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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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Distribution

Range Description

Aquilegia vulgaris L. ssp. ballii is a strict endemic of Morocco. It is suspected to be rare and its distribution is limited to the High Atlas where it is found in eight localities: Toubkal, Gorges of Lépiney, Ourika, Tachdirt, Arround, Seksaoua, Assaga, Ghat. The extent of occurrence of the species is in the range of 7,000 km² within which the occupied area doesn't exceed 600 km².
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Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
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introduced; B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Ill., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Vt., Wash., W.Va.; native to Europe.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems 30-72 cm. Basal leaves 2×-ternately compound, 10-30 cm, much shorter than stems; leaflets green adaxially, to 15-47 mm, not viscid; primary petiolules 22-60 mm (leaflets not crowded), pilose or rarely glabrous. Flowers nodding; sepals divergent from or perpendicular to floral axis, mostly blue or purple, lance-ovate, (10-)15-25 × 8-12 mm, apex broadly acute or obtuse; petals: spurs mostly blue or purple, hooked, 14-22 mm, stout, evenly tapered from base, blades mostly blue or purple, oblong, 10-13 × 6-10 mm; stamens 9-13 mm. Follicles 15-25 mm; beak 7-15 mm. 2 n = 14 (Europe).
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found generally as isolated individuals, along streams and on humid rocks in mountains between 1,800-3,000 m elevation. It is a perennial plant (Hemicryptophyte) that blooms in the spring. Its localities are influenced by Mediterranean semi-arid cold, sub-humid, humid and high mountain bioclimate.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Disturbed habitats; 0-1500m.
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Associations

Foodplant / shot hole causer
Actinonema coelomycetous anamorph of Actinonema aquilegiae causes shot holes on live leaf of Aquilegia vulgaris

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe aquilegiae var. aquilegiae parasitises Aquilegia vulgaris

Foodplant / spot causer
Haplobasidion pavonium causes spots on live leaf of Aquilegia vulgaris

Foodplant / miner
larva of Ophiomyia aquilegiana mines stem (one or two internodes) of Aquilegia vulgaris

Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza aquilegiae mines live leaf of Aquilegia vulgaris
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Phytomyza krygeri feeds within seed capsule of Aquilegia vulgaris
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pristiphora rufipes grazes on live leaf margin of Aquilegia vulgaris
Remarks: season: spring-summer
Other: sole host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-summer (May-Jul).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Aquilegia vulgaris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aquilegia vulgaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Rhazi, L., Grillas, P. & Rhazi, M.

Reviewer/s
Grillas, P., de Bélair, G., Temple, H. (IUCN Species Programme) & Muller, S.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
Aquilegia vulgaris ssp. ballii has a small extent of occurrence but is found at more than 10 locations. There are some general threats but these are not considered likely to have a significant impact on the species. It is classed as Least Concern, although uplisting to Near Threatened should be considered if the threats become more intense.
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Population

Population
The size of the populations is not known.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The major threat to Aquilegia vulgaris ssp. balliis is the deterioration of the quality of the habitat due to a high grazing pressure on the sites, tourism (trampling), agriculture next to the springs, pollution of soil and water, and accumulation of materials (rocks) at the time of the frequent heavy downpours in the mountains.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures in place, but the following actions are needed:
- Surveillance of the existing sites and to search for new sites
- To study the biology and the ecology of the species and to estimate the population size
- Monitoring the population dynamics
- Enforcement of legal protection measures (Law on the studies of impact, law on the protection and the enhancement of the environment)
- Raising public awareness
- Legal protection (list of protected species in Morocco)
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Wikipedia

Aquilegia vulgaris

Aquilegia vulgaris L. (European columbine, Common columbine, Granny's nightcap, Granny's bonnet) is a species of columbine native to Europe. It is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1.2 m tall, with branched, thinly hairy stems. The leaves are pinnate, with the basal leaflets themselves trifoliate. The flowers, in various shades of purple, blue, pink and white, are pendent or horizontal with hooked spurs, and appear in early Summer.[1]

Cultivation[edit]

This species and various hybrids derived from it are popular garden flowers, available in a variety of single colours and bi-colours, in single and double forms. Though perennial, cultivars may be short-lived and thus best treated as biennials. Spent flower-heads should be removed to prevent the plant going to seed. Cultivars include the Barlow series (Nora Barlow, Black Barlow, Rose Barlow, Christa Barlow), Pretty Bonnets. Seeds may be sold as mixtures. 'Nora Barlow' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

A. vulgaris 'Nora Barlow'

Pests and diseases[edit]

Aphids and sawfly larvae may attack the plant.

Folklore[edit]

In traditional herbalism columbine was considered sacred to Venus; carrying a posy of it was said arouse the affections of a loved one. Nicholas Culpeper recommended it to ease the pains of childbirth. In modern herbal medicine it is used as an astringent and diuretic.[3]

Toxicity[edit]

The plant is a member of the poisonous Ranunculus family and all parts of the plant, including the seeds, are poisonous if ingested.[4] The dried crushed seeds made into a dusting powder will kill lice very effectively.[medical citation needed] It is possible that inhaling the crushed seeds dust or otherwise absorbing oils from them may cause poisoning or at minimum exhibit symptoms of poisoning.[citation needed]

The acute toxicity test in mice showed that ethanol extract and the main flavonoid compound isocytisoside from the leaves and stems of Aquilegia vulgaris can be classified as nontoxic since a dose of 3000 mg/kg did not cause mortality in mice.[5]

Gallery[edit]

Other links[edit]

Chemical Compound Review Isocytisoside

References[edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Aquilegia vulgaris var. stellata 'Nora Barlow' (Barlow Series) (d) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  3. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Herbal Remedies (Century, 1987), p.124
  4. ^ Ivo Pauwels; Gerty Christoffels, Ivo Pauwels (2006). Herbs. Struik. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-77007-447-7. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  5. ^ Adamska T. Mlynarczyk W. Jodynis-Liebert J. Bylka W. Matlawska I "Hepatoprotective effect of the extract and isocytisoside from Aquilegia vulgaris" Phytotherapy Research 2003 Jun;17(6):691-6.

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Notes

Comments

Aquilegia vulgaris is cultivated as an ornamental and occasionally escapes into disturbed habitats. Most plants have blue or purple flowers (the wild type), but horticultural races with white or reddish flowers sometimes become established. Many cultivated columbines are derived from hybrids between A . vulgaris and related species. Some of our escaped plants are probably descended from such hybrids.
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