Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Acanthiophilus helianthi feeds within capitulum of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Agapanthia villosoviridescens feeds within stem of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion carduorum feeds within stem? of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion gibbirostre feeds within stem of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion onopordi feeds within stem of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Cassida rubiginosa grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Cassida vibex grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cheilosia grossa feeds within root (after stem) of multi-stemmed plant of Carduus
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / gall
Cleonis piger causes gall of root of Carduus

Plant / resting place / within
adult of Haplothrips distinguendus may be found in live flower of Carduus
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / gall
larva of Jaapiella cirsiicola causes gall of inflorescence of Carduus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Larinus planus feeds within capitulum of Carduus

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Lixus angustatus feeds on stem of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Lixus elongatus feeds within stem of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Melanagromyza aeneoventris feeds within stem of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Neocrepidodera ferruginea grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche reticulata parasitises root of Carduus

Foodplant / visitor
adult of Physocephala rufipes visits for nectar and/or pollen capitulum of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Psylliodes chalcomera grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhinocyllus conicus feeds within capitulum of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Sphaeroderma rubidum grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Sphaeroderma testaceum grazes on leaf of Carduus

Foodplant / feeds on
Tanymecus palliatus feeds on Carduus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Trichosirocalus horridus feeds on Carduus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Urophora solstitialis causes gall of capitulum of Carduus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Urophora stylata causes gall of inflorescence of Carduus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 51
Specimens with Sequences: 82
Specimens with Barcodes: 49
Species: 12
Species With Barcodes: 12
Public Records: 23
Public Species: 9
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Carduus

Carduus is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, and the tribe Cynareae, the thistles. It is one of two genera considered to be "true thistles", the other being Cirsium.[1] Plants of the genus are known commonly as plumeless thistles.[2][3] They are native to Eurasia and Africa, and several are known elsewhere as introduced species.[3] This genus is noted for its disproportionately high number of noxious weeds compared to other flowering plant genera.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The genus name Carduus is from the Latin for "a kind of thistle"[5] or "thistlelike plant".[3] It is related to the word Cardonnacum ("a place of chardons or thistles"), which is the origin of Chardonnay, the name of the grape variety.[6]

Description[edit]

These are usually annual or biennial herbs, sometimes perennial. Species often grow 2 meters in height but are known to reach 4 meters. The erect stems are winged and spiny, and usually have woolly hairs. The leaf blades are hairy to hairless and entire or divided into lobes, and they have spine-toothed edges. The flower heads are solitary or borne in inflorescences of up to 20. The head is spherical to cylindrical and covered in several layers of spreading or curving spine-tipped phyllaries. It contains long, tubular disc florets in shades of white, pink, or purple. The fruit is a cypsela tipped with a pappus of barbed bristles or scales.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Several Carduus are notorious invasive plants outside their native range, for example, in Australia[7] and the United States.[8] Species such as C. acanthoides, C. nutans, C. pycnocephalus, and C. tenuiflorus easily become weedy in disturbed habitat, such as overgrazed pasture. C. nutans is allelopathic, producing compounds that inhibit the growth and development of other plants.[8]

Agents of biological pest control that have been used against weedy Carduus thistles include the thistle head weevil (Rhinocyllus conicus), thistle crown weevil (Trichosirocalus horridus), and thistle crown fly (Cheilosia corydon). The musk thistle rust (Puccinia carduorum), a fungus, may also be used against C. nutans.[8]

Diversity[edit]

There are about 90[3] to 127[9] species in the genus.

Species include:

Hybrids
  • Carduus × orthocephalus
  • Carduus keniensis × C. platyphyllus[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jordon-Thaden, I. E. and S. M. Louda. (2003). Chemistry of Cirsium and Carduus: a role in ecological risk assessment for biological control of weeds? Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31(12), 1353-96.
  2. ^ Carduus. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
  3. ^ a b c d e Carduus. Flora of North America.
  4. ^ Schmidt, J. P. and J. M. Drake. (2011). Why are some plant genera more invasive than others? PloS ONE 6(4), e18654.
  5. ^ Carduus. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  6. ^ Chardonnay. Viticultural Information. UC Integrated Viticulture, University of California.
  7. ^ Carduus. PlantNET. National Herbarium of NSW, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.
  8. ^ a b c Genus Carduus. Encycloweedia. California Department of Food and Agriculture.
  9. ^ Carduus. The Plant List.
  10. ^ Beentje, Henk (2000). Compositae, Part 1 (Flora of Tropical East Africa). Kew Botanical Garden. 
  11. ^ Young, T. P. and M. M. Peacock. (1985). Vegetative key to the alpine vascular plants of Mount Kenya. Journal of the East African Natural History Society 185, 1–9.
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