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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats , High Altitude, Cultivated, Native of East Asiatic Region"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Distribution: Native area obscure, cultivated and subspontaneous in N.W. Pakistan westwards to Asia minor, Central and South Europe, North Africa Central Asia; introduced to U.S.A.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A monoecious cc dioecious, medium or small sized tree, upto 10 m tall a compact spreading wide crown. Trunk 1-2 m in circumference with fissured rough bark, tender twigs reddish-brown, densely hairy. Leaves with a striate, (1.5-) 2-3.5 (-4) cm long, hairy petiole; lamina broad ovate, nearly as broad long, (5) 6-12.5 (-20) cm long and broad, scabrous above, pubescent almost all over the lower surface including the ultimate veinlets, 4-5-costate from deeply cordate base, margins crenate-dentate, sometimes 2-5-lobed, apex acuminate; stipules lanceolate, 6-10 mm long, pale-brown, hairy. Male catkins 25-35 mm long, including densely hairy, upto 10 mm long peduncle. flowers: sepals free, broadly ovate, c. 2.5-3 mm long, c. 23 mm wide, deeply concave, lanate-hairy outside; stamens with boradly oval, ± exserted anther. Female catkins oval, 15-28 mm long including 6-8 mm long, hairy peduncles. Female flowers: sepals broadly elliptic, c. 3-3.5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad, hairy outside; ovary with densely white hairy, divergent styles. Sorosis ovoid oblong, 15-25 mm long excluding peduncles, dark purple to black, strongly acidic until mature, edible.
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Description

Trees to 10 m tall; monoecious or dioecious. Bark dark brown. Branchlets pale brown pubescent. Stipules lanceolate, membranous, brown pubescent. Petiole 1.5-2.5 cm, pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate, unlobed, 6-12(-20) × 7-11 cm, thick, abaxially pale green, shortly pubescent, and tomentose, adaxially dark green and coarse, base cordate, margin regularly and coarsely serrate, apex acute to shortly acuminate. Male catkins cylindric, 2-4 cm, pubescent. Female catkins ellipsoid, 2-2.5 cm; peduncle short. Female flowers: style inconspicuous; stigmas without mastoidlike protuberance, 2-branched and pubescent. Syncarp blackish purple when mature, elliptic, 2-2.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Hebei, Shandong, Xinjiang (mainly) [native to W Iran; widely cultivated elsewhere].
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to subgregarious, nestling in cortex pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe mori is saprobic on dead twig of Morus nigra
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma applanatum parasitises live trunk of Morus nigra
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella mori causes spots on leaf of Morus nigra
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina infects and damages branch of Morus nigra
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Nectria coccinea is saprobic on dead trunk of Morus nigra
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous Phyllactinia guttata parasitises live leaf of Morus nigra

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-July.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Morus nigra

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Morus nigra

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Morus nigra

Mulberries, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy180 kJ (43 kcal)
9.8 g
Sugars8.1
Dietary fiber1.7 g
0.39 g
1.44 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
0.029 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(8%)
0.101 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.62 mg
Vitamin B6
(4%)
0.05 mg
Folate (B9)
(2%)
6 μg
Choline
(3%)
12.3 mg
Vitamin C
(44%)
36.4 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(4%)
39 mg
Iron
(14%)
1.85 mg
Magnesium
(5%)
18 mg
Phosphorus
(5%)
38 mg
Potassium
(4%)
194 mg
Sodium
(1%)
10 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.12 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Morus nigra, called black mulberry[1] or blackberry,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to southwestern Asia, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown.[3] It is known for its large number of chromosomes, as it has 154 pairs (308 individuals).

Description[edit]

Morus nigra is a deciduous tree growing to 12 m (39 ft) tall by 15 m (49 ft) broad. The leaves are 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long by 6–10 cm (2–4 in) broad - up to 23 cm (9 in) long on vigorous shoots, downy on the underside, the upper surface rough with very short, stiff hairs.

The edible fruit is dark purple, almost black, when ripe, 2–3 centimetres (0.8–1.2 in) long, a compound cluster of several small drupes; it is richly flavoured, similar to the red mulberry (Morus rubra) but unlike the more insipid fruit of the white mulberry (Morus alba).

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Black mulberry has long been cultivated for its edible fruit and is planted and often naturalised west across much of Europe, including Ukraine, and east into China.

Black (Morus nigra) mulberries are thought to have originated in the mountainous areas of Mesopotamia and Persia and are now widespread throughout Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, India, Pakistan, Syria, and Turkey, where the tree and the fruit are known by the Persian-derived names toot (mulberry) of shahtoot (شاه توت) (king's or "superior" mulberry), or, in Arabic, shajarat tukki. Jams and sherbets are often made from the fruit in this region.

The black mulberry was imported into Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms (Bombyx mori). It was unsuccessful because silkworms prefer the white mulberry but has left a legacy of large and old trees in many country house gardens. Care is needed to prevent the crushed berries from staining carpets in the houses nearby.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  2. ^ "Definition And Classification Of Commodities (Draft) 8. Fruits And Derived Products". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  3. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
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Notes

Comments

The leaves are used for feeding silkworms and their infusion is used to bring down blood sugar level and reduction of arterial pressure. The sweet, flavoured fruits are considered refrigerant and laxative. Jams, jellies and squash is prepared from the fruits.
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Comments

This species is a valuable fruit tree in some countries.
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