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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Evergreen, Semi-evergreen and Moist Deciduous Forest"
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Degraded forest areas
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Open places of deciduous forests
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub Distribution notes: Exotic
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Miscellaneous Details

Flowers attract butterflies. Food plant for the caterpillars of the Lemon Pansy. Stem and root used in traditional medicine.
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Ahemdnagar, Nasik, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane Karnataka: Belgaum, Mysore"
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"Maharashtra: Common throughout Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Dharwar, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara Kerala: Idukki, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur"
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Global Distribution

Native of Mauritius, naturalised in India

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Thiruvananthapuram

"
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Global Distribution

Peninsular India

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Kottayam, Kollam, Idukki, Malappuram, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Wayanad, Kozhikkode

"
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Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram
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Endemic Distribution

Peninsular India
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Found on waysides and fallow fields from plains to 1000m. Common. Tropical and subtropical regions of old and new world.
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Distribution in Egypt

Sinai.

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Global Distribution

Pantropical Weed.

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A pantropical weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

Solitary or in 5-7-flowered cymose clusters; yellow to orange. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A schizocarp, enclosed in the calyx; mericarps 7-10, tomentose at apex, beak minute or 0; seeds ovoid. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Branchlets spreading, close to the ground. Stem dark purple. Leaves glaucous below, 3-nerved from base.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Ovate-elliptic or rhomboid

Leaf Apex

Obtuse-truncate

Leaf Base

Cuneate

Leaf Margin

Bidentate-biserrate

"
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Description

Subshrubs erect or prostrate, many branched, to ca. 1 m tall. Branchlets stellate. Stipules spinelike, 3-5 mm; petiole 2-5(-8) mm, stellate puberulent; leaf blade rhombic to oblong-lanceolate or obovate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 1-4.5 × 0.6-2 cm, abaxially gray-white stellate pilose, adaxially sparsely stellate pilose to subglabrous, base broadly cuneate, margin dentate, apex obtuse to acute. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1-2.5 cm, densely stellate tomentose, articulate above middle. Calyx cup-shaped, 4-5 mm, abaxially stellate pubescent, lobes triangular, apices acute. Corolla ca. 1 cm in diam.; petals yellow, obovate, ca. 8 mm, base attenuate, apex rounded. Filament tube 4-5 mm, glabrous. Style branches 8-10. Fruit semiglobose to broadly turbinate, 6-7 mm in diam.; mericarps 7-10, 2.5-3 mm excluding awn, shallowly grooved to near base, eventually dehiscent, side walls usually thin, not veined, stellate puberulent, apex usually (1 or)2-awned, awns to 1.5 mm. Seeds reniform, ca. 2 mm, blackish. Fl. autumn-winter.
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Elevation Range

100-500 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect branched under shrubs to 1.5 m tall; stem terete, green and purplish, minutely pubescent with short stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, 2-7 x 0.5-2 cm, elliptic-rhomboid or narrowly obovate, rounded to truncate at base, acute at apex, crenate-serrate and entire towards the base, lateral nerves 3-5 pairs, shortly 3-nerved at base, green and glabrous above, pale beneath, cinereous with short stellate hairs; petiole to 0.6 cm long, minutely pubescent, shortly pulvinate at both ends; stipules up to 7 mm long, linear, 1-nerved. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels to 1.5 cm long in flower, to 3 cm in fruit, sparsely stellately hairy, articulate above the middle. Calyx 5-7 mm diameter campanulate, 10-ribbed at base, stellately pubescent, 5-lobed, lobes 3-mm long, triangular, apex acute-acuminate, glabrous within. Petals pale yellow, 8-10 x 6-7 mm, obliquely obovate, truncate or cuneate at base, shortly hairy without and glabrous within, stellate-hairy at base. Staminal column to 3.5 mm long, stellate -pubescent, antheriferous at apex. Ovary 2 mm in diameter conical, glabrous; style 8-10; stigma capitate. Mericarp 8-10 (-11), 5 x 3 mm, enclosed in calyx, trigonous with acute angles, pale, distinctly and transversely rugose on sides and back, apex beaked with a single awn, stellately hairy; seeds to 2 mm long, black, smooth, minutely hairy at hilum."
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Diagnostic

"Erect, much branched subshrubs to 1.2 m tall; stem usually purplish. Leaves 1.5-5 x 1-3 cm, obovate, rhomboid to lanceolate, base rounded, margins coarsely serrate to crenate, entire towards base, apex subobtuse or acute, 3-nerved from base, sparsely pubescent above and densely stellate-tomentose beneath; petiole to 8 mm long; stipules c. 6 mm long, linear, caducous. Flowers axillary, solitary; pedicels c. 5 mm in flowers, to 3 cm in fruits, filiform, articulated at about the middle. Calyx c.7 mm across, campanulate, 5-lobed; lobes c. 3 mm long, triangular, tomentose without. Petals yellow, 6-7 x 4-5 mm, obliquely obovate, retuse or emarginate at apex. Staminal column to 3 mm long, stellate-pubescent, antheriferous at apex. Ovary c. 1.5 mm across, depressed globose; styles 8-10; stigmas capitate. Schizocarp 3-4 mm long; mericarps 8-10, c. 3 x 2 mm, trigonous, apex beaked, completely included. Seeds c. 2 mm long, brownish-black."
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Diagnostic

"Subshrubs; branchlets brown, stellate pubescent. Leaves 2-5 x 1.5-3.5 cm, rhomboid, apex acute, base obtuse or cuneate, margins serrate above the upper half, lower side tomentose; petiole 0.5 to 1 cm, stipule to 1 cm, linear. Flowers axillary, solitary or in clusters, yellow; pedicels to 6 mm, tomentose; calyx broadly campanulate, lobes triangular, to 3 mm, tomentose outside; petals 9 x 5 mm, obovate. Schizocarp enclosed in calyx, semiorbicular, 3 mm long; mericarps 8-10, awned at apex, to 1 mm."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A small, spreading herb, upto 75cm."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Subshrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Subshrub
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Synonym

Malva rhombifolia (Linnaeus) E. H. L. Krause; Sida alba Cavanilles (1785), not Linnaeus (1763); S. insularis Hatusima; S. rhombifolia subsp. insularis (Hatusima) Hatusima; S. rhombifolia var. rhomboidea (Roxburgh ex Fleming) Masters; S. rhomboidea Roxburgh ex Fleming.
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Type Information

Type collection for Sida andicola Gand.
Catalog Number: US 12267
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Bang
Year Collected: 1890
Locality: Yungas., La Paz, Bolivia, South America
  • Type collection: Gandoger, M. 1924. Bull. Soc. Bot. France. 71 (5-6): 632.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Wastelands, also in degraded forest areas"
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General Habitat

"Common weed on wastelands, fallow fields, especially disturbed ground. Hills 500-1000m. Tropical and sub tropical regions of the world."
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General Habitat

Growing along roadsides and open places of deciduous forests
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General Habitat

Wastelands
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Habitat & Distribution

Scrub, open slopes, streamsides. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; pantropical].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Flowering and fruiting: July-September
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Flowering and fruiting: September-December
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Contains cryptolepine, ephedrine and vasicine.

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sida rhombifolia subsp. rhombifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sida rhombifolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 26
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Same uses as those given for Sida acuta. Whole plant: In NW Guyana, whole plant used for kidney problems, menstruation, and to clean womb and tubes.

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Folklore

Indigenous Information: The dried stems are tied into a bundle and used as broom.
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Uses

Stem and roots used in traditional medicine.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Sida rhombifolia

Sida rhombifolia (arrowleaf sida) ( Sanskrit : atibalā अतिबला[1] ) is a perennial or sometimes annual plant in the Family Malvaceae, native to the New World tropics and subtropics. Other common names include Paddy’s lucerne, jelly leaf, and also somewhat confusingly as Cuban jute, Queensland hemp, and Indian hemp (although S. rhombifolia is not related to either jute or hemp). Synonyms include Malva rhombifolia. It is used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is known as kurumthotti.

The stems are erect to sprawling and branched, growing 50 to 120 centimeters in height, with the lower sections being woody. The dark green, diamond-shaped leaves are arranged alternately along the stem, 4 to 8 centimeters long, with petioles that are less than a third of the length of the leaves. They are paler below, with short, grayish hairs. The apical half of the leaves have toothed or serrated margins while the remainder of the leaves are entire (untoothed). The petioles have small spiny stipules at their bases.

The moderately delicate flowers occur singly on flower stalks that arise from the area between the stems and leaf petioles. They consist of five petals that are 4 to 8 millimeters long, creamy to orange-yellow in color, and may be somewhat reddish in the center. Each of the five overlapping petals are asymmetric, having a long lobe on one side. The stamens unite in a short column. The fruit is a ribbed capsule, which breaks up into 8 to 10 segments. The plant blooms throughout the year.

This species is usually confined to waste ground, such as roadsides and rocky areas, stock camps or rabbit warrens, but can be competitive in pasture, due to its unpalatability to livestock.

Uses[edit]

From The International Institute of Tropical Forestry, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service:

Arrowleaf sida stems are used as rough cordage, sacking, and for making brooms. The stems have a high quality fiber and were once exported from India and elsewhere as “hemp” (Guzmán 1975, Holm and others 1997). Chemical analysis revealed that the leaves contain respectable amounts of nutrients: 74,000 to 347,000 ppm protein, 94,000 to 475,000 ppm carbohydrates, 33,000 to 167,000 ppm fiber, 14,000 to 71,000 ppm fat, and 16,000 to 81,000 ppm ash. However, it was reported that the root contained 450 ppm alkaloids and the presence of ephedrine and saponin (Southwest School of Botanical Medicine 2002). Another source reports an alkaloid content in the root of 0.1 percent and the presence of choline, pseudoephedrine, beta-phenethylamine, vascin, hipaphorine and related indole alkaloids (Shaman Australis Ethnobotanicals 2002). Perhaps because of these chemicals, arrowleaf sida is unpalatable to cattle (Kuniata and Rapp 2001). Arrowleaf sida has significant medicinal applications for which it is cultivated throughout India. The pounded leaves are used to relieve swelling,the fruits are used to relieve headache, the mucilage is used as an emollient, and the root is used to treat rheumatism (Parrotta 2001). Australian Aborigines use the herb to treat diarrhea. Leaves are smoked in Mexico and a tea is prepared in India for the stimulation it provides (Shaman Australis Ethnobotanicals 2002).[2]

References[edit]

  • Tveten, Gloria and Tveten, John. Wildflowers of Houston & Southeast Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin (1993). ISBN 0-292-78151-2
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Notes

Common Names

FG Creole: wade-wade. FG Palikur: wadiwad.

  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Comments

The entire plant is used medicinally.

Sida rhombifolia is the type species of the genus Sida. The taxonomy of this species/species complex is controversial and is discussed by Verdcourt (Kew Bull. 59: 233-239. 2005). The lectotype of S. rhombifolia almost certainly came from Jamaica, not India as suggested by some authors, and is a match with neither African nor Asian material. Verdcourt recognized six varieties for East African material, differing most obviously in mericarp morphology: most notably the degree of dehiscence, which varies from completely indehiscent to dehiscing by an apical slit to breaking into two valves, the degree of sculpturing, and the presence or not of awns. Chinese material appears to have a comparable range of variation, though many collections lack fully mature mericarps, and more detailed studies could lead to the recognition of more, comparable taxa.

Hu (Fl. China, Malvaceae [Fam. 153], 20-21. 1955) recognized two varieties, var. rhombifolia and var. corynocarpa (Wallich ex Masters) S. Y. Hu (Fl. China, Malvaceae [Fam. 153], 20. 1955), differing only in minor quantitative characters. The validity of var. corynocarpa is open to question, as Masters (Fl. Brit. India 1: 324. 1874) only mentioned the supposed basionym "Sida corynocarpa" in a note under S. rhombifolia var. retusa and therefore cannot be said to have accepted it as a species. Plants with prostrate stems from Taiwan, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), and the Philippines have been placed in S. rhombifolia subsp. insularis. Their status needs more detailed investigation. Borssum Waalkes included S. alnifolia Linnaeus within S. rhombifolia as var. retusa.

Hu 12784, from Hong Kong, has 10 indehiscent mericarps per flower, each with a single awn, suggesting a relationship to Sida rhombifolia var. maderensis (Lowe) Lowe (S. maderensis Lowe; S. unicornis Marais). That taxon has rather more strongly sculptured mericarps than Hu 12784, which might represent a distinct taxon.

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