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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Erect, glaucous herb to 1 m, with spiny stems. Leaves sessile, × amplexicaul, pinnatifid with prickly teeth. Veins on upper surface white, the leaf appearing variegated. Flowers 35-45 mm in diameter, either bright yellow or cream coloured. Capsule 25-45 mm, ellipsoid, spiny.
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Derivation of specific name

mexicana: of Mexico
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Miscellaneous Details

Sap used to treat eye infection.
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Naturalised. Native of W. Indies
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb Distribution notes: Exotic
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Native of Central and tropical South America.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

Originally from West Indies; now naturalised in the tropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Malappuram, Palakkad, Kollam, Wayanad

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"Found along the roadsides, disturbed vegetation and human habitations. Common. Native of W.Indies, now widely naturalized in the tropics."
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"Maharashtra: Common throughout Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N.Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: Idukki, Kollam, Malappuram, Palakkad"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region; Nile banks.

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Global Distribution

Pantropical weed.

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Ont.; Ala., Conn., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., La., Md., Mass, Mich., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America.
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Distribution: Native of West Indies and Mexoico, but naturalized in most of the warm countries of the world as a weed.
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Tropical America. A pantropical weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal, solitary; golden yellow, showy. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

An oblong capsule, spinous, apically dehiscing by 3-7 valves; seeds many, black, pitted. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem white glaucous. Leaf variegated with white, margin spine-tipped. Sap yellow.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate

Leaf Type

Pinnatifid

Leaf Shape

Oblong-obovate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Subamplexicaul

Leaf Margin

Spinulose-dentate

"
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Description

A Prickly glabrous annual herb, 30-125 cm tall, branched. Leaves alternate, elliptic-oblong, pinnatifid, semiamplexicaul, sinuate-lobulated; variegated green and white, 5-20 cm long, 2-8 cm broad, ultimate segments, dentate, prickly on the margin, midrib and the veins beneath; Flowers sessile, 3-8 cm in diam., subtended by 2-3 foliaceous bracts. Sepals 8-12 mm long, 5-7 mm broad, with an acute, terete horn below the apex, very sparsely prickly outside, concave, imbricate caducous. Petals 4-6, obovate, 2.5-3.5 cm long, (1.5-)2-2.5 cm broad, narrowed below, bright yellow, imbricate, more or less crumpled in bud. Stamens indefinite, 8-12 mm long; anther c. 2 mm long, curved after flowering. Ovary ovate, 8-10 mm long, 3-5 mm broad covered with long soft spines; stigma red, 3-6 lobed; lobes usually broad. Capsule, oblong or elliptic-oblong, 2.5-4 cm long, 1.2-2 cm broad, with rounded ribs, covered with sharp erect prickles; valves 3-6. Seeds many, blackish brown to brown, ± rounded, 1.5-2 mm in diam, with fine, con¬spicuous tuberculae.
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Elevation Range

150-1400 m
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Description

Plants annual. Stems often branching from base, 2.5-8 dm, unarmed or sparingly prickly. Leaf blades: surfaces unarmed or sparingly prickly on veins; proximal lobed 1/2 or more distance to midrib; distal more shallowly lobed, mostly clasping. Inflorescences: buds subglobose, body 10-15 × 9-13 mm, unarmed or sparingly prickly; sepal horns terete, 5-10 mm, unarmed. Flowers 4-7 cm broad, subtended by 1-2 foliaceous bracts; petals bright yellow or rarely pale lemon yellow; stamens 30-50; filaments yellow; pistil 4-6-carpellate. Capsules oblong to broadly ellipsoid, 25-45 × 12-20 mm (including stigma and excluding prickles when present), unarmed or prickly, longest prickles 6-10 mm. Seeds 1.6-2 mm. 2 n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect herbs, to 70 cm, spiny, sap yellow. Leaves alternate, 12-30 x 4-10 cm, dissected, semi-amplexicaule, membranous, margins spiny, midrib thick. Flowers terminal, solitary, 4.5 cm across, yellow; sepals 2-3; petals 4-6; stamens many; ovary 1 celled, ovules many, stigma 5- lobed. Capsule 4 x 2 cm, oblong, spiny, dehiscing apically downwards; seeds rugose."
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Diagnostic

"Habit: A strong branched, prickly, annual herb, upto 80cm."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Erect Herb
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Synonym

Argemone leiocarpa Greene - F W2
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Type Information

Isotype for Argemone leiocarpa Greene
Catalog Number: US 330001
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Verified from the card file of type specimens
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. L. Pollard, G. Collins & E. L. Morris
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Key West., Florida, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Greene, E. L. 1898. Pittonia. 3: 345.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Introduced. Common gregarious weed. Upto 900m. Native to West Indies, now widely naturalized in the tropics."
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General Habitat

Weed of fallow fields
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Waste ground, edges of cultivation.

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Waste places, often a weed of roadsides, dooryards, fallow fields; 0-1500m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering and fruiting spring-fall, or throughout year in tropics.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per. February-May.
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Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Argemone mexicana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The yellow flowers are used to cure heat boils.
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Uses

The yellow sap used to cure eye infection. Seeds are sometime used as adulterant of mustard.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Argemone mexicana

Argemone.mexicana001.jpg
Indian Argemone Mexicana,

Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy, Mexican prickly poppy, Flowering thistle,[1] cardo or cardosanto) is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world. An extremely hardy pioneer plant, it is tolerant of drought and poor soil, often being the only cover on new road cuttings or verges. It has bright yellow latex, and though poisonous to grazing animals, is rarely eaten, but has been used medicinally by many people including those in its native area, the Natives of the western US and parts of Mexico.[2]

Chemical constituents[edit]

A. mexicana seeds contain 22–36% of a pale yellow non-edible oil, called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine. Four quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids, dehydrocorydalmine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, and oxyberberine, have been isolated from the whole plant of Argemone mexicana.[3]

The seed pods secrete a pale yellow latex when cut open. This argemone resin contains berberine and protopine.

Toxicity[edit]

The seeds resemble the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard). As a result, mustard can be adulterated by argemone seeds, rendering it poisonous. Several significant instances of katkar poisoning have been reported in India, Fiji, South Africa and other countries. The last major outbreak in India occurred in 1998. 1% adulteration of mustard oil by argemone oil has been shown to cause clinical disease.[4]

Katkar oil poisoning causes epidemic dropsy, with symptoms including extreme swelling, particularly of the legs.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The Seri of Sonora, Mexico use the entire plant both fresh and dried. An infusion is made to relieve kidney pain, to help expel a torn placenta, and in general to help cleanse the body after parturition.[2]

When the Spanish arrived in Sonora they added this plant to their pharmacopia and called it cardosanto, which should not be mistranslated to blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus). Use in Hispanic cultures includes as a sedative and analgesic tea, including for use to help alleviate migraine headaches.[citation needed] The seeds are taken as a laxative.[5]

Argemone mexicana is used by traditional healers in Mali to treat malaria.[6] This use was studied (2010-2012) by doctors Bertrand Graz and Merlin Wilcox, in conjunction with Mali's National Institute of Research in Public Health, using the "reverse pharmacology" methods of Dr. Ashok Vaidya.[7]

Other uses[edit]

Biodiesel production from A. mexicana seed oil using crystalline manganese carbonate has been demonstrated.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas C. Fuller (1986). Poisonous plants of California. University of California Press. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-0-520-05569-8. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Felger, R. S.; Moser, M. B. (1985). People of the Desert and Sea. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. 
  3. ^ Singh, S.; Singh, T. D.; Singh, V. P.; Pandey, V. B. (February 2010). "Quaternary Alkaloids of Argemone mexicana". Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (2): 158–160. doi:10.3109/13880200903062622. PMID 20645832. 
  4. ^ "Epidemic dropsy". WHO South East Asia Regional Office. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-17. [dead link]
  5. ^ Moore, M. (1990). Los Remedios: Traditional Herbal Remedies of the Southwest. Santa Fe, NM: Museum of New Mexico Press. 
  6. ^ Willcox, M. L.; Graz, B.; Falquet, J. et al. (2007). "Argemone mexicana Decoction for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101 (12): 1190–1198. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.05.017. PMID 17920092. 
  7. ^ "Drug Developers Take a Second Look at Herbal Medicines". Scientific American. 2014-1-6. 
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Notes

Comments

Argemone mexicana is probably native to southern Florida as well as the Caribbean islands and has been introduced along the coast of the United States from New England to Texas and, more infrequently, inland. Although it has been reported from Mississippi, no specimens are known. It is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world by introduction.
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Comments

This yellow juice of the plant is medicinally used in dropsy, jaundice and cutaneous affection. The seeds are said to be poisonous and have narcotic properties and yields a fixed oil which has been in use amongst West Indian practitioners as an aperient. It exercises a soothing influence when applied externally in headache and also in herpetic and other forms of skin disease. A pale yellow clear limpid oil, obtained from the seeds, is used in lamps and medicinally in ulcers and erudtions.
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