Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ariz., Calif., Nev., Oreg., Utah; Mexico (Baja California).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 0.3-3 dm, pilose or hirsute, sometimes glabrate. Leaves 10-90 × 1.7-8.1 mm; blade broadly linear; margins entire; apex rounded to long-acute. Inflorescences: peduncle 3.4-25.8 cm; bud globose to ovoid-cylindric. Flowers: petals white to cream colored, sometimes with yellow tip and/or base, rarely gold overall, sometimes tinged red in age, narrowly ovate to obovate, 6-19 × 3.5-16 mm, apex acute to rounded; ovary cylindric to oblong-ellipsoid; stigmas linear, margin revolute. Capsules ellipsoid, to 1.6 cm. Seeds black, shining, smooth. 2 n = 12 (plus occasional supernumerary chromosomes).
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Platystemon arizonicus Greene; P. australis Greene; P. californicus var. ciliatus Dunkle; P. californicus var. crinitus Greene; P. californicus var. horridulus (Greene) Jepson; P. californicus var. nutans K. Brandegee; P. californicus var. ornithopus (Greene) Munz; P. mohavensis Greene
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Type Information

Syntype for Platystemon arizonicus Greene
Catalog Number: US 126844
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Santa catalina mts., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 190.
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Syntype for Platystemon arizonicus Greene
Catalog Number: US 3059
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Santa Catalina Mountains., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 190.
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Holotype for Platystemon confinis Greene
Catalog Number: US 212463
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. W. Toumey
Year Collected: 1892
Locality: Bradashaw Mts., Arizona, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 176.
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Holotype for Platystemon mohavensis Greene
Catalog Number: US 245531
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. E. Jones
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: East of Mohave Desert, Hackberry., Mohave, Arizona, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 176.
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Holotype for Platystemon australis Greene
Catalog Number: US 3065
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: San Quentin Bay, Baja California Norte, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1903. Pittonia. 5: 191.
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Ecology

Habitat

Open, grassy areas with loose or disturbed soil or following burns; 0-1000(-2000)m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering early-late spring.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Platystemon

Platystemon is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the poppy family containing the single species Platystemon californicus, which is known by the common name creamcups. It is native to Oregon, California, Arizona, Utah and Baja California, and is found in open grasslands and sandy soils.[1]

This is a variable plant taking such a wide range of forms it has been split, reorganized, and redescribed as up to 57 different species. Its form often varies according to geography and habitat conditions. Coastal forms may be hairless and a bit succulent, while semidesert individuals can be squat, hairy plants. Some authors describe separate varieties, which are ecotypes adapted to specific, often very limited, habitat types.[2]

The annual herb is usually at least a bit hairy, sometimes quite woolly. The stem is upright to decumbent and 3 to 30 centimeters long. The leaves are oppositely arranged or whorled about the stem. They are widely linear and smooth-edged with rounded or pointed tips. They are 1 to 9 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a single flower growing from a leaf axil or the tip of the stem. It is borne on a peduncle roughly 3 to 26 centimeters long. The flower usually has six petals, but a large flower can have more. The petals vary in size, shape, and color. They measure 6 to 19 millimeters long and have rounded or pointed tips.[2] There are five basic color patterns: solid white, solid yellow, and a white petal with a yellow tip or yellow base or both.[3] The all-yellow petals are less common. The petals may age reddish. The center of the flower is filled with several whorls of stamens with thickened ends. The fruit is a capsule up to 1.6 centimeters long which is divided into many sections containing shiny black seeds.[2]

The flowers are partly wind-pollinated and partly pollinated by solitary bees.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Platystemon. The Jepson eFlora 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Platystemon californicus. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ Hannan, G. L. (1982). Correlation of morphological variation in Platystemon californicus (Papaveraceae) with flower color and geography. Systematic Botany 7(1) 35-47.
  4. ^ Hannan, G. L. (1981). Flower color polymorphism and pollination biology of Platystemon californicus Benth.(Papaveraceae). American Journal of Botany 68(2) 233-43.
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Notes

Comments

This highly variable, wind-pollinated taxon has been split into as many as 57 species on the basis of characteristics showing little cohesiveness. Ecotypic variation has produced morphologic extremes ranging from semisucculent, nearly glabrous coastal forms to very robust, moderately pubescent plants of interior grassland to compact, densely pubescent plants of semidesert habitats (G. L. Hannan 1979, 1982). Several varieties are recognized in some currently used floras: Platystemon californicus var. ciliatus Dunkle, from Santa Barbara Island; P . californicus var. nutans M. Brandegee, from coastal San Diego County and Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands; and P . californicus var. ornithopus (Greene) Munz, from San Miguel, San Nicholas, and Santa Rosa islands. These geographically restricted morphotypes appear to result from the same sort of ecotypic variation found in many other parts of the range. Rather than naming each ecotype, it seems best to treat Platystemon as a single, highly variable species with many locally adapted, intergrading populations.
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