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Rambutan trees, which have been previously classified as Euphoria nephelium and Dimocarpus crinita, typically grow to 15 to 25 m (50 to 80 ft) in height, with straight narrow trunks (to 60 cm, or 2 ft, wide) and dense spreading crowns. The alternate leaves are pinnately compound, with 1 to 4 pairs of opposite to subopposite leaflets, each 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 in) long, on a reddish rachis (leaf stem). The small yellow petal-less flowers are borne in many-branched hairy panicles (clusters) in the axils (where leaf meets stem) or may appear to be terminal (but are not). The fruit is oval to elliptical, 3.4 to 8 cm long (1.3 to 3.125 in), with a thin, leathery rind covered with tubercles (warty protuberances) tipped with soft, hairlike spines (the fruit gets its name from its hairy appearance, from the Malay word “rambut” for hair). The fruit ripens to yellow or red on the exterior, within which is a thin layer (less than 1 cm or 3/8 in thick) of white to rose-colored, translucent juicy flesh covering a somewhat flattened oval seed.
Rambutan fruits, which are high in vitamin C, are generally eaten fresh on their own or in fruit salads. They are sometimes made into jams, cooked in stews, or preserved by canning. They were previously used for the black dye that could be obtained from the fruit peels.
(Flora of China Morton 1987, van Wyk 2005.)