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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This introduced perennial plant is up to 1½' tall. It forms a rosette of leaves, from which flowering stems develop. The basal leaves are up to 3" long and 1½" across. They are usually trifoliate, although some basal leaves may be deeply 3-lobed and simple. The terminal leaflet usually has a short stalk, while the side leaflets are sessile. Their margins are often cleft or coarsely dentate. Each basal leaf has a long hairy petiole, and its upper surface often has pale white blotches. The alternate leaves of the flowering stems are smaller in size, usually ovate and shallowly lobed. They have short petioles. Both types of leaves are usually pubescent or hairy. 
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Comments

Creeping Buttercup can produce bright yellow flowers in lawns during the early summer after the spring-blooming flowers, such as Claytonia virginica (Spring Beauty), have finished blooming for the year. However, it has the potential to escape into natural areas where it may displace native plants. There is a double form of Creeping Buttercup that has 10-20 petals per flower, rather than the usual 5. It also escapes into the wild, but is less common. Creeping Buttercup can be distinguished from other Ranunculus spp. by the presence of its stolons and the pale white blotches on the leaves. Other distinguishing features include the spreading hairy sepals (shorter than the petals and not sharply recurved) and the shape of the leaves.
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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. villosus Lamotte:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. erectus DC.:
Canada (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. flore-pleno DC.:
Chile (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. repens :
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. pleniflorus Fernald:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens var. glabratus DC.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ranunculus repens L.:
United States (North America)
Bolivia (South America)
Canada (North America)
Russian Federation (Asia)
Pakistan (Asia)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
Peru (South America)
Mongolia (Asia)
Kazakhstan (Asia)
Kyrgyzstan (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
Greenland (North America)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang, NW Yunnan [Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia (Siberia); Europe, North America].
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introduced; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Central America; South America; native to Eurasia; Pacific Islands; Australia.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial. Stolons present. Stems ascending or suberect, 10--60 cm, subglabrous or sparsely puberulent, branched above. Basal leaves with petiole 7--20 cm; blade ternate, 3-partite, rarely 3-sect, central leaflet broadly rhombic, 2--4.2 × 1.8--3.8 cm, glabrous or adaxially appressed puberulent, base broadly cuneate, secondary lobes lobed or more deeply divided; lateral leaflets oblique, unequally 2- or 3-lobed or -partite. Stem leaves similar to basal ones, smaller and shortly petiolate upward. Monochasium terminal, 2- to several flowered; bracts 3-sect or undivided, lanceolate-linear. Flowers 1.5--2.2 cm in diam. Pedicel 1--8 cm, appressed puberulent. Receptacle puberulent. Sepals 5, elliptic-ovate, 5--7 mm, abaxially appressed pubescent or subglabrous. Petals 5 (7--22 in f. polypetalus), obovate, 7--10 × 5--7 mm, nectary pit covered by a scale, apex rounded or rounded-truncate. Stamens numerous; anthers oblong. Aggregate fruit ovoid, 5--7 mm in diam.; carpels numerous. Achene bilaterally compressed, obliquely obovate, 2.2--3 × 1.8--2.1 mm, glabrous, narrowly marginate; style persistent, 0.5--0.8 mm. Fl. Apr--Aug, fr. May--Aug.
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Description

Stems decumbent or creeping, rooting nodally, hispid to strigose or almost glabrous, base not bulbous. Roots never tuberous. Basal leaf blades ovate to reniform in outline, 3-foliolate, 1-8.5 × 1.5-10 cm, leaflets lobed, parted, or parted and again lobed, ultimate segments obovate to elliptic or sometimes narrowly oblong, margins toothed, apex obtuse to acuminate. Flowers: receptacle hispid or rarely glabrous; sepals spreading or reflexed from base, 4-7(-10) × 1.5-3(-4) mm, hispid or sometimes glabrous; petals 5(-150), yellow, 6-18 × 5-12 mm. Heads of achenes globose or ovoid, 5-10 × 5-8 mm; achenes 2.6-3.2 × 2-2.8 mm, glabrous, margin forming narrow rib 0.1-0.2 mm wide; beak persistent, lanceolate to lance-filiform, curved, 0.8-1.2 mm. 2 n = 14, 32.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Ranunculus repens var. brevistylus Maximowicz; R. repens f. polypetalus S. H. Li & Y. H. Huang.
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Synonym

Ranunculus repens var. erectus de Candolle; R. repens var. glabratus de Candolle; R. repens var. linearilobus de Candolle; R. repens var. pleniflorus Fernald; R. repens var. villosus Lamotte
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Type Information

Isotype for Ranunculus repens var. pleniflorus Fernald
Catalog Number: US 391773
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Haberer
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Frankfort., Herkimer, New York, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Fernald, M. L. 1917. Rhodora. 19: 138.
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Ecology

Habitat

Meadows, borders of marshes, lawns, roadsides; 0-2500m.
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Meadows, moist places, by streams; 300--3300 m.
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Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract short-tongued bees and flower flies primarily. Other visitors include long-tongued bees and beetles. The latter feeds on the pollen (or the flowers) and is less effective at pollination than the bees. The seeds are occasionally eaten by birds in limited amounts, while the foliage is usually avoided by mammalian herbivores because it contains a blistering agent that can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Photographic Location
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Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Bagous tempestivus feeds on Ranunculus repens

Plant / epiphyte
effuse colony of Chromelosporium anamorph of Chromelosporium ochraceum grows on live leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Chrysolina staphylaea grazes on live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: early 7-late 10,4-
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Crocicreas starbaeckii is saprobic on previous year's fibrous remains runner of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 4-9

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
immersed sorus of Entyloma microsporum parasitises live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: (5,) 9-10

Foodplant / parasite
superficial Entylomella anamorph of Entyloma ranunculi-repentis parasitises live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe aquilegiae var. ranunculi parasitises Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Leiosoma deflexum feeds within stolon of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Leptotrochila ranunculi is saprobic on fibrous remains Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Monophadanus pallescens grazes on leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora ranunculi parasitises live Ranunculus repens
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Phaedon concinnus grazes on flower of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta ranunculorum causes spots on live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 9

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Phytomyza fallaciosa may be found in leaf-mine of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza notata mines leaf of Ranunculus repens
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Plateumaris sericea may be found on flower of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: (1-)6(-12)

Foodplant / miner
solitary larva of Pseudodineura fuscula mines leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous, in small groups aecium of Puccinia magnusiana causes spots on live leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, but mainly epiphyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia didyma var. didyma causes spots on live leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia simplex causes spots on live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 7-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
usually epiphyllous, punctiform, brownish-black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria ranunculacearum is saprobic on leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo mesomelas grazes on leaf of Ranunculus repens

Foodplant / sap sucker
Thecabius affinis sucks sap of live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: summer

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Thrips discolor may be found on live leaf of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / gall
colony of Urocystis anemones causes gall of live, blistered stem of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 4-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
immersed sorus of Urocystis ranunculi parasitises live petiole of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: 4-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Uromyces dactylidis parasitises live petiole of Ranunculus repens
Remarks: season: early Spring

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering late winter-summer (Mar-Aug).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ranunculus repens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ranunculus repens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, moist conditions, and fertile loamy soil. This plant can spread aggressively in areas that are at least partially sunny and moist. It can withstand regular mowing in lawns. Range & Habitat
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Wikipedia

Ranunculus repens

Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) is a flowering plant in the buttercup family, native to Europe, Asia and northwestern Africa.[1][2] It is also called Creeping Crowfoot and (along with Restharrow) Sitfast.[3]

Growth[edit]

It is a herbaceous, stoloniferous perennial plant growing to 50 cm tall. It has both prostrate running stems, which produce roots and new plants at the nodes, and more or less erect flowering stems. The basal leaves are divided into three broad leaflets 1.5–8 cm long, shallowly to deeply lobed, borne on a 4–20 cm long petiole; leaves higher on the stems are smaller, with narrower leaflets. Both the stems and the leaves are finely hairy. The flowers are bright golden yellow, 2–3 cm diameter, usually with five petals. The fruit is a cluster of achenes 2.5–4 mm long. Creeping buttercup has three-lobed dark green, white-spotted leaves that grow out of the node. It grows in fields and pastures and prefers wet soil.[4][5]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Creeping Buttercup was sold in many parts of the world as an ornamental plant, and has now become an invasive species in many parts of the world.[2]

Like most buttercups, R. repens is poisonous, although when dried with hay these poisons are lost. The taste of buttercups is acrid, so cattle avoid eating them. The plants then take advantage of the cropped ground around it to spread their stolons. Creeping buttercup also is spread through the transportation of hay. Contact with the sap of the plant can cause skin blistering.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flora Europaea: [1]
  2. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ranunculus repens
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary entry for "Sit-fast":2. Sc.a. The plants restharrow and creeping crowfoot. 1808 JAMIESON, Sitfasts, restharrow. 1825 {emem} Suppl., Sitfast, Creeping Crowfoot, Ranunculus Repens.
  4. ^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
  5. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Ranunculus repens
  6. ^ Plants for a Future: Ranunculus repens
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Notes

Comments

Ranunculus repens is widely naturalized in many parts of the world. Plants with sparse pubescence have been called R . repens var. glabratus . Horticultural forms with the outer stamens transformed into numerous extra petals occasionally become established and have been called R . repens var. pleniflorus . These variants have no taxonomic significance.
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