Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is up to 1' tall, branching sparingly. It produces both basal and alternate compound leaves with a similar appearance. The stems are reddish green, hairless, and slender. The compound leaves are trifoliate and they have slender petioles. The terminal leaflet has a longer petiolule (a stalk at its base) than the two lateral leaflets. These leaflets are up to 1" long and ¾" across. They are ternately lobed, cleft, and hairless. The white flowers occur individually or in groups of 2-3. Each flower spans about ¾" across, consisting of 5 petal-like sepals that are white, no petals, several slender stamens with yellow anthers, and a few green pistils in the center. The blooming period occurs during mid-spring and lasts about 3 weeks. Each fertilized pistil is replaced by a beaked follicle (seedpod that splits open along one side) that contains several seeds. The root system is fibrous and occasionally small tubers are produced. Vegetative clones of the mother plant are often produced from these tubers; reproduction also occurs by the seeds. False Rue Anemone often forms dense colonies of plants.
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Comments

Another scientific name for False Rue Anemone is Isopyrum biternatum. This species blooms a little earlier than many other spring wildflowers in a woodlands, and it has attractive flowers and foliage. Two other members of the Buttercup family that occur in woodlands, Anemone quinequefolia (Wood Anemone) and Anemonella thalictroides (Rue Anemone), resemble False Rue Anemone. Wood Anemone has leaflets that are coarsely serrated along the margins and their lobes taper to sharp points; it also differs from False Rule Anemone by the whorl of leaves underneath the flowers. Rue Anemone also has whorled leaves underneath the flowers, otherwise its foliage is very similar to that of False Rue Anemone (which has alternate leaves along the stems). While Wood Anemone and Rue Anemone produce small clusters of beaked achenes (each containing a single seed within a hardened exterior), False Rue Anemone produces small clusters of beaked follicles that each contain 2 or more seeds. Sometimes the white flowers of Wood Anemone and Rue Anemone have more than 5 petal-like sepals, while the flowers of False Rue Anemone never have more than 5 petal-like sepals.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

False Rue Anemone is fairly common in the majority of counties of Illinois, otherwise it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It typically occurs in mesic deciduous woodlands as one of the spring wildflowers. This species can be extirpated from a woodlands by an invasion of Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard).
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Isopyrum biternatum (Raf.) Torr. & A. Gray:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Enemion biternatum Raf.:
China (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Ont.; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Va., W.Va., Wis.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems 10-40 cm, weakly rhizomatous; roots fibrous. Leaves: leaflets irregularly 2-3-lobed, lobes sometimes with 1-3 secondary lobes, apex rounded, glandular-apiculate; surfaces abaxially glabrous. Inflorescences axillary, flowers solitary or loosely grouped in 2-4-flowered leafy racemes; peduncle not strongly clavate. Flowers: sepals 5.5-13.5 × 3.5-8.5 mm; stamens 25-50; filaments filiform to club-shaped, 1.8-5.8 mm. Follicles sessile, upright to widely divergent; body widely elliptic to widely obovate, 3.5-6.5 mm, gradually contracted into style beak; beak 1.7-3 mm. Seeds 2.1-2.7 mm, minutely pubescent. 2 n = 14.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Isopyrum biternatum (Rafinesque) Torrey & A. Gray
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

False Rue Anemone is fairly common in the majority of counties of Illinois, otherwise it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It typically occurs in mesic deciduous woodlands as one of the spring wildflowers. This species can be extirpated from a woodlands by an invasion of Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard).
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Moist deciduous woods of valleys, flood plains, and ravine bottoms, occasionally in open pastures, often on limey soils; 25-1000m.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of False Rue Anemone in Illinois

Enemion biternatum (False Rue Anemone)
(Also known as Isopyrum biternatum; bees collect pollen, while other insects feed on pollen or explore the flowers in vain for nectar; some observations are from Graenicher and Schemske et al. as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson; Robertson thought the flowers offered nectar to insect visitors, but this is incorrect)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera cp fq (Rb, Shm); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica cp/exp; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata cp/exp; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia belfragii cp/exp; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada sayi exp; Megachildae (Osmiini): Osmia pumila cp/exp

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea cp/exp, Augochlora purus purus cp/exp (Rb, Shm), Augochlorella striata cp fq (Rb, Shm), Augochloropsis sumptuosa cp/exp, Halictus confusus cp fq, Halictus rubicunda cp, Lasioglossum coriaceus cp/exp, Lasioglossum cressonii cp/exp, Lasioglossum forbesii cp/exp, Lasioglossum foxii cp/exp, Lasioglossum imitatus cp (Rb, Shm), Lasioglossum macoupinensis cp/exp (Rb, Shm), Lasioglossum oblongus cp/exp (Shm), Lasioglossum obscurus cp/exp, Lasioglossum pectoralis cp/exp, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus cp/exp, Lasioglossum versatus cp fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus cp/exp fq (Rb, Shm); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis cp/exp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena carlini cp/exp fq (Rb, Shm), Andrena cressonii cp/exp (Shm), Andrena erigeniae exp (Rb, Shm), Andrena forbesii cp/exp (Rb, Shm), Andrena imitatrix imitatrix cp/exp, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata cp (Rb, Shm), Andrena nasonii cp/exp fq (Shm), Andrena personata cp/exp (Shm), Andrena rugosa cp/exp fq (Rb, Shm), Andrena sayi cp/exp fq

Wasps
Sapygidae: Sapyga centrata exp

Flies
Syrphidae: Chalcosyrphus nemorum fp/exp (Rb, Shm), Cheilosia capillata fp, Eristalis dimidiatus fp/exp, Eupeodes americanus fp (Rb, Shm), Helophilus fasicatus fp/exp (Rb, Shm), Melanostoma sp. fp/exp (Shm), Platycheirus obscurus fp/exp, Sphaerophoria contiqua fp np, Syrphus ribesii fp/exp, Syrphus torvus fp/exp (Shm), Toxomerus geminatus fp/exp, Toxomerus marginatus fp np; Empididae: Empis nuda fp/exp; Bombyliidae: Bombylius major fp/exp fq (Rb, Gr); Tachinidae: Gonia capitata fp/exp; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina fp/exp

Beetles
Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittata fp np; Coccinellidae: Coleomegilla maculata fp np; Oedemeridae: Asclera ruficollis fp np; Pyrochroidae: Pedilus terminalis fp np

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris exp

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Faunal Associations

Except for visitors of the flowers, little is known about the floral-faunal relations of this species. The floral pollen attracts small bees and flies primarily, including Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, Little Carpenter bees, Syrphid flies, and other flies. The bees collect pollen, while the flies feed on pollen. Occasionally various beetles also feed on the pollen, but they are less effective at pollination. Some of these insects probably search in vain for nectar, as the flowers lack nectaries (see Melampy & Heyworth, 1980).
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Enemion biternatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Enemion biternatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Comments: Somewhat threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and to a lesser extent by forest management practices. Disturbance in habitat could lead to competition problems with non-native species (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is partial sun to medium shade, slightly moist to mesic conditions, and a rich loamy soil with abundant leaf mould.
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Wikipedia

Enemion biternatum

Enemion biternatum (also Isopyrum biternatum), commonly known as the False Rue-anemone, is a spring ephemeral native to moist deciduous woodland in the eastern United States and extreme southern Ontario.

Unlike the similar Rue-anemone (Thalictrum thalictroides), flowers appear in leaf axils, most often singly. In the Rue-anemone, flowers appear above a whorl of leaf-like bracts, most often in clusters of 3-6.

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Notes

Comments

Enemion biternatum has been mistaken for the superficially similar Thalictrum thalictroides because of its white flowers and compound Thalictrum -like leaves. Enemion biternatum is easily distinguished, however, by its few-seeded follicles and deeply lobed leaves with glandular-apiculate apices. Thalictrum thalictroides , on the other hand, is characterized by having achenes and somewhat crenate leaves with notched apices.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: COSEWIC uses the name Isopyrum biternatum.

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