Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This perennial plant is about 2–3½' tall and either unbranched or sparingly branched. The central stem is more or less erect (for terrestrial plants), swelling somewhat at the nodes where the leaf-sheaths wrap around the stem. These nodes can be brownish and short-hairy, but they lack bristles at the edges. Otherwise, the central stem is light green, terete, and glabrous to silky-hairy. The alternate leaves are up to 8" long and 3" across; they have short petioles. The leaves are usually lanceolate or ovate in shape, while their margins are smooth. Sometimes the margins are undulate (up-and-down) or slightly curled. Both the upper and lower leaf surfaces are medium green. The leaf surfaces are either hairless, or they have appressed silvery hairs, depending on the local ecotype. The midveins on leaf undersides are quite prominent. Their are 1 or 2 terminal racemes of flowers at the apex of the central stem. The flowering stalks are quite hairy and often brownish in appearance. The cylindrical racemes are about 2-3" long and densely crowded with flowers. Each flower is about 1/6" (4-5 mm.) across, consisting of 5 petaloid sepals, 5 exerted stamens, and an ovary with a divided white style. The showy sepals of these flowers are rosy pink or scarlet (usually the former). The blooming period can occur from mid-summer to early fall, lasting about 1-2 months for a colony of plants. There is no noticeable floral scent. Usually, only a minority of plants in a colony will bloom during a given year. The flowers are replaced by black seeds that are ovoid to globoid in shape and somewhat flattened; the seed surface is shiny and minutely granular. The root system produces long rhizomes, from which colonies of plants are formed. Cultivation
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: CA, easthern North America, Eurasia.

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

This species has a sub-cosmopolitan distribution, it is native throughout most of the Old World and apparently so in North America but has been introduced to Mexico, South America and southern Africa (Hinds and Freeman 2005).
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St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont. , P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Mexico; South America; Eurasia; Africa.
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Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Very widely distributed: Bhutan, NW India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Asia, Europe, North America].
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Europe, W. Asia, Himalaya (Kashmir, Kumaun to Bhutan), Tibet, Siberia, China, N. Japan, N. America.
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Distribution: Europe, W. Asia, Himalayas (Pakistan, Kashmir to Bhutan), Xizang, Siberia, China, Japan and North America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants perennial, 2-12 dm in terrestrial plants, to 30 dm in some aquatic plants; roots also sometimes arising from proximal nodes; rhizomes or stolons usually present. Stems prostrate to ascending or erect, simple or branched, ribbed, glabrous or strigose to hirsute. Leaves: ocrea tan to dark brown, cylindric or flared distally, 5-50 mm, chartaceous or, sometimes, foliaceous distally, base inflated, margins truncate to oblique, glabrous or ciliate with hairs 0.5-4.5 mm, surface glabrous or appressed-pubescent to hirsute, not glandular-punctate; petiole 0.1-3(-7) cm, glabrous or appressed-pubescent to hirsute, leaves sometimes sessile; blade without dark triangular or lunate blotch adaxially, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 2-15(-23) × 1-6(-8) cm, base usually tapered to acute or rounded, rarely cordate, margins antrorsely scabrous, apex acute to acuminate, faces glabrous or sparingly strigose, midveins glabrous or strigose, not glandular-punctate. Inflorescences terminal, ascending to erect, uninterrupted or interrupted proximally, 10-150 × 8-20 mm; peduncle 10-50 mm, glabrous or strigose to hirsute, often stipitate-glandular; ocreolae overlapping except sometimes proximal ones, margins ciliate with bristles to 1 mm. Pedicels ascending, 0.5-1.5 mm. Flowers bisexual or functionally unisexual, some plants having only staminate flowers, others with only pistillate flowers, 1-3(-4) per ocreate fascicle, heterostylous; perianth roseate to red, glabrous, not glandular-punctate, slightly accrescent; tepals 5, connate ca. 3 their lengths, obovate to elliptic, 4-6 mm, veins prominent, not anchor-shaped, margins entire, apex rounded to acute; stamens 5, included or exserted; anthers pink or red, elliptic; styles 2, included or exserted, connate 2- 3 their length. Achenes included, dark brown, biconvex, (2-)2.2-3 × (1.5-)1.8-2.6 mm, shiny or dull, smooth or minutely granular. 2n = 66, 132.
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Elevation Range

2900-3800 m
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Description

Erect, 30-80 cm tall, floating or submerged (amphibious), perennial herb. Stem floating, submerged or aerial, glabrous or sometime covered with stiff hairs, rooting at the nodes. Leaves 6-12 x 2-4 cm, elliptic-lanceolate or oblong, obtuse-acute, truncate or subcordate at base, petiolate or subsessile, petiole 4-10 cm long. Ochreae 10-20 mm long, truncate, glabrous or rarely sparsely ciliate-hispid. Inflorescence densely flowered, conical, 8-30 mm long, solitary raceme. Ochreolae 1-2 x c. 1 mm, ovate. Flowers pedicellate. Tepals 5, biseriate, bright red or pink, 2-2.5 x 1.5-2 mm narrowly elliptic. Stamens 5, exerted. Ovary oval, 1.3-2 mm long, with inserted or exserted styles, styles 2, 2-4 mm long, free, stigma capitate. Nuts 2.5-3.3 x 1.5-2.0 mm, ovoid or orbicular, shining, dark brown, inserted or slightly exerted with the base of style forming a persistent beak.
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Description

Herbs perennial, amphibious. Rhizomes horizontal. Aquatic plants: stems floating, glabrous, rooting at nodes; leaves long petiolate, floating; leaf blade oblong or elliptic, 5-12 × 2.5-4 cm, glabrous, base subcordate, margin entire, not ciliate, apex obtuse or slightly acute; ocrea tubular, thinly membranous, apex truncate, not ciliate. Terrestrial plants: stems erect, 40-60 cm tall, simple or branched at base. Petiole 3-5 mm; leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 6-14 × 1.5-2 cm, both surfaces appressed-hispidulous, base rounded, margin entire, ciliate, apex acute; ocrea tubular, 1.5-2 cm, membranous, sparsely hirsute, apex truncate, shortly ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, spicate, 2-4 cm; bracts broadly funnel-shaped. Perianth pinkish or white, 5-parted; tepals oblong, 3-4 mm. Stamens usually 5, included. Styles 2, exserted, connate to middle; stigmas capitate. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, shiny, orbicular, biconvex, 2.5-3 mm in diam. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 66, 96.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Polygonum amphibium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 361. 1753; Persicaria amphibia (Linnaeus) Gray var. emersa (Michaux) J. C. Hickman; P. amphibia var. stipulacea (N. Coleman) H. Hara; P. coccinea (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Greene; P. hartwrightii (A. Gray) Greene; P. muhlenbergia (S. Watson) Small; Polygonum amphibium var. emersum Michaux; P. amphibium subsp. laevimarginatum Hultén; P. amphibium var. natans Michaux; P. amphibium var. stipulaceum N. Coleman; P. coccineum Muhlenberg ex Willdenow; P. coccineum var. pratincola (Greene) Stanford; P. coccineum var. rigidulum (E. Sheldon) Stanford; P. emersum (Michaux) Britton; P. hartwrightii A. Gray; P. natans (Michaux) Eaton
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Synonym

Polygonum amphibium L., Sp. Pl. 361. 1753; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 34. 1886; Rech.f. & Schiman-Czeika in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 56: 56. 1968; R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 203. 1972; Bhopal & Chaudhri in Pak. Syst. 1(2): 76. 1977; Polygonum amphibium var. natans Leyss., Fl. Hall. 391. 1761; var. terrestre Leyss. l.c.; Polygonum pusporium Gilib. Exerc. Phytol. 2: 433. 1792; Polygonum amurense Niewalnd in Amer.Midl. Nat. 2: 183. 1821; Persicaria amphibia (L.) S. F. Gray var. natans (Leyss.) Munshi & Javeid, l.c. 63 and var. terrestre (Leyss.) Munshi & Javeid, l.c.
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Synonym

Persicaria amphibia (Linnaeus) S. F. Gray; P. amphibia var. terrestris (Leysser) Munshi & Javeid; P. amurensis (Korshinsky) Nieuwland; P. muhlenbergii (Meisner) Small; Polygonum amphibium var. amurense Korshinsky; P. amphibium var. muhlenbergii Meisner; P. amphibium var. natans Michaux; P. amphibium var. terrestre Leysser; P. amphibium var. vestitum Hemsley.
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Type Information

Holotype for Persicaria mesochora Greene
Catalog Number: US 351264
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. M. Umbach
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Miller's., Indiana, United States, North America
  • Holotype: Greene, E. L. 1904. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 28.
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Holotype for Persicaria amurensis Nieuwl.
Catalog Number: US 273744
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. I. Korshinsky
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Amur River., Manchuria, China, Asia-Temperate
  • Holotype: Nieuwland, J. A. 1912. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 2: 183.
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Type collection for Polygonum hartwrightii A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 45458
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. H. Wright
Locality: Penn Yan., Yates, New York, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Gray, A. 1870. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 8: 294.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Shallow lakes, streams, shores; <300 m. This variety grows on land or is strongly emergent from shallow water, and does not produce floating leaves or shoots.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species generally occurs in still or slow-flowing water, from which it will spread in a terrestrial form away from the water. It is most typical of mesotrophic to eutrophic water bodies, particularly lakes, canals and canalized lowland rivers.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Shallow water, shorelines of ponds and lakes, banks of rivers and streams, moist prairies and meadows; 0-3000m.
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In ponds, riverbanks, wet fields, waste areas; sea level to 3700 m.
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Grows between 800-4500 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe polygoni parasitises live Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus scutula is saprobic on dead, lying in water stem of Persicaria amphibia
Remarks: season: 9-11
Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Phytobius quadricorniger feeds on Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Phytobius quadrinodosus feeds on Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Plagiostoma devexum is saprobic on dead stem of Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia polygoni-amphibii var. polygoni-amphibii parasitises live leaf of Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza polygoni is saprobic on dead stem of Persicaria amphibia
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Rhinoncus albicinctus feeds on Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Rhinoncus inconspectus feeds on Persicaria amphibia

Foodplant / gall
Wachtliella persicariae causes gall of leaf of Persicaria amphibia

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering Jun-Sep.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: June-September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Persicaria amphibia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Persicaria amphibia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Polygonum amphibium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

Reasons: Widspread in North America and Eurasia.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Lansdown, R.V.

Reviewer/s
García, N. & Tognelli, M.

Contributor/s
de Belair, G., Patzelt, A., Knees, S.G., Williams, L. & Neale, S.

Justification
This species is classed as Least Concern as it is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats.
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Population

Population

There is no information available on population trends in this species.


Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

There are no known significant past, ongoing or future threats to this species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place or needed.

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Wikipedia

Persicaria amphibia

Persicaria amphibia (syn. Polygonum amphibium) is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family known by several common names, including longroot smartweed, water knotweed, water smartweed, and amphibious bistort. It is native to much of North America, Asia, Europe, and parts of Africa,[2] and it is known elsewhere as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed.

Distribution[edit]

Persicaria amphibia grows in many types of wet habitat, such as ponds, streams, and marshes. It is a rhizomatous perennial herb which takes a variety of forms and is quite variable in morphology. It may be an aquatic plant, growing submerged or floating in water bodies, it may grow in muddy and wet areas which are periodically inundated, and it may grow in moist spots on land, such as in meadows.

Dry-land and fully aquatic plants are sometimes considered different named varieties of the species.[1]

Description[edit]

Persicaria amphibia produces a thick stem from its rhizome. The stem may creep, float, or grow erect, rooting at stem nodes that come in contact with moist substrate. Stems are known to reach 3 meters long in aquatic individuals.[1] The stems are ribbed and may be hairless to quite hairy in texture.

Leaves are lance-shaped or take various other shapes and are borne on petioles. They may be over 30 centimeters in length. The inflorescence is a dense terminal cluster of many five-lobed pink flowers.

Plants may have bisexual or unisexual flowers, with some plants bearing only male or only female flowers. The fruit is a shiny brown rounded achene around 3 millimeters long.

Uses[edit]

Various parts of this plant were used by several Native American groups as medicinal remedies and sometimes as food.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Persicaria amphibia. Flora of North America.
  2. ^ Persicaria amphibia. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  3. ^ Polygonum amphibium. Native American Ethnobotany. University of Michigan, Dearborn.
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Polygonum coccineum

Polygonum coccineum, commonly called water smartweed, is a perennial herb in the genus Polygonum.


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Notes

Comments

Persicaria amphibia is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and naturalized in Mexico, South America, and southern Africa. It is highly polymorphic and the most hydrophytic of the native North American smartweeds (R. S. Mitchell 1976). In recent decades, botanists have tended to follow Mitchell (1968) in recognizing two endemic, intergrading North American varieties. Studies by G. Turesson (1961) and Mitchell (1968, 1976) have shown that phenotypic extremes in the species are part of a cline of nearly continuous morphological variation that is strongly correlated with submergence, but also with some genetic integrity. Formal recognition of varieties is even less tenable when Eurasian elements also are considered.  

Aquatic-adapted plants, which bloom in water or are sometimes stranded on land, have been called var. stipulacea (although that epithet may not be the oldest one available for the taxon). They produce ovoid-conic to short-cylindric inflorescences 10-40(-60) mm, prostrate aerial stems, and leaf blades that are glabrous with acute to rounded apices. Terrestrial forms of this ecotype usually are spreading-pubescent and often bear ocreae that are foliaceous, green, and flared distally, characters found only in North American plants (R. S. Mitchell 1968).

Terrestrial-adapted plants, referred to var. emersa, bloom on moist soil and produce short- to elongate-cylindric inflorescences 40-110(-150) mm, spreading or erect aerial stems, and leaf blades that are appressed-pubescent with acute to acuminate apices. They produce ocreae that are entirely chartaceous and not flared distally. Emergent and terrestrial plants of this ecotype exhibit less phenotypic plasticity and a lower frequency of heterostyly than do plants of the aquatic ecotype (R. S. Mitchell 1968).

R. S. Mitchell and J. K. Dean (1978) and H. R. Hinds (2000) recognized var. amphibia, the Eurasian element, as introduced in New York and New Brunswick, respectively. These plants are morphologically intermediate between the North American ecotypes and often indistinguishable from North American plants (Mitchell and Dean).

The Meskwaki and Ojibwa used leaves, stems, and roots as a drug to treat a variety of maladies, the Potawatomi used roots to treat unspecified ailments, and the Lakota and Sioux used plants for food (D. E. Moerman 1998).

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A variable species, sometimes different varieties are recognized on the basis of aerial and floating stems. However, this variation seems to be correlated with the habitat and several intermediate forms are also met with.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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