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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated ,Native of Tropical America"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Maharashtra: Sindhudurg Karnataka: Chikmagalur Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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C. & W. South America, widely cultivated and often naturalised.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbaceous vines. Stem terete, slightly angulate, glabrous. Stipules reniform, ca. 1.2 cm, clasping, margin undulate; petiole 2-3 cm, with 2-4(-6) small glands; leaf blade 5-7 × 6-8 cm, papery, base cordate, margin entire, palmately (3-)5(-9)-lobed; lobes ovate-oblong, middle lobe slightly larger than lateral lobes, glabrous. Inflorescence a reduced cyme, central flower not developed, one lateral branch converted to a tendril, flower opposite tendril; bracts broadly ovate, 2-3 cm, margin entire. Pedicel 3-4 cm. Flowers 6-8(-10) cm in diam. Sepals light green outside, white inside, 3-4.5 cm, awn 2-3 mm. Petals white to light green, 2.5-4 cm. Corona in 3 or 4 series, filamentous; outer 2 series (0.6-)1-1.5 cm, base dark purple, middle white, apex bright blue; inner 1 or 2 series 1-2 mm, base light green, apex white and capitate; operculum fimbricate, lobes dark purple, with annular nectary at base; disk 1-2 mm high; androgynophore 8-10 mm tall. Filaments ca. 1 cm, flat, free; anthers oblong, ca. 1.3 cm. Ovary ovoid-globose; styles free, purple, 6-8 mm; stigma reniform. Berry orange-yellow or yellow, ovoid-globose or subglobose, ca. 6 cm. Seeds many, obcordate, ca. 5 mm. Fl. May-Jul.
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Elevation Range

1200-1800 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Synonym

Passiflora caerulea Loureiro ex Candolle (1828), not Linnaeus (1753); P. loureiroi G. Don.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Guangxi, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan [native to South America (N Argentina, S Brazil)].
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Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Cucumber Mosaic virus infects and damages crumpled, puckered and/or diffusely mosaiced leaf of Passiflora caerulea
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Florida Passion Flower virus infects and damages stunted plant of Passiflora caerulea

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Passiflora caerulea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Passiflora caerulea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Passiflora caerulea

Passiflora caerulea (blue passion flower, common passion flower) is a species of flowering plant native to South America (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil). It is a vigorous, deciduous or semi-evergreen tendril vine growing to 10 m (33 ft) or more, with palmate leaves and fragrant, blue-white flowers with a prominent fringe of coronal filaments in bands of blue, white, and brown. The ovoid orange fruit, growing to 6 cm (2 in), is edible but bland.[1]

Names[edit]

This popular and showy plant has attracted a number of common names. In Paraguay it is widely known as mburucuyá in Guaraní. Other names include blue crown, flower of five wounds, southern beauty, wild apricot, Jesus flower. The specific epithet caerulea means "blue" and refers to the blue coronal filaments.[2]

Description[edit]

P. caerulea is a woody vine capable of growing to 15–20 m high where supporting trees are available. The leaves are alternate, palmately five-lobed like a spread hand (sometimes three or seven lobes), 10–18 cm long and wide. The base of each leaf has a flagellate-twining tendril 5–10 cm long, which twines around supporting vegetation to hold the plant up.

The flower is complex, about 10 cm in diameter, with the five sepals and petals similar in appearance, whitish in colour, surmounted by a corona of blue or violet filaments, then five greenish-yellow stamens and three purple stigmas. The fruit is an oval orange-yellow berry 6 cm long by 4 cm in diameter, containing numerous seeds; it is eaten, and the seeds spread by mammals and birds. It is edible to humans, but bland in flavour. In tropical climates, it will flower all year round.

Cultivation[edit]

P. caerulea is widely cultivated as a wall-climber or as groundcover. In milder temperate areas it can be grown outside, and can become invasive, the twining shoots constantly appearing unless eradicated. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[3]

Cultivars[edit]

Blue Passion Flower and Fruit

A number of cultivars have been produced from the species:-

  • 'Chinensis' (corona filaments paler blue)
  • 'Constance Elliott' was raised by Kucombe and Prince in Exeter, Great Britain. It has pure white, fragrant flowers; not as free-flowering as many other clones.
  • 'Grandiflora' (flowers to 20 cm in diameter)
  • 'Hartwiesiana' (flowers white)
  • 'Regnellii' (very long corona filaments)

The species has been used in numerous hybrids.

Other uses[edit]

Though the fruit is edible, it is rather insipid when eaten raw. It can substitute for blackberries. A tea can be made of the flower which is said to alleviate stress and anxiety. However, tetraphyllin B and epi-tetraphyllin B, cyanogenic glycosides (which liberate hydrogen cyanide when activated by enzymes), have been found in the leaves. It is possible to boil away most of the cyanide.[4]

In culture[edit]

The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay. The intricate structure of the flower has generated Christian symbolism, each part representing a different part of the Passion of Christ. See Passiflora "Etymology and names" section for more information about the symbolism.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Passiflora caerulea". Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  4. ^ DS Seiglera, KC Spencera, WS Statlerb, EE Connb, JE Dunnb, 'Tetraphyllin B and epitetraphyillin B sulphates: Novel cyanogenic glucosides from Passiflora caerulea and P. alato-caerulea', Phytochemistry, 21/9 (1982), 2277-2285.
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