Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is 1-3' tall and sparingly branched. The round stems are green to reddish green and glabrous or pubescent. At first, only basal leaves are produced, but later there are alternate leaves along the stems. These leaves are ternately compound (divided into groups of 3 leaflets) and they have long petioles that are glabrous or pubescent. Each leaflet is up to 3" long and 2" across; it is usually obovate in shape with a wedge-shaped bottom, but it divides into 3 rounded lobes. Each of these lobes is often subdivided into several secondary lobes, resembling large rounded teeth. The upper surface of each leaflet is glabrous and there may be areas with a whitish bloom. The leaflets can be sessile or stalked. The upper stems produce flowers individually or in groups of 2-3.  Each flower is about 1½" long and it hangs downward from a long stalk. This flower has 5 petals, 5 petal-like sepals, and strongly exerted stamens and styles. Each petal is yellow and rounded toward the tip, but its base consists of a long nectar spur that is pale red to purplish red. The sepals are ovate in shape and they are the same color as the nectar spurs. The nectar spurs of mature flowers are erect (parallel to each other) or slightly spreading. The anthers of the stamens are bright yellow. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer and lasts about a month. There is no floral scent. Each flower is replaced by 5 pod-shaped follicles that have long beaks. Each follicle splits open along one side to release the shiny black seeds. The root system is fibrous and rhizomes are occasionally produced.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

This is the only Aquilegia sp. (Columbine) that is native to Illinois. Other species in this genus occur in the Western states. The flowers of Wild Columbine are colorful and attractive, and the foliage is attractive as well. The cultivated Columbines that are sold by nurseries usually have Aquilegia vulgaris (European Columbine) as one or both of the parents. European Columbine rarely escapes from cultivation. It can be distinguished from Wild Columbine by spreading nectar spurs and weakly exerted stamens. While the flowers of Wild Columbine are always some shade of red, the flowers of cultivated Columbines are often other colors, including pink and blue.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

General: Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae). Red columbine is a perennial herb that has short-lived fibrous roots and a vertical underground stem (caudex). It is 30-80 cm (12-30 in) tall, growing from the caudex. Compound leaves are distinctly divided into obovate leaflets. The flower is downward facing, with all petals prolonged backward into a tubular spur. Sepals are petal-like and typically red. Petals are yellow and become redder at the tip of the spur. Plant growth begins in early spring. This plant blooms from March to July and sets fruit in mid to late summer (June to August). Aboveground portions of Red columbine die back to the caudex in mid to late autumn.

Distribution: Red Columbine is native to eastern and central North America and is found from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, south to northern Florida, western Oklahoma and eastern Texas. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site (http://plants.usda.gov).

Habitat: Red columbine is found in dry to mesic or even low woods, especially along borders or clearings of oak-hickory, oak-maple and maple-basswood forests, black-oak savannas, cedar glades, pine woods, and mixed conifer hardwood forests. It can also be found on wooded to open rocky hillsides, bluffs, calcareous cliffs, outcrops, ledges, banks, beach ridges, gravelly shorelines, roadsides, quarries, and peat bogs.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Alternative names

Wild columbine, wild honeysuckle, meeting-houses, red-bell, Canada columbine, American columbine, rock-lily, jack-in-trousers, cluckies, Aquilegia australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. australis, Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea, Aquilegia canadensis var. eminens, Aquilegia canadensis var. flaviflora, Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida, Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula, Aquilegia canadensis  var. phippenii, Aquilegia canadensis forma flaviflora, Aquilegia canadensis forma ecalcarata, Aquilegia canadensis forma albiflora, Aquilegia canadensis forma phippenii, Aquilegia coccinea, Aquilegia elegans, Aquilegia eminens, Aquilegia flaviflora, Aquilegia latiuscula, Aquilegia phoenicantha and Aquilegia variegata.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Red columbine is found in rocky woods from Nova Scotia to the Northwest
Territories south to Florida and Texas [7,13,16].
  • 7. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 13. Munz, P. A. 1946. Aquilegia: the cultivated and wild columbines. In: Bailey, L. H. Gentes Herbarium. 7(1): 1-50. [18864]
  • 16. Steyermark, J. A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1725 p. [18144]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia australis Small:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia coccinea Small:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula (Greene) Munz:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida Hook.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Aquilegia canadensis L.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Man., Ont., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Adaptation

The USDA Hardiness Zones for red columbine is 3 to 8. It grows in thin soils over granitic bedrock, steep hillsides of thin loess over limestone or quartzite bedrock, and on gravelly glacial marine soils. Because of highly variable genetic plasticity, red columbine populations can occur in a wide range of habitats from rich woods to rocky cliffs.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems 15-90 cm. Basal leaves 2×-ternately compound, 7-30 cm, much shorter than stems; leaflets green adaxially, 17-52 mm, not viscid; primary petiolules 17-93 mm (leaflets not crowded), glabrous or pilose, sometimes somewhat viscid. Flowers pendent; sepals divergent from floral axis, red or apex green, lance-ovate to oblong-ovate, 8-18 × 3-8 mm, apex broadly acute to acuminate; petals: spurs red, straight, ± parallel to divergent, 13-25 mm, stout (at least proximally), abruptly narrowed near middle, blades pale yellow or yellow-green, oblong to rounded, 5-9 × 4-8 mm; stamens 15-23 mm. Follicles 15-31 mm; beak 10-18 mm. 2 n = 14.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Aquilegia australis Small; A. canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz; A. canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz; A. canadensis var. eminens (Greene) B. Boivin; A. canadensis var. latiuscula (Greene) Munz; A. coccinea Small
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Holotype for Aquilegia latiuscula Greene
Catalog Number: US 352653
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Norton
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Riley, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1914. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 13: 320.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Shaded or open woods, often around cliffs, rock outcrops, and forest edges; 0-1600m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

This hardy eastern perennial is propagated by seed. Seed is mature and ready for collection when it turns black in the follicles. Collected seed should be stored in seedbags at temperatures of 5o to 6oC (~41oF) and can be stored up to 4 months. A 3 to 4 week period of moist stratification at 5oC may speed up germina-tion time but does not increase germination rate.

Aquilegia canadensis seeds should be hand-sown into germination trays in greenhouse temperatures of 21o to 24oC (70o to 75oF). Germination will take place within 3 to 4 weeks, and supplemental lighting is not necessary. Soil in the germination trays must be kept evenly moist during germination. Fertilization may damage the foliage, so avoid application while in germination trays.

Seedlings can be transplanted into plug cells following a 3-4 week period of root development. Plugs will need to be cut back to allow for air circulation over the media surface. Approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting, plants should be exposed to lower greenhouse, or frost-free outdoor, temperatures.

Although red columbine prefers soils that are well drained, loose, and slightly acidic, it will grow in medium that is loose and has a mixture of organic matter. It will not bloom during the first growing season.

Germination procedures can begin in August and as late as November. Outplanting should take place in the spring (April). Red columbine can also be direct-seeded at a planting site in the fall or early spring. The general recommendation for wildflower seeding is 11 pounds per acre.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects & Birds of Wild Columbine in Illinois

Aquilegia canadensis (Wild Columbine)
(Hummingbirds suck nectar; bumblebees suck nectar or collect pollen; short-tongued bees usually collect pollen & are non-pollinating; the bumblebee Bombus affinis occasionally perforates the flower to steal nectar from the spurs; observations are from Robertson, Graenicher, Reed, Moure & Hurd, Mitchell, Bertin, and Macior as indicated below)

Birds
Trochilidae: Archilochus colubris sn (Rb, Gr, Brt, Mc)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Mc); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn prf sn@prf (Mc), Bombus auricomus sn (Mc), Bombus bimaculatus sn cp (Mc), Bombus fervida sn cp fq (Re, Mc), Bombus impatiens sn (Mc), Bombus pensylvanica sn fq (Mc), Bombus vagans sn cp (Mc)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata cp np (MH), Lasioglossum sp. cp np (Re), Lasioglossum cressonii cp np (Re), Lasioglossum forbesii sn@prf cp np (MH, Mc), Lasioglossum oblongus cp np (Mch), Lasioglossum obscurus cp np (Mch)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Faunal Associations

Bumblebees and the Ruby-Throated Hummingbird visit the flowers for nectar; bumblebees may also collect pollen for their larvae. Short-tongued Halictid bees collect pollen from the flowers, but they are less effective at cross-pollination. The larvae of various insects feed on Wild Columbine, including those of Erynnis lucilius (Columbine Duskywing), Papaipema leucostigma (Borer Moth sp.), Pristophora aquiligae (Columbine Sawfly), and several Phytomyza spp. (Leaf Miner Flies). Because the foliage is toxic, it is little bothered by mammalian herbivores. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Management Considerations

No additional information is available on this topic.

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
SPECIES: Aquilegia canadensis


IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE:
Usually scattered and found on rocky bluffs, wild columbine has little
importance as a forage species. However, it is pollinated by
hummingbirds, which may depend on wild columbine as an important source
of nectar [17].

PALATABILITY:
The palatability of wild columbine is rated as follows [5]:

domestic sheep: fair
cattle: poor
horses: unpalatable

NUTRITIONAL VALUE:
No additional information is available on this topic.

COVER VALUE:
No additional information is available on this topic.

VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES:
No additional information is available on this topic.

OTHER USES AND VALUES:
No additional information is available on this topic.

OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS:
No additional information is available on this topic.
  • 5. Dayton, William A. 1960. Notes on western range forbs: Equisetaceae through Fumariaceae. Agric. Handb. 161. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 254 p. [767]
  • 17. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: caudex

Red columbine begins growth early in spring. Flowering occurs from
March to July, fruiting from June to August, seed release in early to
mid autumn [12]. Aboveground portions of the plant become senescent in
mid to late autumn, dying back to the caudex [1,7].
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 7. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 12. Laroche, G. 1978. An experimental study of population differences in leaf morphology of Aquilegia canadensis. American Midland Naturalist. 100: 341-349. [18863]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-summer (Mar-Jun).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aquilegia canadensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Red columbine is endangered in Florida. Please consult the PLANTS Web site (http://plants.usda. gov) and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Examples of cultivars include the ‘Canyon Vista,’ ‘Corbett,’ and ‘Nana’ columbines. These cultivars were developed for garden use to change the color intensity of the red and yellow flowers of the canadensis species.

Native plant material is readily available from a number of growers, wholesalers, and retailers of native seed. The National Plant Materials Center (NPMC) in Shenandoah National Park produces columbine plugs, quart-size plants, and seed.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Columbine species are little bothered by powdery mildew or broad mites. The waxy nature of the leaves sheds water-based pesticides. Red columbine is unpalatable to livestock but is sometimes browsed by deer.

Red columbine can survive fire disturbance. Recolonization begins when the underground caudex resprouts following disturbance. Population growth continues by seed.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is light shade to partial sun, moist to dry conditions, and soil that is loamy, rocky, or slightly sandy. Mature plants can also tolerate full sun, although young plants require some shade from neighboring vegetation. Once it becomes established, this plant is easy to maintain. Range & Habitat
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Ethnobotanic: Seeds from this plant have been used to treat ailments such as headaches, sore throats, stomatitis, heart problems, skin rash or itch caused by poison ivy, kidney and urinary problems, and fever. They have also been used for ceremonial medicines, perfume, and as additives to tobacco. Roots of this plant can be used to treat gastrointestinal ailments.

Landscaping: Red columbine, in native or cultivated forms, is a popular garden perennial because it is hardy, lives approximately 3 to 5 years, and can readily regenerate by seed. It is also useful for woodland and meadow plantings.

Wildlife: Red columbine is pollinated by hummingbirds, which may depend on the plant as an important nectar source. In addition, at least four bee species have been found to be effective pollinators of red columbine in southeastern Wisconsin and northwards.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Aquilegia canadensis

Aquilegia canadensis (Canadian or Canada columbine, Eastern red columbine, Wild columbine) is an herbaceous perennial native to woodland and rocky slopes in eastern North America, prized for its red and yellow flowers. It readily hybridizes with other species in the genus Aquilegia.

Description[edit]

Height is 15–90 cm (6–35 in). Leaves are lobed and grouped in 3s, growing from the base and off the flowering stems. Flowers are 1-2 inches long and have yellow petals with a red spur and red sepals. They appear in late spring, nodding on stems above the leaves. The round end of the spur contains nectar, which is sought by butterflies and hummingbirds.

The caterpillars of Columbine Duskywing (Erynnis lucilius) feed on the leaves.

Cultivation[edit]

The plant is easily propagated from seed and blooms the second year. It is relatively long lived in the garden. It grows well in shade, and in sun with proper moisture.

The plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[1]

The cultivar 'Little Lanterns' is half the height of the species.

Uses[edit]

Native American tribes used various parts red columbine in herbal remedies.

Toxicity[edit]

Canada columbine contains a cyanogenic glycoside, which releases poisonous hydrogen cyanide when the plant is damaged.[2]

Distribution[edit]

USA (AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV), Canada (MB, NB, ON, QC, SK)

Wetland Indicator Status[edit]

Regions 1-5: Facultative Equally (FAC) likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands (estimated probability 34%-66%).

  • Region 6: Facultative Wetland (FACW) Usually occurs in wetlands (estimated probability 67%-99%), but occasionally found in non-wetlands.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Aquilegia canadensis". Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Edible and Medicinal Plants of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Matthew Alfs. Old Theology Book House. 2001. p. 99.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida Hooker has been misapplied to this species; the type specimen actually belongs to A . brevistyla (B. Boivin 1953). 

 Aquilegia canadensis has also been reported from New Brunswick, but the specimen has been destroyed and the species has never been recollected in the province.

Native Americans prepare infusions from various parts of plants of Aquilegia canadensis to treat heart trouble, kidney problems, headaches, bladder problems, and fever, and as a wash for poison ivy; pulverized seeds were used as love charms; and a compound was used to detect bewitchment (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name for red columbine is Aquilegia
canadensis L. [13,14]

Recognized varieties are as follows:

A. canadensis variety canadensis
A. canadensis variety australis (Small) Munz
A. canadensis variety coccinea (Small) Munz
A. canadensis variety hybrida Hook.
A. canadensis variety latiscula (Greene)

Recognized forms are as follows:

A. canadensis forma Phippenii (J.Robinson) R. Hoffm.
A. canadensis forma flaviflora (Tenney) Britt.
A. canadensis forma albiflora House
  • 13. Munz, P. A. 1946. Aquilegia: the cultivated and wild columbines. In: Bailey, L. H. Gentes Herbarium. 7(1): 1-50. [18864]
  • 14. Payson, E. B. 1918. The North American species of Aquilegia. U.S. National Herbarium Contributions. 20(4): 133-158. [18865]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!