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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

American Hops has some resemblance to grapevines (Vitis spp.), but it is a coarser and more bristly vine that flowers late in the year, while the latter flowers during the spring. The female fruit of hops is used to flavor beer and prevent decay during fermentation from bacterial processes. It is possible that the wind-dispersed pollen may cause allergic reactions in some people. There are both European and American varieties of this species, and it is quite possible that they have interbred in the wild. Consequently, they are often hard to distinguish. There is a variety of American Hops that has unlobed leaves. There is an invasive non-native species of hops that occurs in the wild, Humulus japonicus (Japanese Hops). This is an annual vine that has leaves with more lobes (5-7) than American Hops. Furthermore, the lobes of its leaves are more narrow and pointed.
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Description

This perennial vine is up to 30' long; it dies back to the ground each year. The stems are light green or light tan, stout, and smooth to prickly-bristly. The opposite leaves are up to 6" long and 4" across; smaller leaves are usually oval-cordate in shape, but larger leaves are palmate with 3 lobes (rarely with 5). These leaves have a rough texture and coarse serration along the margins; they are medium green or yellowish green on their upper surfaces, and whitish green below. The long petioles are light green or light tan, stout, and prickly-bristly. At the base of each petiole is a pair of lanceolate stipules. The hairiness or pubescence of the stems and leaves is variable, if it is present at all. Usually, there are small white hairs along the major veins on the leaf undersides; sometimes these veins are also prickly. American Hops is dioecious, with male (staminate) and female (pistillate) plants. The male plants produce drooping panicles of staminate flowers. These panicles are up to 12" long and 6" across; they contain numerous small flowers that are yellowish or whitish green. Each staminate flower has 5 sepals, 5 stamens, and no petals. It has a star-like appearance and spans about ¼" across, hanging downward from a slender pedicel that is often slightly pubescent. The non-sticky pollen is produced in great abundance and it is easily dispersed into the air. The female plants produce odd-looking cone-shaped spikes of pistillate flowers (aments) from the axils of the leaves. A spike of pistillate flowers is up to 3" long, 2" across, and ovoid in shape; it usually hangs downward from a slender peduncle. The pistillate spike consists of overlapping green bracts that are ovate; there is a pair of pistillate flowers tucked between each adjacent pair of bracts. Each pistillate flower consists of little more than an ovary with a sticky stigma that is long and slender. Both the male and female flowers bloom during the late summer for about 2 weeks. The male flowers quickly turn brown and wither away, while the fruits (or aments) of the female flowers persist longer and gradually turn brown. Each pistillate flower produces a capsule with a single seed that is resinous and aromatic. This vine reproduces by reseeding itself. Cultivation
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native American Hops is a common plant that occurs in most areas of central and northern Illinois. However, it less common or absent from many areas of southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Other varieties of this vine also occur in Eurasia. American Hops occurs in openings of both upland and floodplain forests, woodland borders, thickets, and slopes of bluffs. In more developed areas, it is found along fence rows, vacant lots, areas along railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. This plant favors areas that are more or less disturbed, whether from human activities or natural causes. It often clambers over surrounding vegetation, including shrubs and small trees. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: North America, South Europe, Western Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Clockwise twining climber with stout root stock. Stem 3-6 m. tall, scabrid or prickly. Leaves broadly ovate, more or less cordate at base, usually deeply 3-5 lobed, serrate, 6-12 cm in diameter, lobes acuminate, petiole shorter or equal to blade. Male panicle 7.5-10 cm. in diameter with c 5 mm across flowers. Female inflorescence 12-15 mm. in diameter with yellow flowers; bract 10 mm. long, ovate, acute, pale green ; styles purple. Etaerio of achenes 3-4 cm in diameter.
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Description

Plants perennial. Petiole usually shorter than leaf blade; leaf blade 3-5(-7)-lobed, sometimes simple, 4-11 × 4-8 cm, abaxially glabrous or with scattered soft pubescence but without rigid spinulose hairs on veins, adaxially with few or no cystolith hairs marginally when young, base cordate, margin coarsely serrate, apex acute. Female flowers 2 per bract at least in middle of inflorescence; bracts imbricated into a globose spike. Infructescences globose, 3-4 cm in diam.; bracts ovoid, 1.5-2 cm, dry, membranous, apex acute. Achenes flat, included in bracts. Fl. autumn.
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Description

Herbs , perennial, rhizomatous, 1-6(-7) m. Stems branched. Leaves: petioles usually shorter than blades. Leaf blade ± cordate, palmately 3-7-lobed, sometimes unlobed, 3-15 cm, margins dentate-serrate; surfaces abaxially with veins glabrous or with soft pubescence, without straight, erect hairs, glands yellow, adaxially margins of younger leaf blades with few or no cystolithic hairs. Inflorescences: staminate with flowers whitish to yellowish, anthers glandular; pistillate usually racemes, 10-20 mm, pedunculate; bracteole margins not ciliate-hairy. Infructescences pendulous, pale yellow, conelike, ovoid to oblong, (1-)2-3(-6) cm; bracteoles with yellow glands. Achenes yellowish, ovoid, compressed, glandular. 2 n = 20, including 2 or more sex-determining chromosomes.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native American Hops is a common plant that occurs in most areas of central and northern Illinois. However, it less common or absent from many areas of southern Illinois (see Distribution Map). Other varieties of this vine also occur in Eurasia. American Hops occurs in openings of both upland and floodplain forests, woodland borders, thickets, and slopes of bluffs. In more developed areas, it is found along fence rows, vacant lots, areas along railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. This plant favors areas that are more or less disturbed, whether from human activities or natural causes. It often clambers over surrounding vegetation, including shrubs and small trees. Faunal Associations
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Habitat & Distribution

Gansu, N Sichuan, Xinjiang [N Africa, N and NE Asia, Europe, E North America].
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Associations

Foodplant / miner
solitary larva of Agromyza flaviceps mines leaf of Humulus lupulus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza igniceps mines leaf of Humulus lupulus
Other: sole host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed, brownish pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta humuli causes spots on live leaf of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / pathogen
Botrytis dematiaceous anamorph of Botrytis cinerea infects and damages live Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Clavidisculum humuli is saprobic on dead stem of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / parasite
haustorium of Cuscuta europaea parasitises stem of Humulus lupulus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious perithecium of Diaporthe sarmenticia is saprobic on dead stem of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / false gall
clustered perithecium of Gibberella pulicaris causes swelling of dead stem of Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lachnella alboviolascens is saprobic on dead stem (large) of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / gall
Meloidogyne incognita causes gall of root of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Mitoplinthus caliginosus feeds within rootstock of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Mycocentrospora coelomycetous anamorph of Mycocentrospora cantuariensis causes spots on live leaf of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Pezizella discreta is saprobic on dead stem of Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / parasite
Phacidiopycnis coelomycetous anamorph of Phacidiopycnis tuberivora parasitises live Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Phorodon humuli sucks sap of live shoot of Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 5-

Foodplant / saprobe
Phycomyces is saprobic on spent hop (inflorescence) mulch of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, scattered, smoky-yellow pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta humuli causes spots on fading leaf of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora citricola infects and damages live root of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Podosphaera macularis parasitises Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Pseudoperonospora humuli parasitises live cone of Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 8-9,5
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Psilachnum tami is saprobic on dead stem of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Psylliodes attenuata grazes on leaf of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / saprobe
embedded sclerotium of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is saprobic on dead, decaying stem of Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, central but scattered pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria humuli causes spots on fading leaf of Humulus lupulus

Plant / resting place / within
female of Thrips albopilosus may be found in live flower of Humulus lupulus
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / pathogen
Verticillium albo-atrum infects and damages Humulus lupulus

Foodplant / pathogen
Verticillium dahliae infects and damages Humulus lupulus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Humulus lupulus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Humulus lupulus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 18
Specimens with Barcodes: 25
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Wikipedia

Humulus lupulus

Humulus lupulus (common hop or hop) is a species of flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family, native to Europe, western Asia and North America. It is a dioecious, perennial, herbaceous climbing plant which sends up new shoots in early spring and dies back to a cold-hardy rhizome in autumn. Strictly speaking it is a bine rather than a vine, using its own shoots to act as supports for new growth.

H. lupulus is a main ingredient of many beers, and as such is widely cultivated for use by the brewing industry (for more information, see the main article on Hops). The fragrant flower cones impart bitterness and flavor, and also have preservative qualities.[1] H. lupulus contains myrcene, humulene, xanthohumol, myrcenol, linalool, tannins, and resin.

Varieties[edit]

'Golden' hop

The five varieties of this species (Humulus lupulus) are:

  • H. l. var. lupulus – Europe, western Asia
  • H. l. var. cordifolius – eastern Asia
  • H. l. var. lupuloides (syn. H. americanus) – eastern North America
  • H. l. var. neomexicanus – western North America
  • H. l. var. pubescens – midwestern North America

Many cultivated varieties are found in the list of hop varieties. A pale, ornamental variety, Humulus lupulus 'Aureus', is cultivated for garden use. It is also known as golden hop, and holds the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (AGM).[2]

Pests and diseases[edit]

Animal pests[edit]

Diseases[edit]

Main article: List of hop diseases

Popularity[edit]

H. lupulus was voted the county flower of Kent in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife.[3]

Research[edit]

  • H. lupulus contains the potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin, which may have a relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors.[4]
  • H. lupulus extract is antimicrobial, an activity which has been exploited in the manufacture of natural deodorant.[5]
  • Spent H. lupulus extract has also been shown to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, raising the possibility this waste product of the brewing industry could be developed for medical applications.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Antimicrobial screening of essential oils and extracts of some Humulus lupulus L. cultivars.". Pharm Weekbl Sci. 1992 Dec 11;14(6):353-6. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  2. ^ "Humulus lupulus 'Aureus' AGM". RHS Plant Selector. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Plantlife website County Flowers page
  4. ^ "Identification of a potent phytoestrogen in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. June 1999. Retrieved 20 July 2009. 
  5. ^ "Hops [CO2] Extract". Toms of Maine. Retrieved 2009-06-06. [dead link]
  6. ^ Rozalski M, Micota B, Sadowska B, Stochmal A, Jedrejek D, Wieckowska-Szakiel M, Rozalska B (2013). "Antiadherent and Antibiofilm Activity of Humulus lupulus L. Derived Products: New Pharmacological Properties". BioMed Research International. Article ID 101089: 101089. doi:10.1155/2013/101089. PMID 24175280. 
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Notes

Comments

Hop has been reported to be cultivated in N.W. Himalayas and Kashmir.  Used. for brewing and in medicines.
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Comments

Until recently, knowledge of the existence of indigenous kinds of North American Humulus lupulus was uncertain, although the appellation American hop was applied sometimes to H . lupulus var. neomexicanus and sometimes confusingly to other hop varieties. The distinctive Japanese variety H . lupulus var. cordifolius (Miquel) Maximowicz has not been collected from North America. Hops cultivated commercially in North America for flavoring alcoholic beverages are forms of the European H . lupulus var. lupulus . The European variety may have been introgressed by one of the American varieties. 

 Humulus lupulus has often been transplanted from the wild to homesites as an ornamental. When such sites are abandoned, the plants often persist, and it may appear that they are present naturally. As well, suppliers of ornamental plants may sell hops collected from one site to buyers in a quite distant site. The hop varieties discussed here may therefore be found occasionally beyond the distribution ranges given in this treatment.

Native Americans used Humulus lupulus medicinally to induce sleep, for breast and womb problems, for inflamed kidneys, rheumatism, bladder problems, intestinal pain, fever, earaches, pneumonia, coughs, and nervousness, as a tonic and a stimulant, and as a witchcraft medicine (D. E. Moerman 1986).

The measurements mentioned in couplet 1 of the following key are taken in the middle abaxial portion of the central lobe on 4-6 cm leaf blades attached to flowering or fruiting twigs.

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Comments

A number of different varieties is usually recognized (Small, Syst. Bot. 3: 37–76. 1978), with the populations in China represented by at least both H. lupulus var. lupulus, a predominantly European to C and SW Asian variety, and var. cordifolius (Miquel) Maximowicz, a predominantly Japanese variety. In addition, the populations in S Gansu and N Sichuan may possibly be another, distinct variety. Further study is needed to sort out the pattern of varietal occurrence in China, which is complicated by the introduction and escape of cultivated var. lupulus for commercial production of hops for beer.

This species is cultivated throughout China, especially in E Shandong (Qingdao) and Xinjiang. The flowers and infructescences are important ingredients for beer making. The female flowers and bracts are used medicinally.

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