Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

False Sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides) is not considered a true sunflower (Helianthus sp.) because both the ray and disk florets of its flowerheads can produce seeds. In contrast, only the disk florets of sunflowers can produce seeds. In contrast to both False Sunflower and true sunflowers, only the ray florets of Silphium spp. can produce seeds, while their disk florets are seedless. All of these species are relatively large and robust plants that produce showy flowerheads with yellow rays, and they prefer habitats that are at least partly sunny. False Sunflower resembles many sunflower species, particularly those that are found in and around woodlands. In addition to the difference in the fertility of their florets, False Sunflower can be distinguished by its more erect flowerheads, by the rather stout and blunt-tipped phyllaries on its flowerheads, and by the arrangement of its outer phyllaries in a single series. In contrast, most sunflower species have flowerheads that nod sideways, their phyllaries are either more slender (linear-lanceolate in shape) or they are triangular with acute tips, and they have several overlapping series of outer phyllaries. Return
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This perennial plant is 3-5' tall, branching occasionally and becoming rather bushy in open situations. The stems are light green to reddish green, variably pubescent or hairy, and terete to slightly angular. Pairs of opposite leaves are distributed evenly along these stems. These leaves are 2½–5" long and 1–3½" across; they are cordate-ovate, ovate, or lanceolate in shape, while their margins are coarsely serrated. The upper leaf surface is medium to dark green and usually rough-textured from minute stiff hairs, while the lower leaf surface is light green and glabrous to short-pubescent. Primary veins of the leaves are pinnately arranged. On each leaf, 2 prominent lateral veins become separated from the central vein near its base. Secondary veins of the leaves form reticulated networks that are visible on the leaf undersides. The petioles are up to ¾" long, partially winged, and more or less pubescent. The upper stems terminate in flowerheads spanning about 1½–3" across; these flowerheads are usually more or less erect. Each flowerhead consists of 8-20 ray florets that surround numerous disk florets. The petaloid rays of each flowerhead are yellow to deep golden yellow, oblong or oblong-elliptic in shape, and slightly notched at their tips. The tiny corollas of both the ray florets and disk florets are short-tubular in shape, deep golden yellow to orange-yellow, and 5-lobed; the corolla lobes of these florets are triangular in shape and spreading to recurved. Both the ray florets and disk florets of the flowerheads are fertile. At the base of each flowerhead, there are several outer phyllaries (floral bracts) that are arranged in a single series. These phyllaries are light to medium green, more or less pubescent, and oblong-ovate in shape, tapering abruptly to blunt tips that are somewhat recurved. There are also several inner phyllaries that are arranged in a single series. These phyllaries are similar to the outer phyllaries, but their tips are appressed along the base of the flowerhead, rather than recurved. The peduncles of the flowerheads are 1-6" long, light green, terete to slightly angular, and more or less pubescent. The blooming period occurs from early summer to late summer, lasting about 2-3 months for a colony of plants. Afterwards, the florets are replaced by achenes that are 4-5 mm. long, oblongoid-oblanceoloid in shape, somewhat flattened, and dark-colored. These achenes lack tufts of hair, nor do they have significant scales at their apices. The root system is fibrous. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native False Sunflower occurs throughout Illinois, except for a few southern counties (see Distribution Map). It is a fairly common plant, favoring areas that have some history of disturbance. Habitats include black soil prairies, river-bottom prairies, grassy meadows in wooded areas, open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, thickets, limestone glades, banks of streams, and areas along railroads where prairie remnants occur. False Sunflower is grown in flower gardens, from which it sometimes escapes into neighboring waste areas. This plant is also used in prairie restorations, even though it is more typically found in or around wooded areas. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, (40–)80–150 cm. Aerial stems (from creeping rhizomes to 4 cm × 2–6 mm, rhizome internodes mostly 2–10 mm) 1–10+, stramineous to reddish brown, glabrous or hairy. Leaf blades ovate to deltate-lanceolate, 6–12(–15) × 2–6(–12) cm, margins regularly to irregularly and coarsely dentate, apices acute to acuminate, faces glabrous, sparsely pubescent, moderately to densely scabrellous, or scabrous. Heads 1–15+. Peduncles 9–25 cm. Involucres 12–25 mm diam. Phyllaries glabrescent to densely pubescent on margins, apices, and abaxial faces. Paleae lanceolate to oblong, apices obtuse, faces glabrous. Ray florets 10–18; corollas golden yellow, laminae mostly 2–4 cm × 6–13 mm. Disc florets 10–75+; corollas yellowish to brownish yellow (lobes brighter than tubes), 4–5 mm, glabrous. Cypselae 4–5 mm, glabrous or pubescent on angles, smooth; pappi 0 or of 2–4 minute, toothlike scales. 2n = 28 (variety unknown).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Buphthalmum helianthoides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 904. 1753
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native False Sunflower occurs throughout Illinois, except for a few southern counties (see Distribution Map). It is a fairly common plant, favoring areas that have some history of disturbance. Habitats include black soil prairies, river-bottom prairies, grassy meadows in wooded areas, open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, thickets, limestone glades, banks of streams, and areas along railroads where prairie remnants occur. False Sunflower is grown in flower gardens, from which it sometimes escapes into neighboring waste areas. This plant is also used in prairie restorations, even though it is more typically found in or around wooded areas. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of False Sunflower in Illinois

Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen; flies and beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Graenicher, Mitchell, Reed, and Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Gr, Re); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus griseocallis (Re), Bombus pensylvanica sn cp (Rb, Gr), Bombus vagans (Re); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn fq, Triepeolus concavus sn, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis (Mch), Melissodes coloradensis sn, Melissodes coreopsis (Mch), Melissodes denticulata sn, Melissodes rustica sn, Melissodes subillata (Re), Melissodes trinodis sn cp (Rb, Gr), Melissodes vernoniae (Mch), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada sp. sn (Re); Anthophoridae (Pasitidini): Holcopasites heliopsis sn; Megachilidae (Anthidinini): Paranthidium jugatoria sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys germana sn, Coelioxys moesta sn (Gr), Coelioxys octodentata sn, Coelioxys rufitarsis rufitarsis sn (Gr), Coelioxys sayi sn, Coelioxys texana sn (Gr); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn fq, Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile inimica sayi (Mch), Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr, Re), Megachile mendica sn cp (Gr), Megachile parallela parallela sn, Megachile pugnatus sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades variolosa variolosa (Kr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn cp (Gr), Agapostemon virescens sn cp (Gr, Re), Augochlora purus purus (Mch), Augochlorella striata sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re), Halictus confusus (Re), Halictus ligatus (Re), Lasioglossum imitatus cp np, Lasioglossum obscurus sn, Lasioglossum pectoralis cp np, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re), Lasioglossum pruinosus sn cp, Lasioglossum rohweri (Re); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena aliciae sn cp (Rb, Gr), Andrena peckhami sn cp (Gr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Heterosarus labrosiformis labrosiformis sn cp, Heterosarus labrosus (Mch), Pseudopanurgus rugosus sn fq

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius continuus (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila kennedyi, Ammophila nigricans; Scoliidae: Scolia bicincta

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis stipator (Re), Eristalis transversus sn (Rb, Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Re); Empidae: Empis clausa sn fq; Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira sn (Rb, Gr); Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora (Gr), Exoprosopa fasciata sn, Exoprosopa fascipennis sn, Geron calvus sn fq, Poecilanthrax alcyon sn, Poecilognathus punctipennis (Gr), Sparnopolius confusus sn, Systoechus sp. (Re), Systoechus vulgaris sn (Rb, Gr); Conopidae: Stylogaster biannulata sn, Zodion sp. (Re); Anthomyiidae: Delia platura (Gr); Tachinidae: Mochlosoma sp. (Gr); Milichiidae: Eusiphona sp. (Re)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis (Gr), Danaus plexippus (Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Rb, Gr), Speyeria cybele (Gr), Vanessa cardui (Re), Vanessa virginiensis (Gr); Lycaenidae: Strymon melinus; Pieridae: Colias philodice (Gr), Pontia protodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Pholisora catullus, Polites themistocles (Gr)

Moths
Sesiidae: Synanthedon tipuliformis (Gr)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus sn; Elateridae: Cardiophorus obscurus fp (Gr); Mordellidae: Mordellistena comata fp (Gr)

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus; Miridae: Metriorrhynchomiris dislocatus (Gr), Plagiognathus sp. (Gr)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Heliopsis helianthoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Heliopsis helianthoides

Heliopsis helianthoides is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, known by the common names smooth oxeye and false sunflower.[1] It is native to eastern North America, including eastern Canada and the eastern United States.[2][3]

This species is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial growing 40–150 cm (16–59 in) tall. The toothed leaf blades are oval to triangular or lance-shaped and may be smooth or hairy or rough in texture. The flowers are produced from midsummer to early autumn (fall).[4] The inflorescence contains one to many composite flowerheads. Each head contains yellow ray florets which are generally 2–4 cm long. At the center are many yellow to brownish disc florets. The fruit is an achene about 5 mm long.[2]

In the wild this plant may be found in wooded areas and tallgrass prairie, and sometimes along roadsides.[1]

It is a popular garden plant, and several cultivars are available with flowers of varying colors and shades. These include 'Summer Sun', 'Golden Plume', and 'Prairie Sunset'.[3] The following cultivars of H. helianthoides var. scabra ("rough")[5] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Benzinggold'[6]
  • 'Light of Loddon'[7]
  • 'Spitzentänzerin'[8]
  • 'Waterperry Gold'[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Heliopsis helianthoides. USDA NRCS Plant Guide.
  2. ^ a b Heliopsis helianthoides. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ a b Heliopsis helianthoides. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  4. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra 'Benzinggold'". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra 'Light of Loddon'". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra 'Spitzentänzerin'". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra 'Waterperry Gold'". Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

As T. R. Fisher (1957) noted, intermediates occur between var. helianthoides and var. scabra, and artificial hybrids show only slightly decreased pollen stainabilities and normal meiotic pairing. Intermediates are especially common in Missouri, Illinois, and New England, and may also be encountered elsewhere in areas of sympatry. In addition to the key characters, var. helianthoides generally has longer petioles, has smaller heads on shorter peduncles, and occupies less-open habitats than var. scabra.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!