Overview

Brief Summary

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a perennial mint, native to Eurasia, but widely naturalized in North America, southeastern Australia, and possibly elsewhere. It is often found growing in disturbed areas. The foliage has a minty odor that is often considered mildly unpleasant by humans, but is very attractive to many cats. The flowers are whitish or pale lilac, dotted with pink or purple; the lower lip is slightly toothed.

The physiologically active component of catnip oil is a now well-characterized compound known as nepetalactone. Cats respond to catnip with predictable behaviors, including (1) sniffing, (2) licking and chewing with head shaking, (3) chin and cheek rubbing, and (4) head-over rolling and body rubbing. The complete response rarely exceeds 10 to 15 minutes and is followed by a refractory period of about an hour during which catnip does not elicit a behavioral response. Interestingly, no response to catnip is evident in kittens during the first 6 to 8 weeks after birth, and this response may not develop until 3 months of age. (Tucker and Tucker 1988 and references therein).

Not all domestic cats respond to catnip. Based on a study using a documented pedigree of Siamese cats and a random sample of 84 cats from the Boston area, Todd (1962) concluded that the catnip response is inherited as an autosomal dominant gene. Investigations of a variety of mammals have revealed no catnip response in non-felids tested, but within the Felidae (cat family) many (though apparently not all) wild cat species, both males and females, exhibit a catnip response (for details, see Tucker and Tucker 1988 and references therein).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Catnip is a common plant in central and northern Illinois, but uncommon or absent in many areas of southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include limestone barrens on bluffs, open woodlands, weedy meadows, pastures, fence rows, gravelly areas along railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. Sometimes this plant is cultivated in herbal gardens. It is usually found in disturbed areas, but occasionally invades natural areas where limestone is close to the soil surface. This species was introduced into North America from Eurasia. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Cultivated in Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Japan; Africa, Europe, North America]
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is native to Eurasia, but now established widely in North America (e.g., Hitchcock 1973; Gleason and Cronquist 1991; Hickman 1993), and naturalized in southeastern Australia (Australia's Virtual Herbarium, queried 21 July 2010) and possibly elsewhere.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

S. & C. Europe, C. Asia to Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal), Australia, N. America.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a perennial mint, 30 to 100 cm in height, and branched above. The leafy stems are gray-pubescent (downy). The 3 to 8 cm leaves are stalked, somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and coarsely toothed. The densely clustered flowers have a corolla (collective term for petals) 8 to 12 mm long, subtended by a calyx (collective term for sepals) 5 to 7 mm. Flowers are whitish or pale lilac, dotted with pink or purple; the lower lip is slightly toothed. (Newcomb 1977; Gleason and Cronquist 1991)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Elevation Range

3000-3300 m
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Plants perennial. Stems 40-150 cm, white pubescent. Petiole 0.7-3 cm, slender; leaf blade ovate to triangular-cordate, 2.5-7 × 2.1-4.7 cm, adaxially yellow-green, hirtellous, abaxially whitish pubescent especially on veins, base cordate to truncate, margin coarsely crenate to dentate, apex obtuse to acute. Cymes axillary basally, upper ones in loose or compact, interrupted terminal panicles; bracts and bracteoles subulate, minute. Calyx tubular, ca. 6 × 1.2 mm, white pubescent; teeth hirsute inside, subulate, 1.5-2 mm, posterior teeth longer, urceolate in fruit. Corolla white with purple spots on lower lip, white villous; throat pubescent inside, ca. 7.5 mm; tube slender, ca. 0.3 mm in diam., abruptly dilated into broad throat; upper lip ca. 2 × 3 mm, apex emarginate; middle lobe of lower lip subcircular, ca. 3 × 4 mm, cordate, margin coarsely dentate. Stamens included. Nutlets nearly triquetrous, ovoid, ca. 1.7 × 1 mm. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Sep-Oct.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Calamintha albiflora Vaniot; Nepeta bodinieri Vaniot.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Catnip is a common plant in central and northern Illinois, but uncommon or absent in many areas of southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include limestone barrens on bluffs, open woodlands, weedy meadows, pastures, fence rows, gravelly areas along railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. Sometimes this plant is cultivated in herbal gardens. It is usually found in disturbed areas, but occasionally invades natural areas where limestone is close to the soil surface. This species was introduced into North America from Eurasia. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Thickets or around houses; 0-2500 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Catnip is often found growing in disturbed areas (e.g., Hitchcock 1973; Newcomb 1977; Clapham et al. 1981; Gleason and Cronquist 1991; Hickman 1993).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Catnip is well known to be of great interest to many domestic cats, although the compounds arousing cats presumably evolved as deterrents against insect herbivores (Eisner 1964) and interactions between catnip and cats are presumably not of ecological or evolutionary significance. Tucker and Tucker (1988) reviewed the effects of catnip on cats. They noted that cats respond to catnip with predictable behaviors, including (1) sniffing, (2) licking and chewing with head shaking, (3) chin and cheek rubbing, and (4) head-over rolling and body rubbing. They may also exhibit digging or pawing, scratching, salivating, washing or grooming. stretching, animated leaping, licking of the genital region, apparent hallucinations, sexual stimulation, euphoria, sleepiness, and/or eating. The complete response rarely exceeds 10 to 15 minutes and is followed by a refractory period of about an hour during which catnip does not elicit a behavioral response. Interestingly, no response to catnip is evident in kittens during the first 6 to 8 weeks after birth, and this response may not develop until 3 months of age. (Tucker and Tucker 1988 and references therein).

Not all domestic cats respond to catnip. Based on a study using a documented pedigree of Siamese cats and a random sample of 84 cats from the Boston area, Todd (1962) concluded that the catnip response is inherited as an autosomal dominant gene. Investigations of a variety of mammals have revealed no catnip response in non-felids tested, but within the Felidae (cat family) many (though apparently not all) wild cat species, both males and females, exhibit a catnip response (for details, see Tucker and Tucker 1988 and references therein).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Flower-Visiting Insects of Catnip in Illinois

Nepeta cataria (Catnip) introduced
(Bees usually suck nectar and less often collect pollen; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Reed as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis (Re), Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus bimaculatus sn (Rb, Re), Bombus griseocallis sn fq, Bombus impatiens sn fq (Rb, Re), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq, Bombus vagans sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn, Triepeolus concavus sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus remigatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq, Melissodes communis sn, Svastra obliqua obliqua sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys octodentata, Coelioxys sayi; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn fq, Megachile campanulae campanulae sn, Megachile centuncularis sn, Megachile latimanus (Re), Megachile mendica sn, Megachile petulans sn, Megachile pugnatus sn, Megachile rugifrons sn fq, Megachile texana sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades carinatum (Re), Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Dufoureinae): Dufourea monardae (Re); Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn fq, Agapostemon virescens sn, Augochloropsis metallica metallica (Re), Halictus confusus sn, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus parallelus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn fq, Lasioglossum imitatus cp (Rb, Re), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn, Lasioglossum rohweri (Re), Lasioglossum tegularis (Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus modestus (Re); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila pictipennis, Ammophila procera, Eremnophila aureonotata, Prionyx atrata; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Vespidae: Polistes dorsalis; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus (Rb, Re), Parancistrocerus fulvipes, Stenodynerus anormis

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Re), Eristalis tenax, Helophilus latifrons, Rhingia nasica, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens (Rb, Re), Toxomerus marginatus (Re); Bombyliidae: Chrysanthrax cypris, Rhynchanthrax parvicornis; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Archytas aterrima, Cylindromyia fumipennis, Linnaemya comta

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Phyciodes tharos, Speyeria cybele, Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa virginiensis; Pieridae: Colias philodice, Pieris rapae, Pontia protodice fq

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Epargyreus clarus, Erynnis juvenalis, Erynnis martialis, Pholisora catullus

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Re)

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes incanus feeds on Nepeta cataria

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis parasitises live Nepeta cataria

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Chemical repels insects: catnip
 

The chemical defense system of catnip may repel insects with the chemical nepetalactone.

     
  "Anisomorphal [a chemical named for insect, Anisomorpha, a walking-stick that uses it as a defensive spray] bore a chemical resemblance to, of all things, catnip. Formally known as nepetalactone, and produced by a plant of the mint family (Nepeta cataria), catnip derived its reputation from its peculiar ability to excite cats. That property, surely, had nothing to do with whatever the compound did for the plant that produced it. It occurred to me that I was now in a position to propose a natural function for nepetalactone. Could the compound not be defensive like anisomorphal, and serve to protect the plant itself? I got some pure nepetalactone from Jerry--by coincidence it was he who had determined the structure of the compound--and did some simple tests, in which I showed the chemical to be a potent insect repellent. I found that insects would quickly fly off or walk away if I pointed at them a capillary tube filled with nepetalactone, and that ants would shy away from insect baits that I had laced with the compound. It was clear that plant and insect had hit upon a common defensive strategy here, in the sense that they had both evolved the capacity to produce similar substances for a similar purpose…Interestingly, anisomorphal is now known also to be produced by a plant. Not surprisingly, that plant, cat thyme (Teucrium marum), is also a member of the mint family (Labiatae). And nepetalactone itself has been shown to be produced by a species of walking-stick." (Eisner 2003:89-91)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Eisner, T. 2005. For Love Of Insects. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 448 p.
  • Zhu JJ: Zeng X-P; Berkebile D; Du H-J; Tong Y; Qian K. 2009. Efficacy and safety of catnip (Nepeta cataria) as a novel filth fly repellent. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 23: 209-216.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

The physiologically active component of catnip oil is a now well-characterized compound known as nepetalactone (for details, see Tucker and Tucker 1988 and references therein). Tucker and Tucker (1988) discuss what is known about the chemistry of a range of other plants and insects that have reported to be attractive to cats.

Catnip is well known to be of great interest to many domestic cats, although the compounds arousing cats presumably evolved as deterrents against insect herbivores

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Nepeta cataria

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Nepeta cataria

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This is a perennial wildflower about 1-4' tall that branches occasionally. The light green stems are finely pubescent and 4-angled. The opposite leaves are up to 4" long and 2" across. In shape, they are cordate with blunt tips or ovate with a cordate base. Their margins have large crenate teeth. The upper surface of the leaves is canescent (very finely pubescent) and a reticulated network of veins is clearly visible. The light green petioles are about 1" long, finely pubescent, and 4-angled. The upper stems terminate in dense whorls of flowers on spike-like racemes about 1-6" long. Each flower is about 1/3" (8-9 mm.) long. The corolla is tubular, 2-lipped, and usually dull white; on rare occasions, it is light blue-violet. The upper lip is small and consists of 2 rounded lobes, while the lower lip is large and has 3 lobes. The middle lobe of the lower lip is the largest with a frilly outer edge, while the 2 lateral lobes are much smaller. Usually the lower lip of the corolla has small pink or purple dots. There are 4 stamens that are about the same length as the upper lip, to which they are adjacent. The tubular calyx is light green and finely pubescent. It has 15 nerves along its length and 5 triangular teeth. The blooming period occurs during the summer or early fall, and lasts about 1-2 months. The flowers don't have a noticeable fragrance, although the foliage has a pungent aroma that resembles a combination of thyme and oregano. Each flower is replaced by a seed capsule containing 4 ovoid nutlets. Each nutlet has a smooth curved surface that is lacking in sharp angles. The root system produces abundant rhizomes. This plant often produces clonal colonies from the rhizomes. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

The dried leaves of catnip are sometimes used to make a tea (Peterson 1977) and catnip is often used in toys designed for pet cats.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Nepeta cataria

"Catnip" redirects here. For other uses, see Catnip (disambiguation).

Nepeta cataria, commonly known as catnip, catswort, or catmint, is a species of the genus Nepeta in the Lamiaceae family, native to southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, and parts of China. It is also widely naturalized in northern Europe, New Zealand, North America, etc.[1][2][3][4] The common name catmint can also refer to the genus as a whole.

Description[edit]

Nepeta cataria is a short lived herbaceous perennial, growing 50–100 centimetres (20–39 in) tall and wide. It resembles a typical mint family member in appearance by having the characteristic square[5] stem that members of the Lamiaceae plant family have, but with brown-green foliage. The coarse-toothed leaves are triangular to ovate.[6]

The small bilabiate flowers can be white and finely spotted with pale purple or pink. They are showy and fragrant. The plant blooms from late spring through autumn.[6]

Uses[edit]

The plant terpenoid nepetalactone is the main chemical constituent of the essential oil of Nepeta cataria. Nepetalactone can be extracted from catnip by steam distillation.[7]

Cultivation[edit]

Nepeta cataria is cultivated as an ornamental plant for use in gardens. It is also grown for its attractant qualities to house cats and butterflies.[6]

The plant is drought tolerant and deer resistant. It can be a repellant for certain insects, including aphids and squash bugs.[6]

Varieties
  • Nepeta cataria var. citriodora (or N. cataria subsp. citriodora), Lemon catnip.

Attractant[edit]

The compound "iridodial" as extracted from catnip oil has been found to attract the beneficial insect known as lacewings which eat aphids and mites.[8]

Repellent[edit]

Nepetalactone is a mosquito and fly repellent.[9][10] Oil isolated from catnip by steam distillation is a repellent against insects, in particular mosquitoes, cockroaches and termites.[11][12] Research suggests that, in vitro, distilled nepetalactone repels mosquitoes ten times more effectively than DEET, the active ingredient in most insect repellents,[9][13] but that it is not as effective a repellent when used on the skin.[14]

Humans[edit]

Nepeta cataria can be brewed to produce a herbal tea.[15] Also used as a culinary herb for many dishes. Catnip can also be ingested through smoking the herb. It has a negligible effect of relaxation like most other "herbal" cigarettes.[16][17]

Medicinal[edit]

Catnip has a history of medicinal use for a variety of ailments.[18] The plant has been consumed as a tea, juice, tincture, infusion or poultice, and has also been smoked.[18] However, its medicinal use has fallen out of favor with the development of more commonplace pharmaceutical drugs.[18]

Cats[edit]

Catnip contains the feline attractant nepetalactone. Nepeta cataria (and some other species within the genus Nepeta) are known for their behavioral effects on the cat family, not only on domestic cats but also other species of cats.[18] One test showed that tigers, leopards, and lynxes all reacted strongly to catnip in a manner similar to domestic cats, while lions reacted less frequently.[19][20]

With domestic cats, N. cataria is used as a recreational substance for pet cats' enjoyment, and catnip and catnip-laced products designed for use with domesticated cats are available to consumers. The common behaviors when cats sense the bruised leaves or stems of catnip are rubbing on the plant, rolling on the ground, pawing at it, licking it, and chewing it. Consuming much of the plant is followed by drooling, sleepiness, anxiety, leaping about and purring. Some growl, meow, scratch, or bite at the hand holding it.[21][22] The main response period after exposure is generally between five and fifteen minutes,[23]:p.107 after which olfactory fatigue usually sets in.

The nepetalactone in catnip acts as a feline attractant after it enters the feline's nose.[24] Cats detect it through their olfactory epithelium, not through their vomeronasal organ.[25] At the olfactory epithelium, the nepetalactone binds to one or more olfactory receptors.

Not all cats are affected by catnip.[18] Roughly 33% of cats are not affected by the plant.[26][27] The phenomenon is hereditary.[18]

Other plants that also have this effect on cats include valerian (Valeriana officinalis), Acalypha indica (root) and plants that contain actinidine.[28] Domestic house cats who do not react to catnip will react in a similar way to Tartarian honeysuckle sawdust.[23]:p.108

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Nepeta cataria information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  2. ^ World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  3. ^ Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 107 荆芥属 jing jie shu Nepeta Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 570. 1753.
  4. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Nepeta includes photos plus range maps for Europe + North America
  5. ^ http://wisplants.uwsp.edu/scripts/familygenera.asp?Family=Lamiaceaestem
  6. ^ a b c d Missouri Botanical Garden: Nepeta cataria (Catmint) . accessed 1.10.2013
  7. ^ "DIY Kitty Crack: ultra-potent catnip extract". Instructables. June 3, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  8. ^ Agricultural Research. May/Jun2007, vol.55 Issue 5, p7-7. 1p.
  9. ^ a b Kingsley, Danny (September 3, 2001). "Catnip sends mozzies flying". ABC Science Online. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  10. ^ Junwei J. Zhu, Christopher A. Dunlap, Robert W. Behle, Dennis R. Berkebile, Brian Wienhold. (2010). Repellency of a wax-based catnip-oil formulation against stable flies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58 (23): 12320–12326 (8 Nov 2010, doi:10.1021/jf102811k).
  11. ^ Schultz, Gretchen; Peterson, Chris; Coats, Joel (May 25, 2006). "Natural Insect Repellents: Activity against Mosquitoes and Cockroaches". In Rimando, Agnes M.; Duke, Stephen O. Natural Products for Pest Management. ACS Symposium Series. American Chemical Society. 
  12. ^ "Termites Repelled by Catnip Oil". Southern Research Station, United States Department of Agriculture – Forest Service. March 26, 2003. 
  13. ^ Dennis Loney (2001-08-28). "Mosquito Repellents". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 26 April 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  14. ^ Chauhan, K.R.; Klun, Jerome A.; Debboun, Mustapha; Kramer, Matthew (2005). "Feeding Deterrent Effects of Catnip Oil Components Compared with Two Synthetic Amides Against Aedes aegypti". Journal of Medical Entomology 42 (4): 643–646. doi:10.1603/0022-2585(2005)042[0643:FDEOCO]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16119554. 
  15. ^ "Catnip tea". Supplement SOS. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Similar Effects to Pot, Minus the High". Erowid Experience Vaults. 
  17. ^ "How Does Catnip Affect Humans?". RealClearScience. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Grognet J (June 1990). "Catnip: Its uses and effects, past and present". The Canadian Veterinary Journal 31 (6): 455–456. PMC 1480656. PMID 17423611. 
  19. ^ Big Cat Rescue. "Q: Do Tigers Like Catnip?". Aug 2, 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tklx3j7kgJY
  20. ^ Durand, Marcella (March 4, 2003). "Heavenly Catnip". CatsPlay.com. Retrieved February 14, 2009. [dead link]
  21. ^ Becker, Marty; Spadafori, Gina (2006). Why Do Cats Always Land on Their Feet?: 101 of the Most Perplexing Questions Answered About Feline Unfathomables, Medical Mysteries and Befuddling Behaviors. Deerfield Beach, Florida: Health Communications, Incorporated. ISBN 0757305733. 
  22. ^ Spadafori, Gina (2006). "Here, Boy!". Universal Press Syndicate. Retrieved May 3, 2014. 
  23. ^ a b Arden Moore (20 July 2007). The Cat Behavior Answer Book: Solutions to Every Problem You'll Ever Face; Answers to Every Question You'll Ever Ask. Storey. ISBN 978-1-60342-179-9. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  24. ^ Siegel, Ronald K. Intoxication: The Universal Drive for Mind-Altering Substances. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-59477-069-2. 
  25. ^ Hart, Benjamin L.; Leedy, Mitzi G. (July 1985). "Analysis of the catnip reaction: mediation by olfactory system, not vomeronasal organ". Behavioral and neural biology 44 (1): 38–46. doi:10.1016/S0163-1047(85)91151-3. PMID 3834921. 
  26. ^ http://www.cat-world.com.au/all-about-catnip
  27. ^ Turner, Ramona (May 29, 2007). "How does catnip work its magic on cats?". Scientific American. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  28. ^ Smith, L (2005). "CATNIP". Archived from the original on 20 Jan 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Dried leaves and flowering tops are used medicinally as a stimulant, tonic, carminative, diaphoretic, and for infantile colic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!