The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, Robert Tucker, and Percy A. Morris. 1995. A Field Guide to Shells: Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies, Fourth Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series, Number 3. xxxiii + 350
  • Boudreax ML, Stiner JL and LJ Walters. 2006. Biodiversity of sessile and motile macrofauna on intertidal oyster reefs in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida. Journal of Shellfish Research 25:1079-1089.
  • ITIS Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.
  • Kent BW 1983. Natural history observations on the busyconine whelks Busycon contrarium (Conrad) and Busycon spiratum (Lamarck). Journal of Molluscan Studies 49:37-47.
  • Magalhaes H 1948. An ecological study of snails of the genus Busycon at Beaufort, North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 18 (3): 379-409.
  • Ruppert E and R Fox. 1988. Seashore Animals of the Southeast. University of South Carolina Press 429 pp.
  • Sartori, A. (2014). Busycon contrarium (Conrad, 1840). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience Left Handed Whelk, Lighting Whelk (Busycon contrarium). Available online.
  • Busycon contrarium. Available online.


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