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Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Siberian elm was introduced to the U.S. in the 1860's for its hardiness and fast growth in a variety of moisture regimes and habitats, including droughts and cold winters. It is resistant to Dutch elm disease. This elm continues to be promoted, especially in the Great Plains in spite of weak limbs and susceptibility to insect attack.

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Comprehensive Description

Comments

This tree probably has more potential to be invasive in the Great Plains and western states, than Illinois, where the fertile soil and abundant moisture of the latter enables oaks, maples, and other tall canopy trees to flourish. Under these circumstances, Siberian Elm is unable to compete with the taller and more shade tolerant tree species, except as a pioneer tree in disturbed areas. Siberian Elm is easily distinguished from other native elms (Ulmus spp.) by its small leaves (often only 1" in length). Sometimes, it is referred to as 'Chinese Elm,' but this corresponds to another species, Ulmus parvifolia, that differs by having flaky trunk bark, rather than furrowed bark, and flowers that bloom during late summer or fall.
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Description

This tree is 35-80' tall at maturity, forming an open irregular crown that is more or less ovoid or obovoid in shape, and a short to medium-length trunk that is 1-3' across. The trunk usually divides into several large ascending branches that eventually subdivide into smaller branches and very abundant slender twigs. Trunk bark of mature trees is light gray to gray, rough-textured, and irregularly furrowed with fragmented ridges. Branch bark is gray and more smooth, while twigs are light brown to reddish brown and glabrous. Young leafy shoots are light green and often short-pubescent. Alternate leaves occur along the twigs and shoots; they are ¾-2½" long and 1/3-1" across. Individual leaves are elliptic to oblong-lanceolate in shape and serrated along their margins. The upper leaf surface is medium to dark green and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale green and either glabrous or short-pubescent along the major veins. The petioles are light green, ¼" in length or less, and either glabrous or short-pubescent. Small clusters of 3-15 perfect flowers are produced at intervals along branches of the preceding year. Individual flowers are about 1/8" across, consisting of a green calyx with 4-5 lobes, 4-8 exerted stamens, and a flattened pistil with a divided style. There are no petals. The slender pedicels are about 1/8" in length. The blooming period occurs from early to mid-spring before the leaves develop, lasting about 1 week. The flowers are cross-pollinated by the wind; they are also self-fertile. The flowers are replaced by glabrous samaras that are light green, oval-orbicular to orbicular in shape, and flattened; they become about ½" long and light tan at maturity. Each samara has a single seed at its center, which is surrounded by a broad membranous wing. The samaras are distributed by the wind during late spring or very early summer. Under damp conditions, the seeds have the capacity to germinate within a week or two. The woody root system is branching and widely spreading. The deciduous leaves turn yellow for a short period during the autumn before falling to the ground.
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Description

General: Elm Family (Ulmaceae). Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) is an introduced, fast-growing, small tree, five to ten meters high. The leaves are alternate, simple, elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, usually simple serrate and 2.54 to 8 cm long. The flowers are greenish, clustered, short pediceled and appear with or before the leaves from March through April (Vines 1960). The bark is light grayish-brown, irregularly furrowed, and often streaked with stains caused by bacterial wetwood. The fruit is a long and broad samara, appearing from March through April, composed of a central, dry, compressed nutlet surrounded by a thin wing. (Ibid.).

Distribution: Siberian elm is a fast-growing tree that was introduced to the United States in the 1860's. Native to northern China, eastern Siberia, Manchuria, and Korea. It is the hardest of all elms and does well even in areas with cold winters and long periods of summer droughts. Because this, elm tolerates a variety of conditions such as poor soils and low moisture, it is found in dry regions, along roadsides,

in pastures and grasslands. For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Alternative names

Chinese elm, dwarf elm, Asiatic elm

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Siberian Elm has naturalized in many areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Its abundance is highly variable across different localities within the state, although it tends to naturalize more often in urban and suburban areas. This tree was introduced into the United States from east-central Asia. During the 1950s, it was widely planted as a replacement for the native American Elm (Ulmus americana) in lawns and along streets. This was in response to the sharp decline in populations of American Elm after the introduction and spread of Dutch Elm Disease in the United States. In Illinois, habitats of Siberian Elm include open disturbed woodlands, thickets and weedy meadows, areas along buildings, roadsides and areas along railroads, vacant lots, and fence rows. Because of Siberian Elm's intolerance of shade, relatively open habitats with a history of disturbance are preferred.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in the United States

Siberian elm is known to occur in 43 states (USDA PLANTS Map) and reported to be invasive in natural areas in 25 states (WeedUS Database).

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Native Range

Northern China, eastern Siberia, Manchuria and Korea
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Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, E Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Korea, Mongolia, E Russia; C Asia].
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N.B., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Wis., Wyo.; Asia.
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Adaptation

Ulmus pumila is easily grown in any well-drained soil type but prefers well-drained fertile soil. This species prefers full sun and succeeds well in arid regions. The tree also grows in moist soils along streams. It invades dry and mesic prairies, including sand prairies, drought resistant and fairly wind tolerant.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees , 15 to 30 m; crowns open. Bark gray to brown, deeply furrowed with interlacing ridges. Wood brittle. Branches not winged; twigs gray-brown, pubescent. Buds dark brown, ovoid, glabrous; scales light brown, shiny, glabrous to slightly pubescent. Leaves: petiole 2-4 mm, glabrous. Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, 2-6.5 × 2-3.5 cm, base generally not oblique, margins singly serrate, apex acute; surfaces abaxially with some pubescence in axils of veins, adaxially glabrous; lateral veins forking to 3 times per side. Inflorescences tightly clustered fascicles, 6-15-flowered, 0.5 cm, flowers and fruits not pendulous, sessile. Flowers: calyx shallowly lobed, lobes 4-5, glabrous; stamens 4-8; anthers brownish red; stigmas green, lobes exserted. Samaras yellow-cream, orbiculate, 10-14 mm diam., broadly winged, glabrous, tip notched 1/3-1/2 its length. Seeds thickened, not inflated. 2 n = 28.
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Description

Siberian elm is a fast-growing tree in the elm family (Ulmaceae) distinguished by small toothed leaves about 1-2½ in (3-7 cm) long and half as wide, and pointed at the tip. Unlike other elms, the leaf base is usually symmetrical, forming a nearly even "V". Leaves are smooth and dark green above, paler and nearly hairless beneath, and alternate from side to side along twigs. Mature trees reach a height of 50-70 ft. (16-22 m.), with a round crown of slender, spreading branches. The bark is rough, gray or brown, and shallowly furrowed at maturity. Twigs are nearly hairless with small, blunt buds. Flowering occurs in the springtime. The small greenish flowers lack petals and occur in drooping clusters of 2 to 5. After flowering, a single seed forms in the center of each smooth, flattened, circular, ½ in (10-15 mm) wide fruit.

Other species of elms (Ulmus) and the close relative Zelkova, especially younger plants, look similar to Siberian elm. Some may even confuse it with choke-cherry (Prunus serotina) and hackberry (Celtis sp.). The native slippery elm and American elm typically have leaves that are greater than 3 in (7.3 cm) long, with unequal heart-shaped leaf bases, and leaf margins with double teeth.

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Description

Trees, to 25 m tall, d.b.h. to 1 m, deciduous. Bark dark gray, irregularly longitudinally fissured. Branchlets yellowish gray, glabrous or pubescent, unwinged and without a corky layer, with scattered lenticels. Winter buds dark brown to red-brown, ± globose to ovoid; inner bud scale margin usually white ciliate. Petiole 4-10 mm, pubescent; leaf blade elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2-8 × 1.2-3.5 cm, abaxially pubescent when young but glabrescent or with tufts of hairs in vein axils or sometimes a few hairs on midvein and in forks of secondary veins, adaxially glabrous, base obliquely to symmetrically obtuse to rounded, margin simply or sometimes doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate; secondary veins 9-16 on each side of midvein. Inflorescences fascicled cymes on second year branchlets, appearing before leaves. Perianth 4-lobed, margin ciliate. Samaras whitish tan, ± orbicular to rarely broadly obovate or elliptical, 1-2 × 1-1.5 cm, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface; stalk 1-2 mm; perianth persistent. Seed at center of samara or occasionally slightly toward apex but not reaching the apical notch. Fl. and fr. Mar-May. 2n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Ulmus campestris Linnaeus var. pumila (Linnaeus) Maximowicz; U. pumila var. microphylla Persoon; U. manshurica Nakai.
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Synonym

Ulmus campestris Linnaeus var. pumila Maximowicz; U. manshurica Nakai; U. turkestanica Requien
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Siberian Elm has naturalized in many areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). Its abundance is highly variable across different localities within the state, although it tends to naturalize more often in urban and suburban areas. This tree was introduced into the United States from east-central Asia. During the 1950s, it was widely planted as a replacement for the native American Elm (Ulmus americana) in lawns and along streets. This was in response to the sharp decline in populations of American Elm after the introduction and spread of Dutch Elm Disease in the United States. In Illinois, habitats of Siberian Elm include open disturbed woodlands, thickets and weedy meadows, areas along buildings, roadsides and areas along railroads, vacant lots, and fence rows. Because of Siberian Elm's intolerance of shade, relatively open habitats with a history of disturbance are preferred.
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Habitat in the United States

Dry and mesic prairies and areas along stream banks in Minnesota and forested areas and high elevations in Arizona.

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Commonly escaping from cultivation, waste places, roadsides, fencerows; 0-2200m.
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Slopes, valleys, plains; 1000-2500 m.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Siberian elm seeds should be sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Excessive drying and dewinging should be avoided as they reduce viability (Dirr & Heuser 1987). Twelve to twenty seeds are sown per linear feet in drills ten inches apart and covered ¼ inch with firmed soil. The seedbeds should be kept moist, but not particularly shaded. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, place them into individual pots and grow them in the greenhouse for the first winter. Plant them into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The caterpillars of some butterflies feed on the leaves of elms (Ulmus spp.), but it is unclear to what extent Siberian Elm functions as their host plant. There are also many caterpillars of moths that feed on these trees (see Moth Table); because some of these species are highly polyphagous, it seems likely that at least some of them also feed on Siberian Elm. Other insects that feed on elms include the Siberian Elm Aphid (Tinocallis saltans) and other aphids, Gossyparia spuria (European Elm Scale) and other scale insects, the leafhoppers Eratoneura basilaris and Eratoneura bigemina, the Common Dog Day Cicada (Tibicen linnei), the Elm Lace Bug (Corythucha ulmi), the plant bug Lopidea heidemanni, larvae of the Elm Borer (Saperda tridentata) and other wood-boring beetles (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table), larvae of the Small European Elm Bark Beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), both larvae and adults of the Elm Leaf Beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola) and other leaf beetles, and larvae of the Elm Sawfly (Cimbex americana); see the Insect Table for a more complete listing of these species. Of these, the Siberian Elm Aphid and Elm Leaf Beetle are known to prefer Siberian Elm as a host plant. Among vertebrate animals, either the seeds or buds of elms are eaten by several species of birds, including the Greater Prairie Chicken, Wild Turkey, Ring-Necked Pheasant, Carolina Chickadee, Purple Finch, Rose-Breasted Grosbeak, and House Sparrow. The Gray Squirrel, Fox Squirrel, Red Squirrel, and Eastern Chipmunk also eat the seeds or buds of these trees to some extent. Because Siberian Elm frequently has branches that break off the tree during stormy weather, this promotes the development of cavities that are used as nesting habitat by such birds as the House Sparrow, Starling, Downy Woodpecker, and Carolina Chickadee. Tree squirrels also use such cavities as dens.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late winter-early spring.
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Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Seeds are produced early in spring and spread by the wind. Germination rate is high and seedlings soon establish in the bare ground found early in the growing season.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ulmus pumila

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ulmus pumila

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Status

Considered a noxious weed in New Mexico. Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Readily available through commercial nurseries.

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Weediness

Considered invasive by several sources. Consult the sources cited on the Invasive portion of the PLANTS Web site.

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Siberian elm has been planted in the Upper Midwest in shelterbelts and as a shade trees along boulevards and in parks (Rosendahl 1955). Some of the plantings have proved successful while others have not, because the seeds were derived from climatically different areas of the species geographical range, which varies in the level of winter hardiness (Ibid.).

Siberian elm seeds with three to eight percent moisture can be stored at 36 to 40ºF in sealed containers for eight years (Dirr & Heuser 1987). Seedlings should not be allowed to grow in a nursery bed for more than two years because the plant will develop a taproot that make lifting harder and reduces outplanting survival rates.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This tree adapts to full sun, moist to dry conditions, and practically any kind of soil, except highly acidic. Because of reduced competition from other trees, it tends to thrive in barren soil containing too much sand, gravel, or clay. Growth and development of young trees is rapid, and their longevity can extend to 50-100 years. Siberian Elm is resistant to Dutch Elm disease, which is often fatal to other elms. It is prone to storm damage from wind, snow, and ice (especially the latter), causing breakage of branches and twigs that can litter the ground underneath the tree. The frequent result of such damage is a tree with an ungainly and ragged appearance. Another problem is the tendency of its roots, like Willow trees (Salix spp.), to seek out water, clogging underground water and sewer lines. In relatively open areas, this tree can reseed itself aggressively and become a nuisance in areas that are beyond the reach of a lawnmower. On the positive side, its open crown allows enough light to pass through and maintain turfgrass underneath.
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Uses

Ethnobotanic: The dried inner bark was grounded into a powder and used as a thickener in soups or added to cereal flours when making bread. The immature fruit was used to produce a sauce and a wine (Facciola 1990). The hardy, heavy tough wood was used for agricultural implements and boat making (Vines 1987).

Agroforestry: Ulmus pumila is used in tree strips for windbreaks. They are planted and managed to protect livestock, enhance production, and control soil erosion. Windbreaks can help communities with harsh winter conditions better handle the impact of winter storms and reduce home heating and cooling costs.

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Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Dry to mesic prairies and stream banks are vulnerable to Siberian elm invasion. Thickets of seedlings soon form around seed-producing trees, bare ground areas, animal and insect mounds, and other disturbed areas. Wind carries seed to distant areas where new colonies can form. This tough exotic survives under conditions not easily tolerated by other species, allowing it to take advantage of open ground and resources otherwise used by native plants. Fast growing seedlings of Siberian elm quickly overtake native vegetation, especially shade-intolerant species. This often leads to invasion by additional weedy species, compounding the problem.

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Wikipedia

Ulmus pumila

Ulmus pumila, the Siberian elm, is native to Central Asia, eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Xizang (Tibet), northern China, India (northern Kashmir) and Korea.[1] It is also known as the Asiatic Elm, Dwarf Elm and (erroneously) Chinese Elm. It is the last tree species encountered in the semi-desert regions of central Asia.[2] Two varieties are recognized: var pumila and var. arborea, the latter known as Turkestan elm. Ulmus pumila has been widely cultivated throughout Asia, the Americas and, to a lesser extent, southern Europe.

Description[edit]

The Siberian Elm is usually a small to medium-sized, often bushy, tree growing to 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 80 centimetres (31 in) d.b.h. [4] The leaves are deciduous in cold areas, but semi-evergreen in warmer climates, < 7 cm long and < 3 cm broad, with an oblique base and a coarsely serrated margin, changing from dark green to yellow in autumn. The perfect, apetalous wind-pollinated flowers emerge in early spring, before the leaves; unlike most elms, U. pumila is able to self-pollinate successfully.[3] The wind-dispersed fruit develops in a flat, oval membranous wing (samara) 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long and notched at the outer end.[4][5][6] The tree is short-lived in temperate climates, rarely reaching more than 60 years of age, but in its native environment may live to between 100 and 150 years [5] [6].

Pests and diseases[edit]

The tree has considerable variability in resistance to Dutch elm disease.[7][8] Moreover, like many other elms in North America, it is highly susceptible to damage from many insects and parasites, including the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola,[9] powdery mildew, cankers, aphids, and leaf spot. In the Netherlands U. pumila was also found to be susceptible to coral spot fungus Nectria cinnabarina,[10] while in Italy, the species was also found to have a slight to moderate susceptibility to Elm Yellows.[11] However, U. pumila is the most resistant of all the elms to verticillium wilt.[12]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Introduced into Spain in the 16th century, and from the 1930s into Italy,[13] U. pumila has naturally hybridized with the Field Elm U. minor (see below, Invasive species and spontaneous hybridization). In Italy it was widely used in viniculture, notably in the Po valley, to support the grape vines until the 1950s, when the demands of mechanization made it unsuitable.

U. pumila was introduced to North America by Frank Meyer [14] who, whilst in the employ of the USDA, made several collecting expeditions to the Far East. The tree was initially cultivated at the USDA Experimental Station at Mandan, North Dakota, where it flourished.[15] It was consequently selected by the USDA for planting in shelter belts across the prairies in the aftermath of the Dustbowl disasters, where its rapid growth and tolerance for drought and cold initially made it a great success. However, the species later proved susceptible to numerous maladies. Attempts to find a more suitable cultivar were initiated in 1997 by the Plant Materials Center of the USDA, which established experimental plantations at Akron, Colorado and Sidney, Nebraska. The study, no. 201041K, will conclude in 2020.

The species has a high sunlight requirement and is not shade-tolerant; with adequate light it exhibits rapid growth. The tree is also fairly intolerant of wet ground conditions, growing better on well-drained soils. While it is very resistant to drought and severe cold, and able to grow on poor soils, its short period of dormancy, flowering early in spring followed by continuous growth until the first frosts of autumn,[16] renders it vulnerable to frost damage.

As an ornamental U. pumila is a very poor tree, tending to be short-lived, with brittle wood and poor crown shape, but has nevertheless enjoyed some popularity owing to its rapid growth and provision of shade. The Siberian Elm has been described by Prof. Michael Dirr as "one of, if not the, world's worst trees...a poor ornamental that does not deserve to be planted anywhere".[17] Yet in the USA during the 1950s, the tree was also widely promoted as a fast growing hedging substitute for Privet, and as a consequence is now commonly found in nearly all states.[15] It is the improved variant of the Turkestan Elm U. pumila var. arborea that is lately seen more often in gardens and referred to as the 'wonder hedge' (Ulmus pumila celer), being both dense and fast-growing, taking as little as two years to reach fence height.

In the UK, the popularity of U. pumila has been almost exclusively as a bonsai subject, and mature trees are largely restricted to arboreta.

Invasiveness and spontaneous hybridization[edit]

In North America, Ulmus pumila has become an invasive species in much of the region from central Mexico [18] northward across the eastern and central United States to Ontario, Canada.[19] It also hybridizes in the wild with the native U. rubra (slippery elm) in the central United States.[20] In South America, the tree has spread across much of the Argentinian pampas[21] [22]

In Europe it has spread widely in Spain, and hybridizes extensively there with the native U. minor, contributing to conservation concerns for the latter species.[23][24] Research is ongoing into the extent of hybridisation with U. minor in Italy.[25]

Ulmus pumila is often found in abundance along railroads and in abandoned lots and on disturbed ground. The gravel along railroad beds provides ideal conditions for its growth: well-drained, nutrient poor soil, and high light conditions; these beds provide corridors which facilitate its spread. Owing to its high sunlight requirements, it seldom invades mature forests, and is primarily a problem in cities and open areas,[26][27] as well as along transportation corridors.

The species is now listed in Japan as an alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild.[28]

Cultivars[edit]

Valued for the high resistance of some clones to Dutch elm disease, over a dozen selections have been made to produce hardy ornamental cultivars, although several may no longer be in cultivation:

Hybrid cultivars[edit]

The species has been widely hybridized in the USA and Italy to create robust trees of more native appearance with high levels of resistance to Dutch elm disease:

Notable trees[edit]

Roerich describes a specimen discovered on his travels through Mongolia:-

We are in the deserts of Mongolia. It was hot and dusty yesterday. From faraway thunder was approaching. Some of our friends became tired from climbing the stony holy hills of Shiret Obo. While already returning to the camp, we noticed in the distance a huge elm tree – ‘karagatch’, - lonely, towering amidst the surrounding endless desert. The size of the tree, its somewhat familiar outlines attracted us into its shadow. Botanical considerations led us to believe that in the wide shade of the giant there might be some interesting herbs. Soon, all the co-workers gathered around the two mighty stems of the karagatch. The deep, deep shadow of the tree covered about 50 feet across. The powerful tree-stems were covered with fantastic burr growths. In the rich foliage, birds were singing and the beautiful branches were stretched out in all directions, as if wishing to give shelter to all pilgrims.[29]

Accessions[edit]

North America
Europe
Australasia

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fu, L., Xin, Y. & Whittemore, A. (2002). Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 5 (Ulmaceae through Basellaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. [1]
  2. ^ onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01384.x/pdf
  3. ^ Townsend, A. M. (1975). Crossability patterns and morphological variation among elm species and hybrids 24 (1). Sylvae Genetica. pp. 18–23. 
  4. ^ Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland (PDF) 8. Private publication. pp. 1848–1929. 
  5. ^ Rushforth, K (1999). Trees. Collins. 
  6. ^ Huxley, A. (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. 
  7. ^ Smalley, E. & Guries, R. P. (1993). Breeding elms for resistance to Dutch elm disease 31. Annual Review of Phytopathology. pp. 25–352. 
  8. ^ Zalapa, J. E., Brunet, J., & Guries, R. P (2008). "Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China". NRC Research Press Web (USA: Genome) 51: 492–500. 
  9. ^ Miller, F. and Ware, G. (2001). "Resistance of Temperate Chinese Elms (Ulmuss spp.) to Feeding of the Adult Elm Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)". Journal of Economic Entomology (Entom. Soc.of America) 94 (1): 162–166. 
  10. ^ Heybroek, H. M. (1957). Elm breeding in the Netherlands 6 (3-4). Silvae Genetica. pp. 112–117. 
  11. ^ Mittempergher, L. & Santini, A. (2004). The History of Elm Breeding. Invest. Agrar.: Sist Recur For. 2004 13 (1), 161-177.
  12. ^ Pegg, G. F. & Brady, B. L. (2002). Verticillium Wilts. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-529-2. 
  13. ^ link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-013-0486-z#page-1
  14. ^ asaweb.huh.harvard.edu:8080
  15. ^ a b Klingaman, G. (1999). Plant of the Week: Siberian Elm. Extension News, University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture.
  16. ^ Geng, M. A. (1989). A provenance test with elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in China 32 (2). Silvae Genetica. pp. 37–44. 
  17. ^ Dirr, M. (1975). Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes Publishing LLC. 
  18. ^ Todzia, C. A. & Panero, J. L. (1998). A new species of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) from southern Mexico and a synopsis of the species in Mexico 50 (3). Brittonia. p. 346. 
  19. ^ McIlvain, E. H. & Armstrong, C. G. (1965). Siberian Elm: A Tough New Invader of Grasslands. Weeds, Vol. 13, No. 3 (July 1965), pp 278 - 279. Weed Science Society of America & Allen Press.
  20. ^ J. E. Zalapa, J. Brunet, R. P. Guries (June 28, 2008). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) 8 (1). Wiley Online Library. pp. 109–12. doi:10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01805.x. PMID 21585729. 
  21. ^ Villamil, C. B., Zalba, S. M. Red de información sobre especies exóticas invasoras - I3N-Argentina Universidad Nacional del Sur Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
  22. ^ Hiersch, H., Hensen, I., Zalapa, J. Guries, R. & Brunet, J. (2013). Is hybridization a necessary condition for the evolution of invasiveness in non-native Siberian elm? Abstracts. Third International Elm Conference 2013. The elm after 100 years of Dutch elm disease. Florence, p45.
  23. ^ http://www.nature.com
  24. ^ readcube.com
  25. ^ link.springer.com
  26. ^ National Audubon Society (2002). Field Guide to North American Trees, Western Region, p. 419-420
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ de Roerich, G. (1931). Trails to Inmost Asia. Yale University Press.
  30. ^ Johnson, Owen (ed.) (2003). Champion Trees of Britain & Ireland. Whittet Press, ISBN 978-1-873580-61-5.
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Ulmus pumila probably occurs in Vermont and West Virginia, but it has not been documented for those states. 

 Planted for quick-growing windbreaks, Ulmus pumila has weak wood, and its branches break easily in mature trees. It is easily distinguished from other North American elms by its singly serrate leaf margins. Ulmus pumila is similar to U . parvifolia Jacquin with its small, singly serrate leaves. Ulmus parvifolia , however, has smooth bark that sheds from tan to orange, and it flowers and sets fruit in the fall.

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This species is cultivated throughout China.
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