria spiculosa probably  is the most widespread and serious of the diseases of the true  hickories. Cankers form around dead branch stubs and the  wood-rotting fungus can eventually spread throughout the  heartwood. Though R spiculosa is the most common trunk  rot species, a large number of fungi will rot the living cylinder  of hickories that have been injured by fire, logging damage, etc.  (9).

    Other common diseases of hickory are: anthracnose, (Gnomonia  caryae) which causes irregular purplish- or reddish-brown  spots on the upper leaf surface and dull brown spots beneath.  These may merge to form irregular blotches and cause defoliation  in wet seasons; mildew (Microstroma juglandis) invades  leaves and twigs and may form witches' broom by stimulating bud  formation; bunch disease (virus) also will cause witches'-brooms  similar in appearance to those of M. Juglandis. The  virus possibly is carried by sucking insects. Heavily affected  trees may die prematurely. Crown gall (Agrobacterium  tumefaciens) is a bacterial disease which causes tumors or  wartlike aberrations on roots or at the base of the trunk,  resulting eventually in a gradual decline and death of the tree.  A gall-forming fungus species of Phomopsis can produce  warty excrescences ranging from small twig galls to very large  trunk burls.

    At least 180 species of insects and mites are reported to infest  hickory trees and wood products but few cause serious damage. The  hickory bark beetle (Scolytus quadrispinosus) is the most  important insect enemy of hickory and other hardwoods in the  Eastern United States (1). During drought periods, outbreaks  often develop in the Southeast, and large tracts of timber are  killed. At other times, damage may be confined to single trees or  tops of trees. The foliage of infested trees turns red within a  few weeks after attack, and the trees soon die. Control measures  include felling of infested trees and destroying the bark during  the winter months or storing infested logs in ponds. To be  effective, this type of control should be conducted over large  areas.

    The twig girdler (Oncideres cingulata) and twig pruner  (Elaphidionoides villosus) often will severely prune  heavily infested shade and park trees and can cause distortion in  seedling and saplings in newly generated stands.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

Scattered surviving hickories often develop large crowns and exhibit
good nut production after fire. These trees may be particularly
valuable for many wildlife species.

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Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: hardwood

Postfire origin of hickory ingrowth following a late summer fire in a
Connecticut mixed hardwood stand was 105 sprouts and 162 seedlings per
hectare in burned areas, compared to four sprouts and nine seedlings per
hectare in unburned areas. Hickories of sprout origin represented 31
percent of stems of all species on unburned plots and 39 percent on
burned sites [60].
  • 60. Ward, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, George R. 1989. Long-term effects of a 1932 surface fire on stand structure in a Connecticut mixed hardwood forest. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 267-273. [9389]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: density, root collar, root crown

Mature hickories often sprout from the root crown when top-killed by
fire [38]; top-killed seedlings sometimes sprout from dormant buds
located on the root collar or lower portions of the stem [49]. Some
seedling establishment may also occur.

Postfire increases in stem density have been reported, but recovery is
often relatively slow. Fifty-five years after a late summer fire in
Connecticut, hickories exhibited greater "relative and absolute levels"
than on adjacent unburned sites [60].

The Research Paper by Bowles and others 2007 provides information on
postfire responses of several plant species, including shagbark
hickory, that was not available when this species review was written.
  • 38. Loomis, Robert M. 1977. Wildfire effects on an oak-hickory forest in southeast Missouri. Res. Note NC-219. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. [8738]
  • 49. Sander, Ivan L.; Clark, F. Bryan. 1971. Reproduction of upland hardwood forests in the Central States. Agric. Handb. 405. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [273]
  • 60. Ward, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, George R. 1989. Long-term effects of a 1932 surface fire on stand structure in a Connecticut mixed hardwood forest. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 267-273. [9389]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: fire intensity

All sizes of shagbark hickory are susceptible to damage by fire [20].
However, trees less than 10 inches [25 cm] in d.b.h. tend to be more
susecptible to damage or mortality than trees larger than 10 inches
d.b.h. [53,60]

The effect of fire on hickories varies with topography, slope, aspect,
season of burn, and fire intensity [37]. Light fires commonly top-kill
sprouts and seedlings but leave underground portions undamaged [23].
Hot fires often kill or damage even large trees [23]. Trees are
generally less severely damaged if burned while dormant [37].

The tight, solid bark of hickories is more susceptible to fire-scarring
than is the rough or corky bark of other species [31]. Fire-scarred
hickories are susceptible to rot [23,42], which can ultimately kill the
tree.
  • 20. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 31. Kaufert, F. H. 1933. Fire and decay injury in the Southern bottomland hardwoods. Journal of Forestry. 31: 64-67. [2694]
  • 37. Loomis, Robert M. 1973. Estimating fire-caused mortality and injury in oak-hickory forests. Res. Pap. NC-94. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 6 p. [8740]
  • 42. Merz, Robert W., compiler. 1978. Forest atlas of the Midwest. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Forest System Cooperative Forestry, Forestry Research. 48 p. [St. Paul, MN: North Central Forest Experiment Station; Upper Darby, PA: Northeastern Forest Experiment Station; St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, College of Forestry]
  • 53. Spalt, Karl W.; Reifsnyder, William E. 1962. Bark characteristics and fire resistance: a literature survey. Occas. Paper 193. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 19 p. In cooperation with: Yale University, School of Forestry. [266]
  • 60. Ward, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, George R. 1989. Long-term effects of a 1932 surface fire on stand structure in a Connecticut mixed hardwood forest. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 267-273. [9389]

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: caudex, root crown

survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex
off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: density, fire suppression, root crown, tree

Periodic fires tend to favor oak over over the less fire-resistant
hickory. The slow-growing, thin-barked shagbark hickory is reduced by
short fire intervals [33]. Frequent burning at prairie margins reduces
or eliminates shagbark hickory seedlings [33].

Fire suppression in parts of the Northeast has reduced fire frequency
and converted oak-hickory forests to more mesophytic stands [60].
However, in an oak-hickory forest in Indiana, fire suppression since
1917 has contributed to the recruitment of shagbark hickory, sugar
maple, white ash (Fraxinus americana), and American elm (Ulmus
americana) [45]. Increases in tree density in oak-hickory forests in
Michigan have also been attributed to fire suppression [10]. In the
Great Smoky Mountains, fire suppression since 1940 has allowed hickories
to reach fire-resistant size [28].

Shagbark hickory usually sprouts from the root crown or stembase after
abovegrund foliage is killed by fire. Seedling establishement may also
occur.
  • 10. Brewer, Richard; Kitler, Steven. 1989. Tree distribution in southwestern Michigan bur oak openings. Michigan Botanist. 28(2): 73-79. [13005]
  • 28. Harmon, Mark E. 1984. Survival of trees after low-intensity surface fires in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ecology. 65(3): 796-802. [10997]
  • 33. Knoop, Jeffrey D. 1986. Floristic and vegetational survey of the W. Pearl King Praire Grove, a prairie remnant in Madison County, Ohio. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 44-49. [3513]
  • 45. Parker, G. R.; Leopold, D. J.; Eichenberger, J. K. 1985. Tree dynamics in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 11(1&2): 31-57. [13314]
  • 60. Ward, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, George R. 1989. Long-term effects of a 1932 surface fire on stand structure in a Connecticut mixed hardwood forest. In: Rink, George; Budelsky, Carl A., eds. Proceedings, 7th central hardwood conference; 1989 March 5-8; Carbondale, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 267-273. [9389]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: climax

Shagbark hickory is slow growing and intermediate in shade tolerance.
Saplings can persist for many years beneath a forest canopy and respond
rapidly when released. It grows as a climax species in most oak-hickory
forests [23]. It is a prominenent late seral or climax species in
old-growth oak stands in Indiana where it replaces early to mid seral
species such as honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), black walnut
(Juglans nigra), and oak [45]. It replaces bur oak, black cherry
(Prunus serotina), and white oak in bur oak-chinkapin oak-black oak
forests of Wisconsin and northeastern Kansas [1,16]. It may ultimately
be replaced by more shade-toleant species such as sugar maple, American
basswood, and hophornbeam [1,16].

At the western edge of its range, shagbark hickory has invaded the
prairie [32], but heavy-seeded species such as shagbark hickory are
generally slow to invade new areas [22]. Shagbark hickory has invaded
oldfield communities, but seedlings are rarely observed more than 100
feet (30 m) from the forest margin [11]. In parts of east-central
Indiana and elsewhere, it often establishes in gaps created by dead elms
(Ulmus spp.) [44].
  • 1. Abrams, Marc D. 1986. Historical development of gallery forests in northeast Kansas. Vegetatio. 65: 29-37. [3255]
  • 11. Bullington, Robert A. 1970. Competition between forest and prairie vegetation in twenty years of secondary succession on abandoned land in Ogle County, Illinois. In: Schramm, Peter, ed. Proceedings of a symposium on prairie and prairie restoration; 1968 September 14-15; Galesburg, IL. Special Publication No. 3. Galesburg, IL: Knox College, Biological Field Station: 20-23. [2774]
  • 16. Curtis, J. T.; McIntosh, R. P. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology. 32: 476-496. [6927]
  • 22. Golden, Michael S. 1979. Forest vegetation of the lower Alabama Piedmont. Ecology. 60(4): 770-782. [9643]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 32. Kilburn, Paul D. 1970. Hill prairie restoration. In: Schramm, Peter, ed. Proceedings of a symposium on prairie and prairie restoration; 1968 September 14-15; Galesburg, IL. Special Publication No. 3. Galesburg, IL: Knox College, Biological Field Station: 50-51. [2785]
  • 44. Parker, George R.; Leopold, Donald J. 1983. Replacement of Ulmus americana L. in a mature east-central Indiana woods. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 110(4): 482-488. [5641]
  • 45. Parker, G. R.; Leopold, D. J.; Eichenberger, J. K. 1985. Tree dynamics in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management. 11(1&2): 31-57. [13314]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: fresh, tree

Shagbark hickory regenrates through seed and by vegettaive means.

Seed: Shagbark hickory begins producing seed at approximately 40 years
of age. Optimum seed production occurs between 60 and 200 years of age;
maximum age of seed production is approximately 300 years [57]. Good
crops occur at 1- to 3-year intervals, with little or no seed production
in intervening years [23]. During favorable years, some trees can
produce 1.5 to 2 bushels (53-70 L) of nuts [7]. Tree (stem) diameter
and crown size apparently serve as the best indicators of seed
production [23]. Seed is dispersed by gravity and by birds and mammals
[23,61]. Squirrels and chipmunks are typically much more important as
dispersal agents than birds are. The now-extinct passenger pigeon
dispersed seeds of many species of hickory [61]. During poor seed
years, seed predation by birds, mammals, and insects can eliminate most
of the seed crop [23].

Hickory seeds exhibit embryo dormancy that can be broken by
stratification at 37 degrees F (3 deg C) for 90 to 120 days [23].
Germination of fresh seed ranges from 50 to 75 percent.

Vegetative regeneration: Shagbark hickory typically sprouts
prolifically after plants are cut or damaged by fire [23]. Trees with
diameters up to 8 to 10 inches (20-24 cm) typically sprout from the
stump. As diameter increases stump-sprouting declines, but
"root-suckering" increases. Young sprouts generally compete well in
newly regenerated stands, but after 10 to 20 years, the rate of sprout
growth declines and shagbark hickory may be outcompeted by faster
growing associates [23].
  • 7. Bonner, F. T.; Maisenhelder, L. C. 1974. Carya Nutt. hickory. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 269-272. [7571]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 57. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 61. Webb, Sara L. 1986. Potential role of passenger pigeons and other vertebrates in the rapid holocene migrations of nut trees. Quaternary Research. 26: 367-375. [11982]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

In an oak-hickory stand in southeastern Missouri, most hickories were
top-killed by a wildlfire [38]. Fire-caused mortality of shagbark
hickory can be predicted using a mathematical model [39].
  • 38. Loomis, Robert M. 1977. Wildfire effects on an oak-hickory forest in southeast Missouri. Res. Note NC-219. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. [8738]
  • 39. Loomis, Robert M. 1982. Seasonal variations in ash content of some Michigan forest floor fuels. Res. Note NC-279. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 3 p. [13243]

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Reaction to Competition

Shagbark hickory is classed as  intermediate in shade tolerance. Saplings and small reproduction  persist under dense overstory canopies for many years and respond  rapidly when released (16). It is a climax species in much of the  oak-hickory forest area. The relatively slow growth habit of  shagbark (and other hickories) places it at a distinct  disadvantage under the even-aged management systems presently  recommended for upland hardwood stands (if rotations are less  than 100 years) (19,20,21). On most sites, height growth of  hickory is slower than that of oaks and associated species and by  midrotation the hickories are in the subdominant crown positions  and become prime candidates for removal in periodic thinnings.  Since hickories are long-lived trees and have the ability to  withstand shade and crowding and respond when released, they are  excellent species (along with white oak) for management on long  rotations (200 or more years).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Rooting Habit

Shagbark seedlings typically  develop a large and deep taproot with few laterals. The taproot  may penetrate to a depth of 0.6 to 0.9 m (2 to 3 ft) in the first  3 years with a correspondingly slow growth of seedling shoots.  Shagbark is rated as windfirm on most sites.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: vines

Shagbark hickory flowers in late March at the southwestern edge of its
range and as late as early June in the North and Northeast [23].
Flowers open when the leaves are nearly full grown [23]. Fruit ripens
in September and October and splits into four pieces [34]. Seed is
dispersed from September thrugh December. Generalized flowering and
fruiting dates by geographic location are:

Location Flowering Fruiting Authority

New England May 29-June 28 ---- Seymour 1985
n-c Plains April-May Sept.-Oct. Stephens 1973
Great Plains April-May ---- Great Plains
Flora Assoc. 1986
se U.S. May ---- Duncan & Duncan 1988
sw U.S. March-June Sept.-Cot. Vines 1960
NC, SC May October Radford & others 1968
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 34. Krochmal, Arnold; Krochmal, Connie. 1982. Uncultivated nuts of the United States. Agriculture Information Bulletin 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 89 p. [1377]

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Reproduction

Vegetative Reproduction

Shagbark hickory is a prolific  sprouter. Nearly all of the cut or fire-killed hickories with  stump diameters up to 20 to 24 cm (8 to 10 in) will produce  sprouts. As stump diameters increase in size, stump sprouting  declines, and proportion of root suckers increases (16). Young  hickory sprouts are vigorous and can maintain a competitive  position in the canopy of a newly regenerated stand. After 10 to  20 years the rate of sprout height growth declines and hickory  will normally lose crown position to the faster growing oaks and  associated species.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Seedling Development

Shagbark seeds show embryo  dormancy that is overcome naturally by over wintering in the  duff, or artificially by stratification in a moist medium or  plastic bag at about 3° C (37° F) for 90 to 120 days  (3). Shagbark nuts should be stored in airtight containers at 5°  C (41° F) and 90 percent relative humidity. Nuts stored  longer than 2 years have lower germination percents and require  only 60 days stratification (3). In forest tree nurseries,  unstratified nuts are sown in the fall and stratified nuts are  sown in the spring. Mulching is recommended and protection from  rodents is often required (4). Germination is hypogeal.

    Shagbark seedlings normally produce a long taproot and very little  top growth during early development. In the Ohio Valley,  1-year-old seedlings grown in the open or under light shade in  red clay soil produced an average root length of 0.3 (1 t) and a  top height of 7 cm (2.8 in). By age 3 the taproot extended to  about 0.8 m (2.6 ft) while the top increased only to 19.8 cm (7.8  in) (16).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Seed Production and Dissemination

Shagbark hickory  reaches commercial seedbearing age at 40 years. Although maximum  seed production occurs from 60 to 200 years, some seed is  produced up to 300 years (16). Good seed crops occur at intervals  of 1 to 3 years with light crops or no seed during the  intervening years. Tree diameter and crown size or surface are  probably the best indicators of shagbark seed production. In  southeastern Ohio, 6-year seed production of dominant and  codominant shagbark hickory trees with mean d.b.h. of 20.7 cm  (8.1 in) (age 60 years), 26.1 cm (10.3 in) (age 90 years) and  45.1 cm (17.8 in) (age 75 years) averaged 16, 36, and 225 sound  seed per tree per year, respectively (17). Some individual  shagbark trees have been known to produce 53 to 70 liters (1.5 to  2 bushels) of nuts during a good year (4). The germination of  fresh seed is 50 to 75 percent.

    Several species of insects influence seed production by causing  aborting or premature dropping of fruits or by reducing the  germinative capacity of mature nuts. Especially serious are the  hickory shuckworm (Laspeyresia caryana), pecan weevil  (Curculio caryae), and the hickorynut curculios (Conotrachelus  affinis and C. hicoriae).
In good seed years about  half of the total seed crop is sound, but in years of low seed  production, insect depredation could be proportionally higher,  and a very low percentage of sound seed is produced (17).

    Shagbark nuts are heavy, averaging about 220/kg (100/lb) and are  disseminated primarily by gravity with some extension of seeding  range caused by squirrels and chipmunks.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Flowering and Fruiting

Shagbark hickory is monoecious and  flowers in the spring. The staminate catkins are 10 to 15 cm (4  to 6 in) long and develop from axils of previous season leaves or  from inner scales of the terminal buds at the base of the current  growth. The pistillate flowers appear in short spikes about 8 mm  (0.3 in) long on peduncles terminating in shoots of the current  year. Flowers open when leaves are nearly full size in late March  in the southwest to early June in the north and northeastern part  of the range.

    The fruit, a nut, is variable in size and shape. Borne 1 to 3  together, individual fruits are 3 to 6 cm (I to 2.5 in) long,  oval to subglobose or obovoid, depressed at the apex, and  enclosed in a thin husk developed from the floral involucre. The  fruit ripens in September and October and seeds are dispersed  from September through December. Husks are green prior to  maturity and turn brown to brownish black as they ripen. The  husks become dry at maturity and split freely to the base into  four valves along grooved sutures. The enclosed nut is light  brownish white, oblong-ovate, somewhat compressed, usually  prominently four-angled at the apex and rounded at the base (25).  The shell is relatively thin and the kernel is sweet and edible.  The bulk of the edible embryonic plant is cotyledonary tissue.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Growth

Growth and Yield

Shagbark hickory is a medium-sized tree  averaging 21 to 24 m (70 to 80 ft) tall, 30 to 61 cm (12 to 24  in) in d.b.h., and may reach heights of 40 m (130 ft) with a  diameter of 122 cm (48 in). The tree characteristically develops  a clear straight cylindrical bole, but there is a tendency for  the main stem to fork at one-half to two-thirds of the tree  height (16). Although shagbark is one of the fastest growing  hickories, its growth rates are less than most of the oaks and  other associated species in upland stands. Representative height  and d.b.h. by age are shown in table 1 for shagbark in different  geographic areas. Regional volume tables for hickory trees and  even-aged hickory stands are also available (2,23). Hickory  normally constitutes a small percentage of the stocking in upland  hardwood stands and the most appropriate per acre yields of such  stands are those presented by Schnur (23), Gingrich (8), and Dale  (5).

   

    Table 1-Average diameter and height of shagbark  hickory in selected geographic areas (adapted from 2)  Age  D.b.h.    Height    S. Indiana and
  N.Kentuck¹    Ohio
  Valley¹  Cumberland
  Mountains²  Mississippi
  Valley²    (yr)  (cm)    (m)  (m)  (m)    10  3    2.1  0.9  1.2    20  7    5.5  4.0  2.4    30  10    9.8  6.1  4.6    40  14    13.1  8.2  7.0    50  17    15.5  10.4  9.8    60  20    17.7  12.5  12.5    70  24    19.5  14.6  15.2    80  27    21.3  16.5  17.7    90  29    22.9  18.3  19.8    (yr)  (in)    (ft)  (ft)  (ft)    10  1.2    7  3  4    20  2.8    18  13  8    30  4.0    32  20  15    40  5.4    43  27  23    50  6.8    51  34  32    60  8.0    58  41  41    70  9.4    64  48  50    80  10.5    70  54  58    90  11.6    75  60  65    ¹Second  growth.
  ²Virgin forest.       

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Population Differences    Two varieties of shagbark hickory are recognized: Carya ovata  var. ovata, which includes C. mexicana Engelm. ex  Hemsl., and C. ovata var. australis (Ashe) Little,  sometimes known as C. carolinae-septentrionalis (Ashe)  Engl. & Graebner and often referred to as Carolina hickory or  southern shagbark hickory (11, 12). The fruits are usually longer  than 3.5 cm (1.4 in); the dark brown or black terminal bud scales  and the generally lanceolate or oblanceolate terminal leaflets of  var. australis serve to separate it from var. ovata with its  smaller fruits (less than 3.5 cm (1.4 in) long), tan or light  brown bud scales, and usually obovate terminal leaflets.

    Races    Shagbark hickory shows a wide variety in morphological  characteristics throughout its natural range and typically  displays considerable diversity in nut size, shape, and color, as  well as in shell thickness and in sweetness of the nutmeat (16).  Based on variability in size and shape of the nut and in  character and amount of pubescence on leaves and branches, five  additional varieties of Carya ovata were accepted in 1933 (22),  but none of these is recognized by more recent authors (6,12).

    Hybrids    Carya ovata is reported to hybridize with C. laciniosa (C. x  dunbarii Sarg.) and C. cordiformis (C. x laneyi Sarg.), and a  cross between shagbark and pecan has been recorded. There are  five named clones of shagbark-pecan hybrids, three cultivars for  shagbark-shellbark hybrids, and seven cultivars of  shagbark-bitternut hybrids (13).

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Carya ovata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carya ovata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the term: mast

Insects/diseases: Shagbark hickory is susceptible to numerous insects
and diseases [23]. Damage can be serious, particularly during drought
years.

Mechanical treatment: Hickories (Carya spp.) commonly produce epicormic
branches or water sprouts after pruning [12].

Wildlife considerations: In New England, black bears are most likely to
damage crops in poor mast (acorn and hickory nut) years [18].

Silviculture: Shagbark hickory is long-lived and slow-growing.
Consequently, it does not respond well to even-aged management systems
if rotations are less than 100 years. It does respond well to release
and is reportedly favored by management for long rotations (200 years or
more) [23].

Following timber harvest, most hickory stems develop from advance
regeneration. Some advance regeneration may be damaged during logging
operations, but plants typically sprout and many quickly overtop older
residual stems [49]. New sprouts are characterized by a straight bole
and rapid growth and are considered the most desirable hickory
regeneration in new stands. Derivation of hickory regeneration
following various types of timber harvest was documented as follows in
an Indiana oak-hickory stand [49]:

clearcut shelterwood med. partial
(percent of total reproduction)

new seedlings 2 2 2
adv. regeneration 30 77 73
new sprouts 56 21 24
stump sprouts 12 0 1
  • 12. Burns, Paul Y.; Nichols, J. Milford. 1952. Oak pruning in the Missouri Ozarks. University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin. 581(Apr): 1-8. [10156]
  • 18. Elowe, Kenneth D.; Dodge, Wendell E. 1989. Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(4): 962-968. [10339]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 49. Sander, Ivan L.; Clark, F. Bryan. 1971. Reproduction of upland hardwood forests in the Central States. Agric. Handb. 405. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. [273]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Shagbark Hickory prefers full or partial sun, mesic conditions, and deep loam or clay-loam.  Conditions that are either moist (but well-drained) or dry-mesic are readily tolerated. It can be difficult to transplant this tree because of its deep taproot. Growth and develop are rather slow. Individual trees begin to produce nuts at about 40 years of age and they may live up to 200-300 years.
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Other uses and values

More info for the term: tree

Shagbark hickory nuts are sweet and edible [54]. They were once a
staple food of some Native American peoples [34] and today are the
important hickory nut of commerce [57]. Shagbark hickory was first
cultivated in 1911 [7], and many cultivars are now available [57]. At
least one ornamental cultivar has been developed, but it has not been
widely planted. Shagbark hickory is an important shade tree in some
residential areas and is well suited for planting as a specimen tree in
landscaping [23].
  • 7. Bonner, F. T.; Maisenhelder, L. C. 1974. Carya Nutt. hickory. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 269-272. [7571]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 34. Krochmal, Arnold; Krochmal, Connie. 1982. Uncultivated nuts of the United States. Agriculture Information Bulletin 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 89 p. [1377]
  • 54. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 57. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Shagbark hickory may have potential for use on many types of disturbed
sites. It naturally recolonizes strip mines in Maryland and West
Virginia [25], and lead pit mines with high levels of lead and zinc in
the soil [6]. Strains obtained from floodplain habitats are
particularly well adapted to streambank plantings [14].

Shagbark hickory can be readily propagated from seed. Cleaned seed
averages 100 per pound (221/kg) [57]. Seed may be planted during the
fall, or stratified and planted in the spring [7]. Mulching generally
improves the results of fall plantings.
  • 6. Blewett, Thomas J. 1988. Natural forest recovery of lead pit mines. Restoration & Management Notes. 6(2): 92-93. [6140]
  • 7. Bonner, F. T.; Maisenhelder, L. C. 1974. Carya Nutt. hickory. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 269-272. [7571]
  • 14. Chapman, Douglas J. 1983. Cutting propagation for shade tree cultivars encourages development of regional plants. American Nurseryman. 158(4): 39-40,42,44. [12671]
  • 25. Haack, Robert A.; Blank, Richard W. 1991. Incidence of twolined chestnut borer and Hypoxylon atropunctatum on dead oaks along an acidic deposition gradient from Arkansas to Ohio. In: McCormick, Larry H.; Gottschalk, Kurt W., eds. Proceedings, 8th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1991 March 3-6; University Park, PA. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-148. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 373-387. [15099]
  • 57. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

Shagbark hickory presumably provides cover for a variety of birds and
mammals and are probably used as den trees by squirrels [11].
  • 11. Bullington, Robert A. 1970. Competition between forest and prairie vegetation in twenty years of secondary succession on abandoned land in Ogle County, Illinois. In: Schramm, Peter, ed. Proceedings of a symposium on prairie and prairie restoration; 1968 September 14-15; Galesburg, IL. Special Publication No. 3. Galesburg, IL: Knox College, Biological Field Station: 20-23. [2774]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: mast

Browse: Shagbark hickory is seldom browsed by deer unless preferred
foods are limited or unavailable [23]. It is browsed by livestock only
when other food is scarce.

Nuts: Shagbark hickory nuts are readily eaten by a wide variety of
birds and mammals. The black bear, red fox, gray fox, white-footed
mouse, eastern chipmunk, and rabbits eagerly feed on the nuts [23].
They are a preferred food of the fox squirrel during August, September,
October, February, and March [52], and in some areas, hickory nuts
comprise 5 to 10 percent of the eastern chipmunk's diet [23]. Black
bears consume large quantities of hickory nuts during the fall in parts
of New England. The abundance of mast crops such as acorns and hickory
nuts can affect black bear reproductive success during the following
year [18].

Many birds, including the mallard, wood duck, northern bobwhite, and
wild turkey, feed on shagbark hickory nuts [23]. The ring-necked
pheasant, common crow, bluejay, white-breasted nuthatch, red-bellied
woodpecker, and yellow-bellied sapsucker also consume hickory nuts [41].
  • 18. Elowe, Kenneth D.; Dodge, Wendell E. 1989. Factors affecting black bear reproductive success and cub survival. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(4): 962-968. [10339]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 41. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 52. Smith, Christopher C.; Follmer, David. 1972. Food preferences of squirrels. Ecology. 53: 82-91. [2942]

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Wood Products Value

The wood of shagbark hickory is tough, heavy, hard, and resilient
[23,54]. It is well suited to uses which require a wood capable of
resisting impact and stress [23]. The close-grained heartwood is
reddish brown and the sapwood nearly white [29,57]. Wood was formerly
used to make wheels and spokes for wagons, carriages, carts, and early
automobiles [29]. Shagbark hickory wood is currently used to make
furniture, flooring, tool handles, dowels, ladders, and sporting goods
[29,43].

Shagbark hickory is an excellent fuelwood. It has high heat value and
burns evenly with a long-lasting steady heat. The wood imparts a
hickory-smoked flavor to foods and is often used to make charcoal [23].
  • 29. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]
  • 54. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the North Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 57. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 43. Millers, Imants; Shriner, David S.; Rizzo, David. 1989. History of hardwood decline in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-126. Bromall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 75 p. [10925]

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Nutritional Value

Browse: The nutrient content of shagbark hickory browse varies
seasonally. Loomis [39] reported an average fall ash content of 8.1
percent and a spring ash content of 9.6 percent.

Nuts: Shagbark hickory nuts are high in protein, fats, and
carbohydrates [58]. Caloric content is as follows [52]:

plant cal./g dry wt. cal./nut

kernel 6,570 6,700
shell 4,240 8,600
husk 4,150 16,100
  • 39. Loomis, Robert M. 1982. Seasonal variations in ash content of some Michigan forest floor fuels. Res. Note NC-279. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 3 p. [13243]
  • 52. Smith, Christopher C.; Follmer, David. 1972. Food preferences of squirrels. Ecology. 53: 82-91. [2942]
  • 58. Wainio, Walter W.; Forbes, E. B. 1941. The chemical composition of forest fruits and nuts from Pennsylvania. Journal of Agricultural Research. 62(10): 627-635. [5401]

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Palatability

Shagbark nuts are highly palatable to many birds and mammals. Hickory
nuts are rated as having fair value for upland game birds and songbirds
and good value for fur and game mammals [13]. Hickory browse appears to
be low of low palatability to most big game species and to all classes
of domestic livestock [23].
  • 13. Carey, Andrew B.; Gill, John D. 1980. Firewood and wildlife. Res. Note 299. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [9925]
  • 23. Graney, David L. 1990. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch shagbark hickory. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 219-225. [13976]

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Special Uses

Hickories serve as food for many wildlife species. The nuts are a  preferred food of squirrels and are eaten from the time fruits  approach maturity in early August until the supply is gone.  Hickory nuts also are 5 to 10 percent of the diet of eastern  chipmunks. In addition to the mammals above, black bears, gray  and red foxes, rabbits, and white-footed mice plus bird species  such as mallards, wood ducks, bobwhites, and wild turkey utilize  small amounts of hickory nuts (14). Hickory is not a preferred  forage species and seldom is browsed by deer when the range is in  good condition. Hickory foliage is browsed by livestock only when  other food is scarce.

    The bark texture and open irregular branching of shagbark hickory  make it a good specimen tree for naturalistic landscapes on large  sites. It is an important shade tree in previously wooded  residential areas. At least one ornamental cultivar of shagbark  hickory has been reported (10), but it is not planted as an  ornamental to any great extent.

    The species normally contributes only a very small percentage of  total biomass of a given forest stand. Its adaptability to a wide  range of site conditions and vigorous sprouting when cut make  shagbark a candidate for coppice fuelwood. However, difficulty in  planting and generally slow growth makes shagbark less attractive  than many faster growing species.

    Hickory has traditionally been very popular as a fuelwood and as a  charcoal-producing wood. The general low percentage of hickory in  the overstory of many privately owned woodlots is due in part to  selective cutting of the hickory for fuelwood. Hickory fuelwood  has a high heat value, burns evenly, and produces long-lasting  steady heat; the charcoal gives food a hickory-smoked flavor.

    The wood of the true hickories is known for its strength, and no  commercial species of wood is equal to it in combined strength,  toughness, hardness, and stiffness (18). Dominant uses for  hickory lumber are furniture, flooring, and tool handles. The  combined strength, hardness, and shock resistance make it  suitable for many specialty products such as ladder rungs,  dowels, athletic goods, and gymnasium equipment.

    Shagbark hickory is probably the primary species, after pecan (Carya  illinoensis), with potential for commercial nut production.  The nuts have sweet kernels and fair cracking quality (which is  often better in cultivars). The species can be successfully  top-grafted on shagbark, and shellbark rootstocks and grafts on  older rootstocks can bear in 3 to 4 years.

  • Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990. Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers; 2. Hardwoods.   Agriculture Handbook 654 (Supersedes Agriculture Handbook 271,Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965).   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 pp.   http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/table_of_contents.htm External link.

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Wikipedia

Carya ovata

Carya ovata, the shagbark hickory, is a common hickory in the eastern United States and southeast Canada. It is a large, deciduous tree, growing well over 100 feet tall, and will live over 350[1] years. The tallest measured Shagbark, located in Savage Gulf, TN, is over 150 feet tall. Mature shagbarks are easy to recognize because, as their name implies, they have shaggy bark. This characteristic is, however, only found on mature trees; young specimens have smooth bark.

The shagbark hickory's nut is edible and has a very sweet taste.

The leaves are 30–60 cm (12–24 in) long, pinnate, with five (rarely three or seven) leaflets, the terminal three leaflets much larger than the basal pair. The shagbark hickory is monoecious. Staminate flowers are borne on long-stalked catkins at the tip of old wood or in the axils of the previous season's leaves. Pistillate flowers occur in short terminal spikes.[2] The fruit is a drupe 2.5 to 4.0 cm (1.0 to 1.6 in) long, an edible nut with a hard, bony shell, contained in a thick, green four-sectioned husk which turns dark and splits off at maturity in the fall.[3] The terminal buds on the shagbark hickory are large and covered with loose scales.[4] The word "hickory" is said to have come from the Algonquian Indian word "pawcohiccora". Shagbark hickory nuts were a significant food source for the Algonquians. Red squirrels, gray squirrels, raccoons, chipmunks, and mice are consumers of hickory nuts.[5] Other consumers include black bears, gray and red foxes, rabbits, and bird species such as mallards, wood ducks, bobwhites, and wild turkey.[6]

The two varieties are:

  • Carya ovata var. ovata (northern shagbark hickory) has its largest leaflets over 20 cm (8 in) long and nuts 3.0–4.0 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long.
  • Carya ovata var. australis (southern shagbark hickory or Carolina hickory) has its largest leaflets under 20 cm (8 in) long and nuts 2.5–3.0 cm (0.98–1.18 in) long.

Some sources regard southern shagbark hickory as the separate species Carya carolinae-septentrionalis.[7]

Distribution[edit]

Shagbark hickory is found throughout most of the eastern United States, but it is largely absent from the southeastern and Gulf coastal plains and lower Mississippi Delta areas.[8] An isolated population grows in eastern Canada as far north as Lavant Township, Canadian zone 4b.[9] Scattered locations of shagbark hickory occur in the mountains of eastern Mexico.[10]

Uses[edit]

The nuts are edible with an excellent flavor, and are a popular food among people and squirrels alike. They are unsuitable to commercial or orchard production due to the long time it takes for a tree to produce sizable crops and unpredictable output from year to year. Shagbark hickories can grow to enormous sizes but are unreliable bearers. The nuts can be used as a substitute for the pecan in colder climates and have nearly the same culinary function.

C. ovata begins producing seeds at about 10 years of age, but large quantities are not produced until 40 years and will continue for at least 100. Nut production is erratic, with good crops every 3 to 5 years, in between which few or none appear and the entire crop may be lost to animal predation.

Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, was popularly nicknamed Old Hickory, a play on the toughness of hickory wood. In 1830, he began planning the construction of his tomb at The Hermitage, his plantation in Tennessee. The grave site was surrounded by a variety of trees, including six shagbark hickories. They stood there for 168 years until a storm in 1998 demolished over 1,200 trees at the site. Work on replanting them remains an ongoing project. In modern times, shagbark hickory is rarely used as an ornamental due to its large size, slow growth, difficulty of transplanting (all Juglandacaea species have large taproots) and nut litter.

"Hickory" is derived from pawcohiccora, an Algonquian Indian word for the tree's oily nutmeat. [3] The nuts were a food source for Native Americans.[11]

Shagbark hickory wood is used for smoking meat and for making the bows of Native Americans of the northern area. The lumber is heavy, hard, and tough, weighing 63 lb/ cu ft when air-dried,[12] and has been employed for implements and tools that require strength. These include axles, axe handles, ploughs, and skis.[13]

The bark of the shagbark hickory is also used to flavor a bitter maple-style syrup.

Genetics[edit]

Shagbark hickory hybridizes with pecan, Carya illinoensis, and shellbark hickory, C. laciniosa (C. x dunbarii Sarg.). Shagbark hickory has 32 chromosomes. In general, species within the genus with the same chromosome number are able to cross. Numerous hybrids among the Carya species with 32 chromosomes (pecan, bitternut, shellbark, and shagbark) have been described, though most are unproductive or have other flaws. A few hican varieties are commercially propagated.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~adk/oldlisteast/#spp
  2. ^ Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. "Carya ovata." In: Fire Effects Information System [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).[1]. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  3. ^ a b Hilton Pond Center: Shaggybark Tree. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  4. ^ Barnes, Burton V.; Wagner Jr, Warren H. (2004). Michigan trees: a Guide to the Trees of the Great Lakes Region (Rev. and updated ed.). Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press. pp. 272–273. ISBN 0-472-08921-8. 
  5. ^ Beaulieu, David. "Growing Shagbark Hickories, Harvesting Hickory Nuts". about.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  6. ^ "Shagbark Hickory Tree". cirrusimage.com. Red Planet Inc. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  7. ^ Bioimages: Carya carolinae-septentrionalis. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  8. ^ Graney, David L. (1990). "Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. Shagbark Hickory". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. Silvics of North America, Vol. 2, Hardwoods. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  9. ^ "The Lavant Shagbarks". Eastern Chapter Society of Ontario Nut Growers. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  10. ^ Christman, Steve (2003-11-09). "#836 Carya ovata". Floridata.com. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  11. ^ Grauke, LJ. "Hickories: Carya ovata". Texas A&M University, Department of Horticultural Science. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  12. ^ Collingwood, C.H., and Warren D. Brush. 1974. Knowing Your Trees. Revised and edited by Devereux Butcher. Washington, District of Columbia: The American Forestry Association. pp. 168–169.
  13. ^ Peattie, Donald Culross (1934). Trees You Want to Know. Racine, Wisconsin: Whitman Publishing Company. 
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Notes

Comments

 

 Native Americans used Carya ovata medicinally as an antirheumatic, a gynecological aid, a tonic, and an anthelmintic (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Carya ovata hybridizes with C . cordiformis ( C . × laneyi Sargent), C . illinoinensis , and C . laciniosa ( C . × dunbarii Sargent). The Mexican shagbark appears to be a good variety.

The Mexican hickory ( Carya ovata var. mexicana (Hemsley) W. E. Manning) appears to be synonymous with C . ovata .

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name of shagbark hickory is Carya
ovata (P. Mill.) K. Koch [30]. It is a member of the walnut family,
Juglandaceae [23]. Two varieties are commonly recognized [30]:

Carya ovata var. ovata (Miller) K. Koch
Carya ovata var. australis (Ashe) Little

At least five other varieties, including C. o. var. fraxinifilia Sarg.,
C. o. var. nuttallii Sarg., and C. o. var. pubescens, were formerly
recognized by many authorities [23,50,57]. However, although
occasionally encountered in the literature, they are no longer
recognized by most taxonomists.

Shagbark hickory hybridizes naturally with butternut hickory (C.
cordiformis), pecan (C. illinoensis), and shellbark hickory (C.
laciniosa) [24,36]. Common hybrid products and their derivatives follow
[57]:

Dunbar hickory C. X dunbarii (C. laciniosa x C. ovata)
Laney hickory C. X laneyi Sarg. (C. cordiformis x C. ovata)

Horticultural hybrids between shagbark hickory and butternut hickory,
pecan, shellbark hickory, and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa) have
also been reported [57].
  • 50. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 24. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
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Common Names

shagbark hickory
shellbark hickory
scalybark hickory

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Synonyms

Hicoria ovata (P. Mill.) Britt.

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