The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturali (in Milano; di Milano) 17: 241. 1874. (Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat.)
  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Beitraege zur Pflanzenkunde des Russischen Reiches 40. 1859. (Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches)
  • Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 25: 537. 1898. (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club)
  • Böcher, T. W. 1978. Greenlands Flora 326 pp.
  • Cody, W. J. 1996. Fl. Yukon Terr. i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 1988-2013. Flora of China (Checklist & Addendum). Unpaginated. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Isotype: Underwood, L. M. 1898. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 25: 537.
  • Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern Allies of the United States and Canada. 389 pp.
  • Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperalis Petropolitanae 12: 517. 1768. (Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Imp. Petrop.)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Reliquiae Haenkeanae 1(1): 76. 1825. (Reliq. Haenk.)
  • Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta 4(1): 23. 1827. (Syst. Veg.)
  • Torreya 5(6): 107. 1905. (Torreya)
  • Type collection: Underwood, L. M. 1898. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 25: 537.
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.


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