Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Mexico

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: California near the ocean from the vicinity of Del Mar, San Diego Co., south and in Baja California, on the west side of the Colorado Desert.

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Range Description

This species has been reported from Mexico, from the states of Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur, and from the state of California in the United States. It grows from sea level to 1,500 m asl.
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Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants unbranched or branched; branches 0-50. Roots diffuse, upper portion not enlarged. Stems nearly spheric to more often cylindric or long cylindric, 5-30 × 5-7 cm, firm; tubercles 5-12 × 3-7 mm; axils woolly, bearing 4-15 bristles (0 in young growth) as long as tubercles; cortex and pith not mucilaginous; latex absent. Spines 14-26 per areole, pinkish or reddish brown to black, glabrous; radial spines 11-22 per areole, usually white, bristlelike, 5-7 mm, stiff; central spines (1-)3-4 per areole, abaxial 1 porrect, hooked, longer, stouter, adaxial central spines ascending with radial spines; subcentral spines 0. Flowers 10-22 mm; outermost tepals entire or short fringed; inner tepals cream, usually with pinkish or reddish midstripes, longer in bisexual flowers, 5.4 mm diam.; stigma lobes yellow to greenish yellow or brownish green, 8 mm. Fruits bright scarlet, clavate or ovoid, 10-25(-35) × 10 mm, juicy only in fruit walls; floral remnant persistent. Seeds black, 0.8 × 0.6 mm, pitted; testa hard; anticlinal cell walls straight (not undulate); interstices conspicuously wider than pit diameters; pits bowl-shaped. 2n = 66.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Rocky or gravelly or coarse sandy soils of hillsides and washes in chaparral or desert, near coast.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The species grows in a wide variety of habitats, including coastal scrub, desert scrub, and Mediterranean chaparral.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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California coastal scrub, Colorado subdivision of Sonoran desert scrub, rocky slopes; 10-1500m.
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: Twenty-two EO's (Benson 1982).

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General Ecology

Young plants commonly establish under nurse plants. Most commonly utilizing the canopy of legumes but will utilize other species and abiotic nurse elements in the environment.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring (Mar-May); fruiting summer.
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Reproduction

Mammillaria is dispersed by a wide array of vertebrate animals (van Rheede van Ousdtshorn and van Rooyen 1999). Serotiny, or delayed seed dispersal, is documented in Mammillaria as a bet-hedging strategy that is used when environmental conditions are favorable. Seeds are intially retained and then dispersed when precipitation is adequate for seed germination (Peters et al. 2009).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Mexico

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Occurs in California and Baja California. Twenty-two EO's.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Burquez Montijo, A. & Felger, R.S.

Reviewer/s
Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.

Contributor/s

Justification
Mammillaria dioica is a widespread and abundant species, with no evidence of marked population decline. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This is a widespread, locally abundant species.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Comments: Most cacti subject to horticultural collecting.

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Major Threats
There are possibly some losses as a consequence of land use change on the northwestern edge of the range, but they are not significant for the species as a whole.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in many protected areas in the peninsula and the islands.
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Notes

Comments

In an inland population in California, Mammillaria dioica was found to be functionally gynodioecious (F. R. Ganders and H. Kennedy 1978), with flowers of some plants bisexual while those of other individuals bear only functionally female flowers with sterile anthers. Coastal populations of the species were not studied and might be "trioecious" with staminate, pistillate, and bisexual flowers on different plants (B. D. Parfitt 1985). 

 Plants of Mammillaria dioica in Mexico are both tetraploid and hexaploid (M. A. T. Johnson 1978).

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