Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Several plants with daisy-like flowers have been introduced into North America from Europe. Most of these species have flowerheads with white petal-like rays, although Yellow Chamomile is one of the exceptions. In Illinois, it has been less likely to escape from cultivation than Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy), Anthemis cotula (Dog Fennel), and some other species in this group.
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Description

This perennial wildflower is 1-3' tall, branching frequently. The stems are light gray-green, terete, and sparsely to moderately covered with short fine hairs. The alternate leaves are 1½-3" long, ¾-1½" across, and lanceolate, oblanceolate, or ovate in outline; each leaf is pinnate-pinnatifid with 2-6 pairs of lateral leaflets and a terminal leaflet. The leaflets are oblong in shape and pinnatifid with pointed lobes. The upper surface of each leaf is light to medium gray-green, while the lower surface is light gray-green; both surfaces are sparsely to moderately covered with short fine hairs. The lower leaves have short flat petioles, while the upper leaves are sessile or nearly so. The upper stems terminate in individual flowerheads about 1½-2" across. Each flowerhead consists of 20-32 yellow ray florets that surround a large dome-like cluster of golden yellow disk florets. The ray florets are fertile and pistillate (female); the petaloid (petal-like) extension of each ray floret terminates in 2-3 blunt teeth. The tiny disk florets are fertile and perfect; the corolla of each disk floret is narrowly tubular with 5 spreading lobes. Around the base of each flowerhead, there are numerous phyllaries (floral bracts) that are arranged together in a single series. Individual phyllaries are light green, linear in shape, and membranous along their upper margins; they are sparsely to moderately covered with short fine hairs. The peduncles (stalks) of the flowerheads are relatively long and unbranched; they are similar in appearance to the stems. The crushed foliage has an aromatic scent. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall, lasting about 2 months. The florets are replaced by narrowly oblongoid achenes about 2 mm. in length; these achenes are slightly four-angled and slightly flattened. At the apex of each achene, there is a short angular crown.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The introduced Yellow Chamomile rarely escapes from cultivation in Illinois. So far, naturalized plants have been found in the NE section of the state (see Distribution Map). It was introduced from Europe into North America as an ornamental plant. Naturalized habitats include roadsides, abandoned fields, weedy meadows, and thinly wooded areas that are relatively open and sunny. Yellow Chamomile is often cultivated in flower gardens.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Leaves 1–3(–5) cm, ultimate lobes narrowly oblong to spatulate or linear, ultimate margins entire or serrate (teeth apiculate). Phyl-laries: abaxial faces sericeous to arachnose, margins often ciliolate. Paleae 4–5 mm (including spinose tips). Ray laminae yellow, 6–12+ mm. Disc corollas 3.5–4 mm. Cypselae 1.8–2.2 mm; pappi usually 2–2.5 mm. 2n = 18.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Anthemis tinctoria Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 896. 1753
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The introduced Yellow Chamomile rarely escapes from cultivation in Illinois. So far, naturalized plants have been found in the NE section of the state (see Distribution Map). It was introduced from Europe into North America as an ornamental plant. Naturalized habitats include roadsides, abandoned fields, weedy meadows, and thinly wooded areas that are relatively open and sunny. Yellow Chamomile is often cultivated in flower gardens.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

Because their nectar and pollen is relatively easy to reach, the flowerheads attract a wide variety of insects. In Europe, Müller (1873/1883) observed small bees (Colletes spp., Heriades spp., & Halictus spp.), Ichneumonid wasps, various flies (Syrphidae, Conopidae, & Muscidae), and beetles (Elateridae & Mordellidae) visiting the flowers. In North America, records of floral-fauna interactions for Yellow Chamomile are sparse. Caterpillars of the moth Orthonama obstipata (The Gem) have been observed to feed on Anthemis spp. (Covell, 1984/2005). According to Georgia (1913), grazing animals avoid consumption of Yellow Chamomile. The aromatic foliage is bitter-tasting and possibly toxic to such animals.
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Foodplant / parasite
Golovinomyces cichoracearum parasitises live Anthemis tinctoria

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anthemis tinctoria

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anthemis tinctoria

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun and mesic to dry conditions. Different types of soil are tolerated, including those containing loam, clay-loam, and gravelly material.
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Wikipedia

Cota tinctoria

Yellow chamomile flower and bud

Cota tinctoria (golden marguerite, yellow chamomile, oxeye chamomile), syn. Anthemis tinctoria, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. Other common names include "dyer's chamomile", "Boston daisy", "Paris daisy". In horticulture this plant is still widely referred to by its synonym Anthemis tinctoria.[2]

It is a short-lived plant often treated as biennial, occurring in the Mediterranean and western Asia. It has aromatic, bright green, feathery foliage. The serrate leaves are bi-pinnatifid (= finely divided) and downy beneath. It grows to a height of 60 cm.

It has yellow daisy-like terminal flowers on long thin angular stems, blooming in profusion during the summer.

It has no culinary or commercial uses and only limited medicinal uses. However, it produces excellent yellow, buff and golden-orange dyes, used in the past for fabrics.

Cota tinctoria is grown in gardens for its bright attractive flowers and fine lacy foliage; there is a white flowering form also but the most commonly grown form is the seed raised cultivar 'Kelwayi' which has 5 cm wide, yellow flowers on 65 cm plants. The asexually propagated cultivar 'E.C. Buxton' is a hybrid between this species and another Anthemis species.

Illustration
Habitat

References[edit]

  1. ^ Florae Siculae Synopsis 2: 866. 1844 [1845].
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 


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