Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Flower-Visiting Insects of Doll's Eyes in Illinois
(Short-tongued bees collect pollen or feed on pollen; observations are from Robertson)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata fp, Lasioglossum pectoralis cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus cp
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Actaea pachypoda
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked
Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2011)|
It is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50 cm or more tall (1½ to 2 feet tall and 3 feet wide). It has toothed, bipinnate compound leaves up to 40 cm long and 30 cm broad. The white flowers are produced in spring in a dense raceme about 10 cm long. Its most striking feature is its fruit, a 1 cm diameter white berry, whose size, shape, and black stigma scar give the species its other common name, "doll's eyes". The berries ripen over the summer, turning into a fruit that persists on the plant until frost.
White baneberry prefers clay to coarse loamy upland soils, and is found in hardwood and mixed forest stands. In cultivation it requires part to full shade, rich loamy soil, and regular water with good drainage to reproduce its native habitat.
Both the berries and the entire plant are considered poisonous to humans. The berries contain cardiogenic toxins which can have an immediate sedative effect on human cardiac muscle tissue, and are the most poisonous part of the plant. Ingestion of the berries can lead to cardiac arrest and death. The berries are harmless to birds, the plant's primary seed dispersers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Actaea pachypoda.|
- Flora of North America: Actaea pachypoda
- Missouri Plants: Actaea pachypoda
- USDA Plants Profile: Actaea pachypoda
- Bioimages: Actaea pachypoda
- Missouri Botanical Garden Plantfinder Actaea pachypoda
- Karen Legasy, Shayna LaBelle-Beadman and Brenda Chambers. Forest Plants of Northeastern Ontario. Lone Pine Publishing / Queen's Printer for Ontario, 1995.[page needed]
- Edible and Medicinal plants of the West, Gregory L. Tilford, ISBN 0-87842-359-1[page needed]
- Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Shabana I.; Pawar, Rahul S.; Ferreira, Daneel; Khan, Ikhlas A. (2007). "9,19-Cyclolanostane Derivatives from the Roots of Actaea pachypoda". Journal of Natural Products 70 (1): 107–10. doi:10.1021/np060152t. PMID 17253859.
- Pellmyr, Olle (1985). "The Pollination Biology of Actaea pachypoda and A. Rubra (Including A. Erythrocarpa) in Northern Michigan and Finland". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112 (3): 265–273. doi:10.2307/2996542. JSTOR 2996542.
- Nuntanakorn, Paiboon; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Hui; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J. (2007). "Analysis of polyphenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of four American Actaea species". Phytochemical Analysis 18 (3): 219–28. doi:10.1002/pca.975. PMC 2981772. PMID 17500365.
Red- and pink-berried plants have been called Actaea pachypoda forma rubrocarpa (Killip) Fernald or A . ludovicii Boivin. Some of these plants are intermediate in morphology between A . pachypoda and A . rubra ; they may be of hybrid origin. The sterility of fruits in many such plants lends support to this theory (R. S. Mitchell and J. K. Dean 1982).
Actaea pachypoda has been called A . alba (Linnaeus) Miller in some manuals (e.g., H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist 1991; S. M. Walters et al. 1984+, vol. 3; Great Plains Flora Association 1986). Other authors (e.g., M. L. Fernald 1940; C. S. Keener 1977) have argued that the name A . alba is based on an illustration that is conspecific with the type of the European A . spicata Linnaeus and does not apply to plants here called A . pachypoda .
Native Americans prepared infusions from Actaea pachypoda to use medicinally as a gargle or throat aid (D. E. Moerman 1986).
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