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Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

White poplar was first introduced to North America in 1748 and has a long history in cultivation. It is chiefly planted as an ornamental for its attractive leaves of contrasting color (i.e., green above, white below). It has escaped and spread widely from many original planting sites. Because it is susceptible to a wide variety of pest insects and diseases, and is easily damaged by storms and wind, the ornamental value of white poplar is low.

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Comprehensive Description

Comments

Although it is not native to North America, White Poplar has attractive bark and bicolored leaves. The wood of this tree is relatively soft and weak; it has been used to make boxes and crates, cheap backing for furniture, or as a source of cellulose. The roots of Poplars (Populus spp.) form symbiotic relationships with ectomycorrhizal fungi; an example of such a fungus is the edible Leccinum aurantiacum (Orange Oak Bolete). Another edible fungus, Lentinus tigrinus (Tiger Sawgill), develops on stumps, logs, and dead branches. White Poplar can hybridize with several other poplars, and such hybrids occasionally naturalize. The best known hybrid is probably Populus × canescens (Gray Poplar), which is the result of a cross between Populus alba (White Poplar) and Populus tremula (European Aspen). Gray Poplar is similar to White Poplar, but the undersides of its leaves are less white. Other poplars in Illinois also have leaf undersides that are either less white from fine hairs or they are glabrous. Another distinction involves the shape of the leaves
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Description

This tree is 50-80' tall at maturity, forming a single trunk about 2-3½' across and a relatively open irregular crown that is taller than it is across. The trunk is usually erect and straight, otherwise it is either crooked or divides into multiple branches near the base. On mature trees, trunk bark is rough-textured, irregularly furrowed, and gray near the base, otherwise it is more white and smooth with bands of diamond-shaped black lenticels (air pores). Branch bark is also white and smooth with bands of diamond-shaped black lenticels, while twigs are pale yellow to pale brown and glabrous to white-pubescent. Young shoots are light green, white-pubescent, and terete. Alternate leaves occur along the twigs and shoots. Individual leaves are 2-4" long and a little less across; they are oval to ovate in shape and either bluntly dentate-undulate along their margins or palmate with 3-5 moderately deep blunt lobes. Palmately lobed leaves are most likely to occur on the vigorous shoots of young trees, while leaves with dentate-undulate margins are most likely to occur on slower-growing shoots of older trees. However, both types of leaves can occur on the same tree. The upper surface of mature leaves is medium green and glabrous (or nearly so), while the lower surface is densely white-tomentose. The petioles are up to 1½" long, light green to nearly white, white-pubescent, and usually terete (sometimes becoming flattened toward the base of a leaf blade). White Poplar is dioecious, forming staminate (male) and pistillate (female) catkins on separate trees. Staminate catkins are 1-3" long and drooping; they are hairy and brown while immature, becoming more red at maturity. Each staminate catkin consists of a dense aggregation of staminate florets and their bracts along its length. Each staminate floret consists of 6-12 stamens that develop from a cup-like disk; the adjacent staminate bract is narrowly oval in shape, toothed toward its apex, and ciliate. Each pistillate catkin consists of an aggregation of pistillate florets and their bracts along its length. Each pistillate floret consists of a naked ovary with a pair of deeply bifurcated stigmata; the adjacent pistillate bract is narrowly oval in shape, toothed toward its apex, and ciliate. The blooming period occurs from mid- to late spring, lasting about 1 week. The florets are cross-pollinated by the wind. Afterwards, the pistillate catkins become 2-4" long, forming seed capsules on short pedicels (less than 1 mm. in length). Individual seed capsules are 4-6 mm. in length and pyriform (pear-like) in shape. They are light green while immature, later turning brown and splitting open to release their cottony seeds (2 seeds per capsule). Individual seeds are about 1.5 mm. in length; they are enveloped in basal tufts of fine white hairs and distributed by the wind. The root system is relatively shallow and spreading, sometimes forming clonal shoots that can be located many feet away from the mother tree.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The introduced White Poplar is occasional in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into North America from Eurasia as an ornamental landscape tree. Habitats of naturalized trees include grassy meadows, open wooded areas, borders of ponds and lakes, urban parks, abandoned homestead sites, fence rows, and vacant lots. Such naturalized trees typically colonize habitats with a history of disturbance in urban and suburbans areas. White Poplar is still cultivated as a landscape tree, although its popularity has declined in recent years.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Native to Eurasia, where occurring from "central and southern England to western Siberia and central Asia" (Jil Swearingen, U.S. National Park Service, pers. comm. to Larry Morse, 1998); present in much of North America as an exotic, in some regions invasively so.

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White poplar is nonnative to but has been widely planted in North America [68,88]. It is most widely escaped in the eastern United States and Canada [68]. White poplar populations are generally restricted to planting sites in the West [49,78] but have spread from planting sites in states and provinces east of the Great Plains [7,35,77,84,92]. White poplar's native range includes central, southern, and eastern Europe, the Mediterranean islands, temperate Asia, and northern Africa [34,120].

In North America, white poplar hybrids are known only east of the Great Plains. Populus alba × P. tremula is the most widely distributed hybrid; it occurs in nearly all states and provinces east of the north-south area from western Ontario to Louisiana [114]. Hybrids with native aspens (quaking aspen and bigtooth aspen) occur primarily in the Great Lakes region [101], although P. alba × P. grandidentata has been reported in West Virginia [114]. Populus alba × P. tremuloides is less widely distributed and less common than P. alba × P. grandidentata [100,114,119]. Plants Database provides distributional maps of white poplar and its hybrids.

White poplar was reported in New England by 1785 (Cutler 1785 cited in [102]), and after its introduction, planting was widespread. By the late 1800s, it was noted in many US floras. White poplar occurred in Michigan by 1876 (Almendinger 1876 cited in [102]), in southwestern Texas by 1879 (Watson 1883 cited in [102]), and on Block Island, Rhode Island, by 1892 [4]. In North Dakota and Montana, it was planted by ranchers and farmers for windbreaks [111].

Because white poplar spread is generally limited to clonal growth in the absence of hybridization (see Seed production), the distribution and spread of white poplar is directly related to human plantings [100]. Widespread planting has given white poplar a wider distribution than native aspens in the United States (Barnes personal communication cited in [102]). In northern Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, white poplar is largely restricted to areas where it was planted as an ornamental. It persists through vegetative sprouting [103]. In Farmington, western Maine, the spread of escaped white poplars was easily traced back to areas where white poplar was planted [6]. Throughout the Georgia Piedmont, the distribution of white poplar was directly correlated with the relative number of residences [23]. The composition of the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York was compared from 1930 to 2006. White poplar was first reported in the study area in the 1990s. Although researchers indicated that white poplar "invaded naturally", they did not speculate on the establishment method and failed to report the location of the nearest white poplar population [90].

  • 35. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 49. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 84. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 4. Bailey, W. W.; Collins, J. F. 1893. A list of plants found on Block Island, R.I., in July and August. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 20(6): 231-239. [73907]
  • 6. Barton, Andrew M.; Brewster, Lauri B.; Cox, Anne N.; Prentiss, Nancy K. 2004. Non-indigenous woody invasive plants in a rural New England town. Biological Invasions. 6: 205-211. [47715]
  • 7. Braun, E. Lucy. 1989. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 23. Duncan, Wilbur H. 1950. Preliminary reports on the flora of Georgia. 2. Distribution of 87 trees. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(3): 742-761. [75535]
  • 34. Glass, William. 1996. Populus alba--white poplar. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 39. [72853]
  • 68. Little, Elbert L. 1961. Sixty trees from foreign lands. Agricultural Handbook No. 212. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 30 p. [53217]
  • 78. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924]
  • 88. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 90. Schuster, W. S. F.; Griffin, K. L.; Roth, H.; Turnbull, M. H.; Whitehead, D.; Tissue, D. T. 2008. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State. Tree Physiology. 28(12): 537-549. [73136]
  • 92. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 100. Spies, T. A.; Barnes, B. V. 1981. A morphological analysis of Populus alba, Populus grandidentata and their natural hybrids in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica. 30(2-3): 102-106. [77765]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 103. Stapleton, C. A.; McCorquodale, D. B.; Sneddon, C.; Williams, M.; Bridgland, J. 1998. The distribution and potential for invasiveness of some non-native vascular plants in northern Cape Breton. Technical Report in Ecosystem Science No. 015. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, Atlantic Region. 68 p. [77812]
  • 111. Tuskan, Gerald A.; Laughlin, Kevin. 1991. Windbreak species performance and management practices as reported by Montana and North Dakota landowners. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 46(3): 225-228. [15084]
  • 119. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 120. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 77. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 114. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. PLANTS Database, [Online]. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/. [34262]

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Distribution in the United States

White poplar is found in forty-three states throughout the contiguous U.S.

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Native Range

Central and southern Europe to western Siberia and central Asia
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Distribution: Europe, N. Africa, South West and Western Central Asia including Kashmir and Pakistan (N.W.F. Province, Murree, Baluchistan).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: density, dioecious, mesic, tree

Botanical description: This description covers characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology and is not meant for identification. Keys for identification are available (e.g., [39,60,84,107,122]).

White poplar is typically a small tree but may reach 130 feet (40 m) tall and 7 feet (2 m) in diameter [24,47,107]. The crown is open, wide, and rounded [18,47,105,122]. Low branches are reportedly very persistent [102]. Sometimes the white poplar trunk is divided at the base [39], and often it is crooked [102]. Bark is smooth on young trunks [39] but becomes rough on the lower portion of mature trunks [51]. White poplar is short-lived [13,18,117], and its wood is weak and prone to storm breakage [13].

White poplar leaves are alternate, glossy blue-green above, and white with dense hairs below [18,24,47,91,105]. Early leaves are nearly oval and have margins with rounded teeth [28]; mature leaves have 3 to 7 blunt lobes [35,91] with toothed to wavy margins [39,105]. Leaves measure 1 to 5 inches (3-12 cm) long and are longer than they are wide [71,122], but leaf morphology can be variable [117]. White poplar hybrids produced smaller leaves on dry sandy sites than on mesic or wet sites [102].

White poplar is dioecious. Most white poplars introduced to North America are female. Catkins are dense and support about 50 individual flowers [26]. Pistillate catkins measure 1.5 to 3 inches (4-7 cm) long; staminate catkins measure 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) long [105]. Because male white poplar trees are rare and generally not available to fertilize female trees, fruit and seed production are typically restricted to white poplar hybrids in North America [101]. White poplar fruits, although not typically produced outside of hybridization, are 3- to 5-mm capsules that typically contain 2 seeds [39,71]. White poplar seeds are tiny (up to 1.5 mm long) with long, fine hairs at the base [26,105].

Hybrids: White poplar hybrids are difficult to distinguish from parents in the field. Molecular markers are the best way to avoid misclassification of white poplar hybrids [31]. Descriptions of P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × P. tremuloides hybrids are available in the following references: [5,30,102]. Populus alba × P. adenopoda is described in the Flora of North America [30].

 

Belowground description: Researchers excavated and described the root system of white poplars growing on Rhinau Island in eastern France. Root density was greatest at 12- to 24-inch (30-60 cm) depths. At these depths, some roots were greater than 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter. Root abundance in the top 4 inches (10 cm) of soil increased with increasing distance from the trunk. Three feet (1 m) away from the trunk, white poplar roots reached the gravel layer, which was 43 inches (110 cm) deep. Excavation did not occur beyond the gravel layer [89].

White poplar is capable of prolific root sprouting, which allows for long-term persistence [13,18].
Photo © Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org
  • 35. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 39. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 107. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 47. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 84. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 13. Carter, Jack L. 1997. Trees and shrubs of New Mexico. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books. 534 p. [72647]
  • 5. Barnes, Burton V. 1961. Hybrid aspens in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Rhodora. 63: 311-324. [79397]
  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 24. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 26. Edlin, Herbert L. 1968. Know your broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 142 p. [20459]
  • 28. Farrar, John Laird. 1995. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 502 p. [60614]
  • 31. Fossati, T.; Patrignani, G.; Zapelli, I.; Sabatti, M.; Sala, F.; Castiglione, S. 2004. Development of molecular markers to assess the level of introgression of Populus tremula into P. alba natural populations. Plant Breeding. 123(4): 382-385. [77745]
  • 51. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 71. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 89. Sanchez-Perez, Jose Miguel; Lucot, Eric; Bariac, Thierry; Tremolieres, Michele. 2008. Water uptake by trees in a riparian hardwood forest (Rhine floodplain, France). Hydrological Processes. 22(3): 366-375. [77729]
  • 91. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Part 3: Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). National Museum of Natural Sciences: Publications in Botany, No. 7(3). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. 1115 p. [75493]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 105. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 117. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 30. Flora of North America Association. 2010. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 60. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Description

White poplar, also known as silver-leaved or silverleaf poplar, is a tall tree that, at maturity, may reach 70 feet or more in height and 2 feet in diameter. The smooth, greenish-white bark becomes dark and rough on older trees. Young green or brown twigs are coated with dense woolly hair, especially near the tip. A cross-section of the stem reveals a five-pointed, star-shaped pith. The 2 to 5-inch long leaves are oval to maple-leaf in shape with 3-5 broad teeth or lobes, and are dark green above and covered with dense white hair below. Male and female flowers are borne in catkins on separate trees and appear sometime in March and April. The small seeds are adorned with cottony fluff that is easily blown by the wind in late spring, and is a bane to many landscape maintenance workers.

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Description

Medium to large tree, bark whitish to greyish on young branches smooth, rough on old stems. Dense soft cottony tomentum on young shoots. Petiole 2.5-5.5 cm long, covered by cottony tomentum; lamina 5-10.5 cm long, ovate, with obtuse sinuate lobes or 3-5 lobed, usually broader than long, base 3-5 nerved, acute, cottony on the upper surface when young, cottony tomentose on the lower surface. Male catkin 5-10.5 cm long. Male flower: Bract oblanceolate, hairy, tip slightly toothed; disk small; stamens 5-10. Female catkin 3-5 cm. Bract oblanceolate, hairy, tip slightly toothed, disk cup-shaped, crenulate. Stigmas 2, cleft almost to the base into 4 linear lobes. Capsule 5-6.5 mm long, shortly pedicellate, bivaled, smooth.
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Description

Trees to 30 m tall, suckering freely; crown broad. Branchlets at first white tomentose; shoots grayish green or brownish, terete, densely white tomentose. Buds russet, ovoid, 4-5 mm, densely white tomentose, glabrescent, shiny. Leaves of short branchlets with petiole slightly flattened, ca. as long as leaf blade; leaf blade ovate-orbicular or elliptic-ovate, 4-8 × 2-5 cm, both surfaces tomentose. Leaves of sprouts and long shoots ovate-orbicular, middle lobe much larger than lateral ones, 4-10 × 3-8 cm, adaxially white tomentose at first, somewhat glabrescent, base broadly cuneate, rounded, truncate, or subcordate, palmately 3-5-lobed; margin irregularly notched; lateral lobes spreading nearly obtusely, entire or notched-lobed. Male catkin 3-6 cm. Male flower: stamens 8-10. Female catkin 5-10 cm. Female flower: stipe short; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule narrowly conical, ca. 5 mm, glabrous, 2-valved. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Populus caspica Bornm. in Fedde Repert. 47: 70. t. 283. 1939; A. Neumann in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 65: 10. 1969; R.R. Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 180. 1972.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The introduced White Poplar is occasional in most areas of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into North America from Eurasia as an ornamental landscape tree. Habitats of naturalized trees include grassy meadows, open wooded areas, borders of ponds and lakes, urban parks, abandoned homestead sites, fence rows, and vacant lots. Such naturalized trees typically colonize habitats with a history of disturbance in urban and suburbans areas. White Poplar is still cultivated as a landscape tree, although its popularity has declined in recent years.
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Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: hardwood, mesic

Throughout its North American range, white poplar is most common near current or abandoned settlements where it was planted. It is often found in fields and along fence lines, ditch banks, and roads [7,12,47,51,60,71,105,122]. Disturbed areas near established white poplar stands are often colonized by root sprouts [39,92,119].

In southeastern Michigan, most white poplar hybrids were found around current or former farms. No hybrids occurred in forests considered relatively undisturbed by humans. Nearly half of the hybrids occurred on sparsely vegetated, dry, sandy sites. The other half occurred on mesic sites, often at the edges of lakes, ponds, and swamps [101].

Climate: White poplar occurs in areas as far north as USDA hardiness zone 3, where average annual minimum temperatures can reach -40 °F (4 °C) [19,28,68]. However, some report that white poplar may be killed or injured by extremely low winter temperatures [19,33], suggesting that white poplar may be restricted to protected sites in its northernmost habitats. In a review, Spies [102] reports that white poplar is most common at low elevations where temperatures are moderate and moisture is favorable. Although white poplar commonly occupies moist habitats, it can also occupy upland, somewhat droughty habitats [17]. In Hungary, white polar occurs in semiarid forest-steppe vegetation that grows in a temperate continental climate with annual precipitation averaging 20 to 22 inches (500-550 mm) [79].

In growth chamber experiments, researchers found P. alba × P. grandidentata growth was best when soil moisture was 16% to 30% and temperatures were 77 to 95 °F (25-35 °C) during the day and 59 to 77 °F (15-25 °C) at night. The parameters necessary for interpreting soil moisture values in this study include a level of 8.6%—which was slightly above the permanent wilting point—and a field capacity level of 35.6%. Height and stem diameter growth peaked at 23% average soil moisture. Height and stem size were also high at 30% and 32% soil moisture but were low at 9% soil moisture [20].

Elevation: Ranges of elevations reported for white poplar habitats in the western half of the United States
State or region Elevation range
California 1,970-5,900 feet (600-1,800 m) [47]
Nevada 4,500-6,500 feet (1,400-2,000 m) [60]
New Mexico 6,500-7,500 feet (2,000-2,300 m) [71]
Utah 4,500-6,500 feet (1,400-2,000 m) [122]
Intermountain West 3,600-8,000 feet (1,100-2,400 m) [51]

Soils: Although growth may be best in moist, deep loams [19], white poplar and its hybrids grow in a variety of soil types and textures [105,117]. In the Southwest, white poplar occurs on dry, well drained sites [117], and in Michigan, white poplar thickets are common in sandy soils [119]. In southeastern Michigan, most white polar and hybrid stands occurred on loamy sands, but soil textures ranged from pure sands to nearly pure loams. Soil pH was mostly neutral but ranged from 5 to 8 [102]. White poplar persisted for more than 100 years at the Grayling Agricultural Experiment Station in Crawford County, Michigan, where soil pH, nutrients, and water-holding capacity were low [62]. In its native forest-steppe habitats in Hungary, white poplar occurred on soils with a sand content of greater than 96% and silt and clay content of less than 2% [79]. In the Danube-Tisza region of Hungary, more than 70% of white poplar stands occurred on calcareous soils [86].

Soil moisture: Floodplain and upland sites provide habitat for white poplar [17,45], and although white poplar may survive episodes of both flooding and low precipitation, experiments suggest that growth is best in moist conditions. In his review, Dickmann [17] reports that on dry soils, P. alba × P. tremula grows better than white poplar.

Studies suggest that white poplar and hybrid growth is best in moist but not saturated soils. In a controlled study, P. alba × P. grandidentata stem height increased with increasing soil moisture levels up to 34%; stem height was lower at a 41% moisture level. A lack of root aeration may have affected hybrid growth at 41% soil moisture. In this study, permanent wilting of the hybrids occurred at 9% to 11%, and soil was near field capacity at 41%. [96]. However, when ranchers and farmers in North Dakota and Montana were surveyed, those who planted white poplar on sites with a shallow water table ranked its windbreak performance lower than those who planted it on sites with deeper water tables [111].

In the few studies available, white poplar exhibited greater flood tolerance in its native than nonnative habitats. Along the Upper Rhine in France, white poplar occurs in a hardwood floodplain forest that is flooded almost every summer (June-August) [94]. When white poplar trees were planted around a reservoir in Davis, California, nearly 80% of white poplar trees survived 61 to 69 days of flooding in 2 consecutive years. Survival was much lower, 20%, after 100 days of flooding in 2 consecutive years. The age of white poplar trees at the time of flooding was not reported [45], but provided photos suggest the trees were less than 10 years old.

Salinity: White poplar tolerates salt spray [19] and grows in saline soils [17]. Some indicate that white poplar can establish and grow in soil with salinity levels of up to 4,000 mg/L (Wong and others 1985 as cited in [52]). In the Camargue in southern France, white poplar occurred in habitats where the soil salinity at 12 inches (30 cm) deep was up to 3,200 mg/L [76]. In a greenhouse experiment, the survival of 1-year-old white poplar seedlings was compared after adding various amounts of sodium to the soil. Growth of white poplar was significantly lower in high-salt than low-salt treatments (P=0.0183). After a year, all seedlings had survived the low-salt treatment, and mortality in the high-salt treatment was only 20% [52]. Populus alba × P. tremula is considered more tolerant of saline soils than white poplar [17], but comparisons between white poplar and its hybrids with aspens native to North America were not found.

  • 39. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 47. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 7. Braun, E. Lucy. 1989. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]
  • 28. Farrar, John Laird. 1995. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 502 p. [60614]
  • 51. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 68. Little, Elbert L. 1961. Sixty trees from foreign lands. Agricultural Handbook No. 212. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 30 p. [53217]
  • 71. Martin, William C.; Hutchins, Charles R. 1981. A flora of New Mexico. Volume 2. Germany: J. Cramer. 2589 p. [37176]
  • 79. Onodi, Gabor; Kertesz, Miklos; Botta-Dukat, Zoltan; Altbacker, Vilmos. 2008. Grazing effects on vegetation composition and on the spread of fire on open sand grasslands. Arid Land Research and Management. 22(4): 273-285. [72697]
  • 92. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 94. Siebel, Henk N.; Bouwma, Irene M. 1998. The occurrence of herbs and woody juveniles in a hardwood floodplain forest in relation to flooding and light. Journal of Vegetation Science. 9(5): 623-630. [73525]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 105. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 111. Tuskan, Gerald A.; Laughlin, Kevin. 1991. Windbreak species performance and management practices as reported by Montana and North Dakota landowners. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 46(3): 225-228. [15084]
  • 117. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 119. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 17. Dickmann, Donald I. 2001. An overview of the genus Populus. In: Dickman, Donald I.; Isebrands, J. G.; Eckenwalder, James E.; Richardson, Jim, eds. Poplar culture in North America. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada, Research Press: 1-42. [79277]
  • 19. Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: Their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing. 1187 p. [74836]
  • 12. Carpenter, Jackie S.; Chester, Edward W. 1987. Vascular flora of the Bear Creek Natural Area, Stewart County, Tennessee. Castanea. 52(2): 112-128. [75372]
  • 20. Domingo, Ireneo L.; Gordon, John C. 1974. Physiological responses of an aspen-poplar hybrid to air temperature and soil moisture. Botanical Gazette. 135(3): 184-192. [77806]
  • 33. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
  • 45. Harris, Richard W.; Leiser, Andrew T.; Fissell, Robert E. 1975. Plant tolerance to flooding. Summary report -- 1971-1975. Grant Contract No. A 5fs-16565; RWH-200-7/1/75. Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Environmental Horticulture. 30 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Forest Service. [76584]
  • 52. Imada, S.; Yamanaka, N.; Tamai, S. 2009. Effects of salinity on the growth, Na partitioning, and Na dynamics of a salt-tolerant tree, Populus alba L. Journal of Arid Environments. 73(6-7): 245-251. [77749]
  • 62. Kilgore, Jason S.; Telewski, Frank W. 2004. Reforesting the jack pine barrens: a long-term common garden experiment. Forest Ecology and Management. 189(1-3): 171-187. [47461]
  • 76. Mesleard, F.; Grillas, P.; Lepart, J. 1991. Plant community succession in a coastal wetland after abandonment of cultivation: the example of the Rhone Delta. Vegetatio. 94(1): 35-45. [77758]
  • 86. Redei, K. 2000. Early performance of promising white poplar (Populus alba) clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tsiza in Hungary. Forestry. 73(4): 407-413. [77760]
  • 96. Smith, David W.; Gatherum, Gordon E. 1974. Effects of moisture and clone on photosynthesis and growth of an aspen-poplar hybrid. Botanical Gazette. 135(4): 293-296. [77803]
  • 60. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: codominant, hardwood, mesic

Nonnative habitats:
In its North American range, white poplar occurs in open disturbed sites, grasslands, shrublands, early-seral forests, and floodplain woodlands [34,120]. In New England, it occurs along roadsides and in fields, meadows, wet shrublands, early-seral forests, and floodplain forests [73]. In a midseral old field on Howard University's Beltsville campus in Maryland, white poplar was codominant with red maple (Acer rubrum) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) [83]. Along the Mississippi River in Hickman County, Kentucky, white poplar thickets occurred with eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides subsp. deltoides) and narrowleaf willow (Salix exigua) on sand deposited by flooding [41]. In the Midwest, large white poplar clones have reduced the abundance of shade-intolerant species in prairies and savannas [97]. In southeastern Michigan, white poplar and its native aspen hybrids occurred in early-seral communities dominated by poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera subsp. stolonifera), and gray dogwood (C. racemosa) on mesic sites and black oak (Quercus velutina), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on dry sites [102]. Along the Missouri River in southeastern South Dakota, white poplar occurred in cottonwood (Populus spp.)-dominated floodplain forests [104].

Native habitats:
In western and central Europe, white poplar occurs in riparian, forest-steppe, and coastal communities. Gravel bars and hardwood floodplain woodlands are common white poplar habitats [27,63,66,94]. In Hungary, white poplar occurs in forest-steppe vegetation characterized by sandy grasslands with patches of white poplar, Lombardy poplar (P. nigra), and common juniper (Juniperus communis) [79]. White poplar sometimes forms thickets on coastal cliffs in southeastern England [26].
Additional information about white poplar's nonnative and native habitats is available in Site Characteristics and Successional Status.
  • 26. Edlin, Herbert L. 1968. Know your broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 142 p. [20459]
  • 34. Glass, William. 1996. Populus alba--white poplar. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 39. [72853]
  • 41. Grubbs, Jeffrey T.; Fuller, Marian J. 1991. Vascular flora of Hickman County, Kentucky. Castanea. 56(3): 193-214. [75356]
  • 63. Kondolf, G. Mathias; Piegay, Herve; Landon, Norbert. 2007. Changes in the riparian zone of the lower Eygues River, France, since 1830. Landscape Ecology. 22(3): 367-384. [77722]
  • 66. Lexer, C.; Fay, M. F.; Joseph, J. A.; Nica, M.-S.; Heinze, B. 2005. Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression. Molecular Ecology. 14(4): 1045-1057. [77755]
  • 79. Onodi, Gabor; Kertesz, Miklos; Botta-Dukat, Zoltan; Altbacker, Vilmos. 2008. Grazing effects on vegetation composition and on the spread of fire on open sand grasslands. Arid Land Research and Management. 22(4): 273-285. [72697]
  • 83. Poston, Muriel E.; Middendorf, George A., III. 1988. Maturation characteristics of Rubus pennsylvanicus fruit: are black and red the same? Oecologia. 77(1): 69-72. [13541]
  • 94. Siebel, Henk N.; Bouwma, Irene M. 1998. The occurrence of herbs and woody juveniles in a hardwood floodplain forest in relation to flooding and light. Journal of Vegetation Science. 9(5): 623-630. [73525]
  • 97. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 104. Steenhof, Karen; Berlinger, Stephen S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H. 1980. Habitat use by wintering bald eagles in South Dakota. The Journal of Wildlife Management. 44(4): 798-805. [75199]
  • 120. Weber, Ewald. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. 548 p. [71904]
  • 27. Ellenberg, Heinz. 1988. Vegetation ecology of central Europe. 4th edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 731 p. [English translation by G. K. Strutt]. [73365]
  • 73. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2008, May 28]. [70356]

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Habitat in the United States

White poplar seems to grow best in full sun habitats such as fields, forest edges and wetland fringes.

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U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

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Habitat & Distribution

Native in Xinjiang; planted in Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang [N Africa, SW and WC Asia, Europe].
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The larvae of several beetles bore through the wood of Populus spp. (Poplars). These species include Descarpentriesina cyanipes (Eastern Poplar Buprestid), Dicerca tenebrica (Flat-Headed Poplar Borer), Oberea delongi (Poplar Twig Borer), Saperda calcarata (Poplar Borer), Cryptorhynchus lapathe (Poplar & Willow Borer), and others. Other insect feeders include Polydrussus impressifrons (Pale Green Weevil), the plant bug Tropidosteptes populi, Pemphigus populi-transversus (Poplar Petiole Gall Aphid) and Thecabius populiconduplifolius (Folded-Leaf Poplar Aphid), the leafhopper Kybos copula, and larvae of the Cimbicid sawfly Trichosoma triangulum. In addition to these insects, the larvae of several moths feed on poplars, including Acossus centerensis (Poplar Carpenter Worm), Paranthrene tabaniformis (Poplar Clearwing), Sesia tibialis (Cottonwood Crown Borer), Phyllocnistis populiella (Poplar Serpentine Leafminer), Gluphisia septentrionalis (Common Gluphisia), Odontosia elegans (Elegant Prominent), Homoglaea hircina (Goat Sallow), and Pachysphinx modesta (Big Poplar Sphinx). Some vertebrate animals also use these trees as sources of food and shelter. The Ruffed Grouse and Purple Finch feed on the buds, while the Red-Breasted Nuthatch constructs nests in the holes of dead poplar trees. The Cottontail Rabbit and Meadow Vole gnaw on the relatively smooth bark of young trees during the winter. Beavers feed on the bark and wood of both young and mature trees throughout the year when they grow near sources of water. White-Tailed Deer and other hoofed mammalian herbivores occasionally browse on the foliage and twigs of young trees.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Foodplant / roller
larva of Byctiscus populi rolls leaf of Populus alba

Foodplant / saprobe
often long-stalked apothecium of Ciboria caucus is saprobic on overwintered, fallen catkin (male) of Populus alba
Remarks: season: 3-4

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Cristinia rhenana is saprobic on decayed wood chip of Populus alba

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to gregarious, erumpent through small slits in bark pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe putator is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Populus alba
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus dejeani feeds on Populus alba

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus filirostris feeds on Populus alba

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus longimanus feeds on Populus alba

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dorytomus tremulae feeds within catkin of Populus alba

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Marssonina coelomycetous anamorph of Drepanopeziza populi-albae causes spots on live leaf of Populus alba
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, immersed then erumpent, plurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Leucostoma niveum is saprobic on dead twig (bark) of Populus alba
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous uredium of Melampsora populnea parasitises live leaf of Populus alba
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Messa glaucopis mines leaf of Populus alba

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora polygonia is saprobic on dead wood of Populus alba

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia subcaesia is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Populus alba
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
Sthenarus rotermundi is associated with Populus alba

Foodplant / parasite
Uncinula adunca var. adunca parasitises Populus alba

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of 5 to 12 perithecium of Valsa sordida is saprobic on dead branch of Populus alba
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Pollaccia anamorph of Venturia macularis causes spots on live leaf of Populus alba
Remarks: season: summer-early autumn

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Zeugophora subspinosa grazes on leaf of sapling of Populus alba
Remarks: season: mid 8-9,5-12
Other: uncertain

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to gregarious, erumpent through small slits in bark pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe putator is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / feeds on
Dorytomus tremulae feeds on Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hebeloma vaccinum is associated with Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous uredium of Melampsora populnea parasitises live leaf of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
Orthotylus bilineatus is associated with Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Perenniporia fraxinea is saprobic on live trunk (base) of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phellinus lundellii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Rigidoporus ulmarius parasitises live trunk (large) of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)

Foodplant / saprobe
long stalked apothecium of Rutstroemia conformata is saprobic on skeletonised leaf of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: season: 5-6

Plant / associate
Sthenarus rotermundi is associated with Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Zeugophora subspinosa grazes on leaf of sapling of Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens)
Remarks: season: mid 8-9,5-12

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire suppression, frequency, fuel, prescribed fire, restoration

Potential for postfire establishment and spread: Abundant postfire sprouting is suspected following fire in white poplar stands (Johnson 2010 personal communication [54]). In areas supporting white poplar together with bigtooth aspen, quaking aspen, and/or European aspen, hybrid seedlings may also occur. For more information on white poplar hybridization, see the earlier discussions in the Seed production, Seed dispersal, and Seedling establishment sections.

Preventing postfire establishment and spread: Preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. This may be accomplished through early detection and eradication, careful monitoring and follow-up, and limiting dispersal of invasive plant seed into burned areas. General recommendations for preventing postfire establishment and spread of invasive plants include:

  • Incorporate cost of weed prevention and management into fire rehabilitation plans
  • Acquire restoration funding
  • Include weed prevention education in fire training
  • Minimize soil disturbance and vegetation removal during fire suppression and rehabilitation activities
  • Minimize the use of retardants that may alter soil nutrient availability, such as those containing nitrogen and phosphorus
  • Avoid areas dominated by high priority invasive plants when locating firelines, monitoring camps, staging areas, and helibases
  • Clean equipment and vehicles prior to entering burned areas
  • Regulate or prevent human and livestock entry into burned areas until desirable site vegetation has recovered sufficiently to resist invasion by undesirable vegetation
  • Monitor burned areas and areas of significant disturbance or traffic from management activity
  • Detect weeds early and eradicate before vegetative spread and/or seed dispersal
  • Eradicate small patches and contain or control large infestations within or adjacent to the burned area
  • Reestablish vegetation on bare ground as soon as possible
  • Avoid use of fertilizers in postfire rehabilitation and restoration
  • Use only certified weed-free seed mixes when revegetation is necessary
For more detailed information on these topics see the following publications: [3,8,37,113].

Use of prescribed fire as a control agent: Although detailed management guidelines for the use of fire to control white poplar and its hybrids are lacking, some weed control documents suggest that annual repeated fire may reduce sprout abundance and limit spread [16,97]. Solecki [97] reports that cutting may be necessary in dense white poplar stands to encourage enough herbaceous fine fuel growth to carry a fire. For "very large" clones, this process may require several years of cutting and burning-in from the stand edges before the clone center can be burned [97].

Altered fuel characteristics: Although dense white poplar and/or hybrid stands have the potential to alter fuel characteristics, fire behavior, and fire frequency in invaded habitats, altered FIRE REGIMES in invaded habitats had not been reported as of 2010. For more information, see Fuels and FIRE REGIMES.
  • 8. Brooks, Matthew L. 2008. Effects of fire suppression and postfire management activities on plant invasions. In: Zouhar, Kristin; Smith, Jane Kapler; Sutherland, Steve; Brooks, Matthew L., eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Fire and nonnative invasive plants. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 269-280. [70909]
  • 97. Solecki, Mary Kay. 1997. Controlling invasive plants. In: Packard, Stephen; Mutel, Cornelia F., eds. The tallgrass restoration handbook: For prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Washington, DC: Island Press: 251-278. [43127]
  • 16. Czarapata, Elizabeth J. 2005. Invasive plants of the Upper Midwest: An illustrated guide to their identification and control. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 215 p. [71442]
  • 3. Asher, Jerry; Dewey, Steven; Olivarez, Jim; Johnson, Curt. 1998. Minimizing weed spread following wildland fires. Proceedings, Western Society of Weed Science. 51: 49. Abstract. [40409]
  • 37. Goodwin, Kim; Sheley, Roger; Clark, Janet. 2002. Integrated noxious weed management after wildfires. EB-160. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 46 p. Available online: http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/eb160.html [2003, October 1]. [45303]
  • 54. Johnson, Kristine. 2010. [Email to Corey Gucker]. April 7. Regarding Populus alba. Gatlinburg, TN: Great Smoky Mountains National Park. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; FEIS files. [79621]
  • 113. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2001. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. Available online: http://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/documents/FS_WeedBMP_2001.pdf [2009, November 19]. [37889]

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Fuels and Fire Regimes

More info for the terms: fire frequency, fire regime, frequency, fuel, natural

Fuels: The information available on white poplar fuel characteristics describes both low flammability and increased woody fuel loads. Flammability of white poplar was reported as low in a Virginia Cooperative Extension publication [1]. White poplar was recommended for use in firebreaks in parts of Australia because of its firm bark, dense, compact crown, and low levels of volatile oils in foliage [95]. However, white poplar wood is weak and prone to breakage [13]. Twigs and limbs are dropped throughout the year [34]. Weak wood suggests that groundlayer woody fuel loads may be high in dense white poplar stands.

FIRE REGIMES: The prevailing fire regime in white poplar's native habitats was not described in the available literature (2010). FIRE REGIMES in white poplar's nonnative habitats are difficult to characterize. Widespread planting of white poplar in North America has made many vegetation types potential habitat for white poplar. While dense white poplar and white poplar hybrid stands could alter fire frequency or fire behavior in invaded habitats, their impact on natural FIRE REGIMES had not been studied as of 2010. See the Fire Regime Table for more information on the FIRE REGIMES in vegetation communities that may support white poplar or its hybrids.

  • 13. Carter, Jack L. 1997. Trees and shrubs of New Mexico. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books. 534 p. [72647]
  • 34. Glass, William. 1996. Populus alba--white poplar. In: Randall, John M.; Marinelli, Janet, eds. Invasive plants: Weeds of the global garden. Handbook #149. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Botanic Garden: 39. [72853]
  • 95. Simpfendorfer, K. J. 1989. Trees, farms and fires. Land and Forests Bulletin No. 30. Victoria, Australia: Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands. 55 p. [10649]
  • 1. Appleton, Bonnie Lee; Frenzel, Cindy L.; Hillegass, Julie B.; Lyons, Robert E.; Steward, Larry G. 2009. Virginia firescapes: Firewise landscaping for woodland homes. Virginia Cooperative Extension Publication 430-300. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia Cooperative Extension; Virginia Firewise Landscaping Task Force. 9 p. Available online: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/430/430-300/430-300.pdf [2009, October 6]. [76014]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: codominant, hardwood, presence, succession, tree

White poplar is commonly associated with disturbed sites in both its native and nonnative ranges. In North America, it occurs in open sites [16,19] and old fields [83], as well as on floodplains [41], which are white poplar's most common habitat in Europe ([63], Lazowski cited in [66]). In its nonnative range, white poplar's presence in any habitat is dependent on prior plantings. Occurrence of white poplar hybrids depends on the presence of European aspen, quaking aspen, or bigtooth aspen. For clarification, see the Seed production, Seed dispersal, and Seedling establishment sections.

Studies suggest that shading does not substantially affect white poplar establishment and survival. Ordination analysis of hardwood floodplain forests along the Upper Rhine River in France showed that white poplar was associated with some of the most shaded plots [94]. During field studies in southeastern Iowa, researchers found that low survival and growth of P. alba × P. grandidentata cuttings were not related to light intensity when cuttings received 33% or more of full sun [32].

In its native and nonnative habitats, white poplar is common in early- to midseral communities. Along the Eygues River in France, it is one of the earliest colonizers of gravel bars left by formerly active channels [63]. White poplar and P. alba × P. tremula occur in lowland floodplain forests in Austria's Danube Valley. White poplar and the hybrid are closely associated with disturbed floodplains (Lazowski cited in [66]). In Hickman County, Kentucky, white poplar thickets developed in the initial stages of secondary succession after 43 feet (13 m) of sand was deposited by flooding of the Mississippi River [41]. In Wisconsin, white poplar occurs in early-successional dune communities, although severe tree damage from windblown sand was noted [15]. In southeastern Michigan, white poplar and its hybrids with native aspens occurred in early-seral communities on disturbed sites [102]. In an old field at Howard University's Beltsville campus in Maryland, white poplar was codominant in a midseral community with red maple and sweetgum [83].
  • 41. Grubbs, Jeffrey T.; Fuller, Marian J. 1991. Vascular flora of Hickman County, Kentucky. Castanea. 56(3): 193-214. [75356]
  • 63. Kondolf, G. Mathias; Piegay, Herve; Landon, Norbert. 2007. Changes in the riparian zone of the lower Eygues River, France, since 1830. Landscape Ecology. 22(3): 367-384. [77722]
  • 66. Lexer, C.; Fay, M. F.; Joseph, J. A.; Nica, M.-S.; Heinze, B. 2005. Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression. Molecular Ecology. 14(4): 1045-1057. [77755]
  • 83. Poston, Muriel E.; Middendorf, George A., III. 1988. Maturation characteristics of Rubus pennsylvanicus fruit: are black and red the same? Oecologia. 77(1): 69-72. [13541]
  • 94. Siebel, Henk N.; Bouwma, Irene M. 1998. The occurrence of herbs and woody juveniles in a hardwood floodplain forest in relation to flooding and light. Journal of Vegetation Science. 9(5): 623-630. [73525]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 16. Czarapata, Elizabeth J. 2005. Invasive plants of the Upper Midwest: An illustrated guide to their identification and control. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 215 p. [71442]
  • 19. Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: Their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing. 1187 p. [74836]
  • 15. Curtis, John T. 1959. Beach, dune, and cliff communities. In: The vegetation of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press: 402-411. [60532]
  • 32. Gatherum, G. E.; Gordon, J. C.; Broerman, B. F. S. 1967. Effects of clone and light intensity on photosynthesis, respiration and growth of aspen-poplar hybrids. Silvae Genetica. 16: 128-132. [79613]

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Pollination and breeding system

More info for the terms: genotype, imperfect, introgression, phenology, succession, tree

White poplar flowers are wind pollinated [18,116]. However, because male white poplar trees are rare, successful pollination of white poplar generally requires hybridization with European aspen, bigtooth aspen, or quaking aspen ([28,101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]). Hybridization and backcrossing between white poplar and native aspens could cause nonnative gene introgression into the native gene pool [102,103]. Studies in southeastern Michigan, however, did not find widespread backcrossing or gene flow between white poplar and bigtooth aspen [100].

Hybridization between white poplar and native and nonnative aspens may be affected by the phenology and location of parent populations. In southeastern Michigan, P. alba × P. grandidentata is much more common than P. alba × P. tremuloides, and nearly all hybrids occur to the east of white poplar clones. The easterly distribution of hybrids was expected because of prevailing western winds, but based on the distribution and abundance of parent species, researchers expected a 1:1 ratio of P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × P. tremuloides hybrids. A single season of observations did not reveal a phenological barrier to hybridization between white poplar and quaking aspen. However, researchers noted that female receptivity is difficult to observe and suggested that the degree of phenological differences and overlap may have been missed in just one season of observations [101,102].

In its native habitats, P. alba × P. tremula backcrossed with white poplar more often than with European aspen. Along the Ticino River in northern Italy, P. alba × P. tremula backcrossed with white poplar but not with European aspen. Researchers suspected their findings were related to the distance to European aspen trees or other preferential backcrossing, although these factors were not investigated [31]. Similar findings were reported in the Danube Valley near Vienna, Austria. Most hybridization occurred between white poplar females and European aspen males, and most backcrossing occurred with white poplar. Because European aspen produced male flowers several weeks earlier than white poplar, European aspen may have fertilized white poplar before white poplar pollen was shed [66].

Seed production: Several floras report that white poplar fails to produce seed [13,18,25]. In North America, most planted white poplar were female [101]; however, in a survey of eastern herbia, 5 of 8 had male white poplar branches in their collection [102]. In North America, most seed production by white poplar occurs through hybridization with bigtooth aspen, quaking aspen, or European aspen ([101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]). In southeastern Michigan, all white poplar clones surveyed were female. White poplar hybrids, however, were male, female, or hermaphroditic with separate staminate and pistillate catkins (review by [101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]).

Although white poplars generally become sexually mature at 5 to 7 years old (Braatne and others 1996 cited in [75]), one genotype grown from seed collected along the Italian peninsula flowered at 1 year old. Subsequent clones regenerated from this genotype failed to flower in their first year without at least 6 months of root chilling treatments [75].

White poplar hybrids can produce an abundance of viable seed. When white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata clones were pollinated openly in a greenhouse, white poplar averaged 23.9 seeds/shoot, and P. alba × P. grandidentata averaged 415.9 seeds/shoot [102]. All P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. tremula, and P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. alba × P. tremula hybrids that were experimentally produced in Ottawa produced viable seed. Seed set was best from crosses between white poplar and bigtooth aspen [57].

Seed dispersal: White poplar and its hybrids produce light-weight, plumose, wind-dispersed seeds ([116], Graham and others 1963 cited in [102]). In the greenhouse, the average weight of seeds produced by 9 open-pollinated white poplar clones was 0.177 mg/seed, and the average weight of seeds produced by P. alba × P. grandidentata clones was 0.199 mg [102]. Although cottonwood (Populus spp.) seeds have been reported to disperse 19 miles (30 km) or more (van der Pijl 1972 cited in [101]), surveys in southeastern Michigan revealed that most (91%) white poplar hybrid seedlings occurred within 1 mile (1.6 km) of white poplar clones [101].

Seed banking: Although field experiments are lacking, white poplar and hybrid seeds are reportedly very short-lived (England Forestry Commission Booklet [26]). A review reports that seed bank longevity is low for Salicaceae [58].

Germination: The optimal conditions for germination of white poplar and hybrid seeds were not reported. A review reports that within Salicaceae, germination is rapid and often occurs within 24 hours of seed shed. Germination percentages are drastically reduced in dry conditions, but germination occurs in moist conditions, at warm temperatures (59-81 °F (15-27° C)), and in dark environments [58]. Soaking reduced the germination of white poplar seeds in the laboratory. Just 23.4% of dry seeds failed to germinate; up to 34.2% of soaked seeds failed to germinate. Nearly 65% of dry white poplar seeds germinated without abnormalities (poor substrate attachment and imperfect geotropism). After soaking 1 to 60 minutes, just 24% to 27% of germinated seedlings lacked abnormalities. Duration of soaking did not greatly affect germination [82]. The survival of abnormal seedlings was not reported, but it could be expected that survival of abnormal seedlings was less than that of normal seedlings.

Germination of white poplar hybrid seeds can be high. When white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata were openly pollinated in a greenhouse, germination of seeds collected from white poplar averaged 34.7%, and germination of seeds collected from P. alba × P. grandidentata averaged 81.8% [102]. All P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. tremula, and P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. alba × P. tremula hybrids that were experimentally produced in Ottawa produced viable seed. Germination was best (61%) for seed produced by crosses between white poplar and bigtooth aspen. Germination of seed produced by the other crosses ranged from 21% to 40% [57].

Seedling establishment and plant growth: In the field, seedling recruitment is generally limited to white poplar hybrids. Information on nonhybrid white poplar seedling establishment is generally limited to studies conducted on trial plantings or in plantations. Establishment of white poplar and hybrid seedlings is likely best on sites with exposed mineral soil that lack other established vegetation.

Although nonhybridized white poplar seedlings are considered unlikely, researchers reported that white poplar "seedlings have been observed to freely colonize neighboring ruderal sands" on western Fire Island in Suffolk County, New York. Bigtooth aspen and quaking aspen were also reported on the island [22], suggesting that seedling recruitment may have been the result of hybridization between white poplar and native aspens. White poplar hybrids can produce seedlings. Many hybrids and backcrosses were experimentally created between white poplar, bigtooth aspen, and quaking aspen. All hybrids produced seed, and seedling survival was at least 29% [57]. When 10-week-old, greenhouse-grown white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata seedlings were transplanted outdoors, about 70% of white poplar and 93% of hybrid seedlings survived to the end of the growing season [102].

Excessively dry conditions, harsh winters, and established vegetation may limit survival and growth of white poplar and hybrid seedlings. When white poplar seedlings from Xinjiang, China, were planted at the Northern Great Plains Field Station in Mandan, North Dakota, most failed to survive longer than 10 years. Only 1 seedling survived more than 10 years, and it did not survive 36 years. Dry conditions and winter injury were the most common causes of mortality [33].

In southeastern Michigan, open sites with exposed mineral soil were best for the establishment of white poplar hybrid seedlings. In the Walsh Lake study area in Washtenaw County, P. alba × P. grandidentata established during a 9-year period following agricultural abandonment. In Livingston County, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × P. tremuloides established at the edge of lakes, ponds, and swamps and on dry, disturbed sites. Both kinds of sites had experienced disturbances that exposed mineral soil. In both counties, hybrid seedling establishment decreased as old-field and floodplain succession progressed [101].

Plant growth: Rapid growth is characteristic of white poplar and its hybrids [70,102]. While hybrids may grow faster than parent species, differences in growth rate may vary by genotype, site, and/or clone age [55,56,86]. Discoveries of rapid tree growth and biomass production by white poplar hybrids in the Great Lakes contributed to increased recommendations for planting hybrids on plantations and in wildlands [40,43,43,72].

Rapid growth of white poplar and its hybrids has been recorded in their native and nonnative ranges. Along the Henares River floodplain in Madrid, Spain, white poplar clones almost doubled in size in 5 years. In 4-year-old plantations, white poplar averaged 2.8 inches (7.2 cm) in DBH and 16 feet (4.9 m) tall. In 9-year-old plantations, white poplar averaged 6.5 inches (16.5 cm) in DBH and 30 feet (9.2 m) tall [70]. In southeastern Michigan, P. alba × P. grandidentata clones that were 28 to 53 years old had annual height increases of 1.1 to 2.3 feet (0.3-0.7 m) and annual DBH increases of 0.2 to 0.4 inch (0.5-1 cm) [102].

In North America, white poplar hybrids are often larger than their parent species of the same age. However, this was not the case in Hungary, where white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata grown in a common area were nearly the same size at 3, 7, and 10 years old. Often the maximum DBH reported for white poplar clones exceeded that of hybrids [86]. In a common area in southeastern Canada, P. alba × P. grandidentata was larger than both parent species of the same age. At 5 years old, average stem height was 14 feet (4.3 m) for white poplar clones, 11.7 feet (3.6 m) for bigtooth aspen clones, and 17.6 feet (5.4 m) for P. alba × P. grandidentata clones [56]. The clonal growth capacity of white poplar hybrids and parent species are compared in the vegetative regeneration discussion above. In Quebec, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × P. tremuloides were typically larger than the parent species when trees were 13 to 19 years old. In young age classes (6-7 years old), hybrid size was much more variable than parent species' sizes, and the maximum height and DBH were generally largest for hybrid clones [55].

  • 13. Carter, Jack L. 1997. Trees and shrubs of New Mexico. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books. 534 p. [72647]
  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 26. Edlin, Herbert L. 1968. Know your broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 142 p. [20459]
  • 28. Farrar, John Laird. 1995. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 502 p. [60614]
  • 31. Fossati, T.; Patrignani, G.; Zapelli, I.; Sabatti, M.; Sala, F.; Castiglione, S. 2004. Development of molecular markers to assess the level of introgression of Populus tremula into P. alba natural populations. Plant Breeding. 123(4): 382-385. [77745]
  • 66. Lexer, C.; Fay, M. F.; Joseph, J. A.; Nica, M.-S.; Heinze, B. 2005. Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression. Molecular Ecology. 14(4): 1045-1057. [77755]
  • 100. Spies, T. A.; Barnes, B. V. 1981. A morphological analysis of Populus alba, Populus grandidentata and their natural hybrids in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica. 30(2-3): 102-106. [77765]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 103. Stapleton, C. A.; McCorquodale, D. B.; Sneddon, C.; Williams, M.; Bridgland, J. 1998. The distribution and potential for invasiveness of some non-native vascular plants in northern Cape Breton. Technical Report in Ecosystem Science No. 015. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, Atlantic Region. 68 p. [77812]
  • 22. Dowhan, Joseph J.; Rozsa, Ron. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk County, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(3): 265-282. [22041]
  • 25. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 29. Fechner, Gilbert H.; Barrows, Jack S. 1976. Aspen stands as wildfire fuel breaks. Eisenhower Consortium Bulletin 4. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. In cooperation with: Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research. [7611]
  • 33. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
  • 40. Green, Alan W.; Green, LeeRoy. 1959. Fast-starting species best in some Iowa plantations. Station Note No. 133. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 2 p. [79623]
  • 43. Hall, R. B.; Hilton, G. D.; Maynard, C. A. 1982. Construction lumber from hybrid aspen plantations in the Central States. Journal of Forestry. 80: 291-294. [79616]
  • 55. Johnson, L. P. V. 1942. Studies on the relation of growth rate to wood quality in Populus hybrids. Canadian Journal of Research. 20: 28-40. [79400]
  • 56. Johnson, L. P. V. 1946. A note on inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids of Populus alba L. X P. grandidentata Michx. Canadian Journal of Research. 24: 313-317. [79401]
  • 57. Johnson, L. P. V.; Heimburger, C. 1946. Preliminary report on interspecific hybridization in forest trees. Canadian Journal of Research. 24: 308-312. [79398]
  • 58. Karrenberg, S.; Edwards, P. J.; Kollmann, J. 2002. The life history of Salicaceae living in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biology. 47: 733-748. [79298]
  • 70. Manzanenra, Jose A.; Martinez-Chacon, Maria F. 2007. Ecophysiological competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. used in plantations for the recovery of riparian vegetation. Environmental Management. 40(6): 902-912. [77725]
  • 72. McComb, A. L.; Hansen, Norman J. 1954. A naturally occurring aspen popular hybrid. Journal of Forestry. 52: 528-529. [79622]
  • 75. Meilan, Richard; Sabatti, Maurizio; Ma, Caiping; Kuzminksy, Elena. 2004. An early-flowering genotype of Populus. Journal of Plant Biology. 47(1): 52-56. [77757]
  • 82. Polya, L. 1961. Injury by soaking of Populus alba seeds. Nature. 189(4759): 159-160. [77759]
  • 86. Redei, K. 2000. Early performance of promising white poplar (Populus alba) clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tsiza in Hungary. Forestry. 73(4): 407-413. [77760]
  • 116. van Loo, Marcela; Joseph, Jeffrey A.; Heinze, Berthold; Fay, Mike F.; Lexer, Christian. 2008. Clonality and spatial genetic structure in Populus x canescens and its sympatric backcross parent P. alba in a Central European hybrid zone. New Phytologist. 177(2): 506-516. [77767]

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Germination

More info for the term: imperfect

The optimal conditions for germination of white poplar and hybrid seeds were not reported. A review reports that within Salicaceae, germination is rapid and often occurs within 24 hours of seed shed. Germination percentages are drastically reduced in dry conditions, but germination occurs in moist conditions, at warm temperatures (59-81 °F (15-27° C)), and in dark environments [58]. Soaking reduced the germination of white poplar seeds in the laboratory. Just 23.4% of dry seeds failed to germinate; up to 34.2% of soaked seeds failed to germinate. Nearly 65% of dry white poplar seeds germinated without abnormalities (poor substrate attachment and imperfect geotropism). After soaking 1 to 60 minutes, just 24% to 27% of germinated seedlings lacked abnormalities. Duration of soaking did not greatly affect germination [82]. The survival of abnormal seedlings was not reported, but it could be expected that survival of abnormal seedlings was less than that of normal seedlings.

Germination of white poplar hybrid seeds can be high. When white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata were openly pollinated in a greenhouse, germination of seeds collected from white poplar averaged 34.7%, and germination of seeds collected from P. alba × P. grandidentata averaged 81.8% [102]. All P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. tremula, and P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. alba × P. tremula hybrids that were experimentally produced in Ottawa produced viable seed. Germination was best (61%) for seed produced by crosses between white poplar and bigtooth aspen. Germination of seed produced by the other crosses ranged from 21% to 40% [57].

  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 57. Johnson, L. P. V.; Heimburger, C. 1946. Preliminary report on interspecific hybridization in forest trees. Canadian Journal of Research. 24: 308-312. [79398]
  • 58. Karrenberg, S.; Edwards, P. J.; Kollmann, J. 2002. The life history of Salicaceae living in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biology. 47: 733-748. [79298]
  • 82. Polya, L. 1961. Injury by soaking of Populus alba seeds. Nature. 189(4759): 159-160. [77759]

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Seed production

More info for the term: genotype

Several floras report that white poplar fails to produce seed [13,18,25]. In North America, most planted white poplar were female [101]; however, in a survey of eastern herbia, 5 of 8 had male white poplar branches in their collection [102]. In North America, most seed production by white poplar occurs through hybridization with bigtooth aspen, quaking aspen, or European aspen ([101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]). In southeastern Michigan, all white poplar clones surveyed were female. White poplar hybrids, however, were male, female, or hermaphroditic with separate staminate and pistillate catkins (review by [101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]).

Although white poplars generally become sexually mature at 5 to 7 years old (Braatne and others 1996 cited in [75]), one genotype grown from seed collected along the Italian peninsula flowered at 1 year old. Subsequent clones regenerated from this genotype failed to flower in their first year without at least 6 months of root chilling treatments [75].

White poplar hybrids can produce an abundance of viable seed. When white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata clones were pollinated openly in a greenhouse, white poplar averaged 23.9 seeds/shoot, and P. alba × P. grandidentata averaged 415.9 seeds/shoot [102]. All P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. tremula, and P. alba × P. grandidentata × P. alba × P. tremula hybrids that were experimentally produced in Ottawa produced viable seed. Seed set was best from crosses between white poplar and bigtooth aspen [57].

  • 13. Carter, Jack L. 1997. Trees and shrubs of New Mexico. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books. 534 p. [72647]
  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 25. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 29. Fechner, Gilbert H.; Barrows, Jack S. 1976. Aspen stands as wildfire fuel breaks. Eisenhower Consortium Bulletin 4. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. In cooperation with: Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research. [7611]
  • 57. Johnson, L. P. V.; Heimburger, C. 1946. Preliminary report on interspecific hybridization in forest trees. Canadian Journal of Research. 24: 308-312. [79398]
  • 75. Meilan, Richard; Sabatti, Maurizio; Ma, Caiping; Kuzminksy, Elena. 2004. An early-flowering genotype of Populus. Journal of Plant Biology. 47(1): 52-56. [77757]

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Vegetative regeneration

More info for the terms: cover, introgression, layering, phenology, tree

Vegetative regeneration and reproduction are vital to white poplar growth, spread, persistence, and recovery from injury [91,105]. Clonal growth and spread most commonly occur by root sprouting [60,119,122] but may also occur through fragmentation and layering [94]. Fragmentation describes the process by which new clones can develop from twig or root pieces that become partially buried in sand or silt ([94], review by [17]). Observations in South Africa led researchers to conclude that white poplar and P. alba × P. tremula were dispersed through the movement of vegetative parts in water [46].

White poplar root sprouts have been described as prolific [102], "vigorous" [73], and "objectionable" [68]. Dense colonies or thickets from root sprouts [60,119,122] can cover large areas [105]. When white poplar seedlings were grown and evaluated as shelterbelt trees in the northern Great Plains, root suckers were frequently reported long distances from the parent tree [33]. According to a review by Spies [102], vegetative sprouts can occur up to 160 feet (50 m) from the parent. In southeastern Michigan, the average size of individual P. alba × P. grandidentata or P. alba × P. tremuloides clones was 0.02 to 0.5 acre (0.01-0.2 ha). The average number of stems per clone ranged from 1 to 404. Populus alba × P. grandidentata sprouted more "vigorously" than bigtooth aspen or quaking aspen [102]. Surveys of white poplar stands on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia showed that most sites supported single-sex ramets from a single parent that in some cases, formed linear riparian stands extending several kilometers. Four monoclonal stands ranged from 38.6 mile² (100 km²) to over 1,500 mile² (4,000 km²). Fertile seed occurred in just 1 of 80 sampling sites, and no seedlings were observed at any site [10]. In lowland floodplain forests along the Danube in Austria and Slovakia, P. alba × P. tremula and white poplar clones extended over distances of 610 feet (186 m) and 430 feet (132 m), respectively. Researchers indicated that these were likely conservative clone size estimates, since trees were not exhaustively sampled [116].

Vegetative regeneration from root sprouts is important to white poplar persistence and recovery from injury. White poplar produces shoots from surviving roots long after the original parent tree has died [47,102,105]. In 1888, white poplar cuttings were planted at the Grayling Agricultural Experiment Station in Crawford County, Michigan. During visits to this planting site between 1998 and 2000, root sprouts from the original plantings were still present [62]. In Iowa, 2 studies from the 1950s reported that P. alba × P. grandidentata clones persisted and spread vegetatively from 2 or more seedlings that established in the early 1900s [67,72]. Sprouting is rapid and prolific following the death of white poplar trees or stems [73,84,105]. This regenerative potential, however, may decrease with tree age, according to a review of the Populus genus by Dickmann [17]. These studies and findings suggest that although white poplar is short-lived, once planted this species can permanently occupy its original planting site or a much larger area.

Studies indicate that white poplar may disperse and establish new populations from vegetative fragments [17,46], but most studies testing the regenerative capacity of white poplar involve experiments with somewhat artificial conditions. In a controlled study involving plant material from southeastern Canada, the vegetative regeneration potential of white poplar and P. alba × P. grandidentata appeared to be much greater than that of bigtooth aspen. About 90% of white poplar cuttings rooted and 65% to 98% of hybrid cuttings rooted, but only about 5% of bigtooth aspen cuttings rooted [56]. From P. alba × P. grandidentata plant material collected in southeastern Iowa, researchers found that root segments greater than 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) in diameter and 2 inches (5 cm) long often produced more than 1 sprout/root segment. When root segments were planted in unseasonably warm, dry weather, very few sprouted. However, some of the root segments sprouted the following growing season [42].

Pollination and breeding system: White poplar flowers are wind pollinated [18,116]. However, because male white poplar trees are rare, successful pollination of white poplar generally requires hybridization with European aspen, bigtooth aspen, or quaking aspen ([28,101], Schlenker 1953 cited in [29]). Hybridization and backcrossing between white poplar and native aspens could cause nonnative gene introgression into the native gene pool [102,103]. Studies in southeastern Michigan, however, did not find widespread backcrossing or gene flow between white poplar and bigtooth aspen [100].

Hybridization between white poplar and native and nonnative aspens may be affected by the phenology and location of parent populations. In southeastern Michigan, P. alba × P. grandidentata is much more common than P. alba × P. tremuloides, and nearly all hybrids occur to the east of white poplar clones. The easterly distribution of hybrids was expected because of prevailing western winds, but based on the distribution and abundance of parent species, researchers expected a 1:1 ratio of P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × P. tremuloides hybrids. A single season of observations did not reveal a phenological barrier to hybridization between white poplar and quaking aspen. However, researchers noted that female receptivity is difficult to observe and suggested that the degree of phenological differences and overlap may have been missed in just one season of observations [101,102].

In its native habitats, P. alba × P. tremula backcrossed with white poplar more often than with European aspen. Along the Ticino River in northern Italy, P. alba × P. tremula backcrossed with white poplar but not with European aspen. Researchers suspected their findings were related to the distance to European aspen trees or other preferential backcrossing, although these factors were not investigated [31]. Similar findings were reported in the Danube Valley near Vienna, Austria. Most hybridization occurred between white poplar females and European aspen males, and most backcrossing occurred with white poplar. Because European aspen produced male flowers several weeks earlier than white poplar, European aspen may have fertilized white poplar before white poplar pollen was shed [66].

  • 47. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 84. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany, No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 28. Farrar, John Laird. 1995. Trees of the northern United States and Canada. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. 502 p. [60614]
  • 31. Fossati, T.; Patrignani, G.; Zapelli, I.; Sabatti, M.; Sala, F.; Castiglione, S. 2004. Development of molecular markers to assess the level of introgression of Populus tremula into P. alba natural populations. Plant Breeding. 123(4): 382-385. [77745]
  • 66. Lexer, C.; Fay, M. F.; Joseph, J. A.; Nica, M.-S.; Heinze, B. 2005. Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression. Molecular Ecology. 14(4): 1045-1057. [77755]
  • 68. Little, Elbert L. 1961. Sixty trees from foreign lands. Agricultural Handbook No. 212. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 30 p. [53217]
  • 91. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Part 3: Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). National Museum of Natural Sciences: Publications in Botany, No. 7(3). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. 1115 p. [75493]
  • 94. Siebel, Henk N.; Bouwma, Irene M. 1998. The occurrence of herbs and woody juveniles in a hardwood floodplain forest in relation to flooding and light. Journal of Vegetation Science. 9(5): 623-630. [73525]
  • 100. Spies, T. A.; Barnes, B. V. 1981. A morphological analysis of Populus alba, Populus grandidentata and their natural hybrids in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica. 30(2-3): 102-106. [77765]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 103. Stapleton, C. A.; McCorquodale, D. B.; Sneddon, C.; Williams, M.; Bridgland, J. 1998. The distribution and potential for invasiveness of some non-native vascular plants in northern Cape Breton. Technical Report in Ecosystem Science No. 015. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, Atlantic Region. 68 p. [77812]
  • 105. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 119. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bulletin 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 17. Dickmann, Donald I. 2001. An overview of the genus Populus. In: Dickman, Donald I.; Isebrands, J. G.; Eckenwalder, James E.; Richardson, Jim, eds. Poplar culture in North America. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada, Research Press: 1-42. [79277]
  • 42. Hall, R. B.; Colletti, J. P.; Schultz, R. C.; Faltonson, R. R.; Kolison, S. H., Jr.; Hanna, R. D.; Hillson, T. D.; Morrison, J. W. 1990. Commercial-scale vegetative propagation of aspens. In: Adams, Roy D., ed. Aspen symposium '89: Proceedings; 1989 July 25-27; Duluth, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-140. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 211-219. [12432]
  • 10. Brundu, Giuseppe; Lupi, Renato; Zapelli, Ilaria; Fossati, Tiziana; Patrignani, Giuseppe; Camarda, Ignazio; Sala, Francesco; Castiglione, Stefano. 2008. The origin of clonal diversity and structure of Populus alba in Sardinia: evidence from nuclear and plastid microsatellite markers. Annals of Botany. 102(6): 997-1006. [77736]
  • 29. Fechner, Gilbert H.; Barrows, Jack S. 1976. Aspen stands as wildfire fuel breaks. Eisenhower Consortium Bulletin 4. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. In cooperation with: Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research. [7611]
  • 33. George, Ernest J. 1953. Tree and shrub species for the Northern Great Plains. Circular No. 912. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 46 p. [4566]
  • 46. Henderson, L. 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia. 37(2): 215-248. [77748]
  • 56. Johnson, L. P. V. 1946. A note on inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids of Populus alba L. X P. grandidentata Michx. Canadian Journal of Research. 24: 313-317. [79401]
  • 62. Kilgore, Jason S.; Telewski, Frank W. 2004. Reforesting the jack pine barrens: a long-term common garden experiment. Forest Ecology and Management. 189(1-3): 171-187. [47461]
  • 67. Little, Elbert L., Jr.; Brinkman, Kenneth A.; McComb, A. L. 1957. Two natural Iowa hybrid poplars. Forestry Science. 3(3): 253-262. [79394]
  • 72. McComb, A. L.; Hansen, Norman J. 1954. A naturally occurring aspen popular hybrid. Journal of Forestry. 52: 528-529. [79622]
  • 116. van Loo, Marcela; Joseph, Jeffrey A.; Heinze, Berthold; Fay, Mike F.; Lexer, Christian. 2008. Clonality and spatial genetic structure in Populus x canescens and its sympatric backcross parent P. alba in a Central European hybrid zone. New Phytologist. 177(2): 506-516. [77767]
  • 60. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 73. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2008, May 28]. [70356]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: breeding system

White poplar predominantly regenerates vegetatively. Because only female trees are generally present at a given location [24], sexual reproduction is usually limited to white poplar hybrids [101].
  • 24. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: geophyte, phanerophyte

Raunkiaer [85] life form:
Phanerophyte
Geophyte
  • 85. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

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Life Form

More info for the term: tree

Tree

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Fire Regime Table

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Seed banking

Although field experiments are lacking, white poplar and hybrid seeds are reportedly very short-lived (England Forestry Commission Booklet [26]). A review reports that seed bank longevity is low for Salicaceae [58].
  • 26. Edlin, Herbert L. 1968. Know your broadleaves. Forestry Commission Booklet No. 20. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 142 p. [20459]
  • 58. Karrenberg, S.; Edwards, P. J.; Kollmann, J. 2002. The life history of Salicaceae living in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biology. 47: 733-748. [79298]

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Seed dispersal

White poplar and its hybrids produce light-weight, plumose, wind-dispersed seeds ([116], Graham and others 1963 cited in [102]). In the greenhouse, the average weight of seeds produced by 9 open-pollinated white poplar clones was 0.177 mg/seed, and the average weight of seeds produced by P. alba × P. grandidentata clones was 0.199 mg [102]. Although cottonwood (Populus spp.) seeds have been reported to disperse 19 miles (30 km) or more (van der Pijl 1972 cited in [101]), surveys in southeastern Michigan revealed that most (91%) white poplar hybrid seedlings occurred within 1 mile (1.6 km) of white poplar clones [101].
  • 101. Spies, Thomas A.; Barnes, Burton V. 1982. Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 12(3): 653-660. [77764]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 116. van Loo, Marcela; Joseph, Jeffrey A.; Heinze, Berthold; Fay, Mike F.; Lexer, Christian. 2008. Clonality and spatial genetic structure in Populus x canescens and its sympatric backcross parent P. alba in a Central European hybrid zone. New Phytologist. 177(2): 506-516. [77767]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

In the United States, white poplar typically flowers in the spring (March-early June) [51,60,92,107]. Catkins appear before the leaves [39]. If fruits are produced, they appear in April, May, or June [39,105].
  • 39. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 107. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 51. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 92. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2nd ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 105. Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody plants of the north Central Plains. Lawrence, KS: The University Press of Kansas. 530 p. [3804]
  • 60. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 2 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]

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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May-July.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Local spread of white poplar is primarily by vegetative means, through root suckers. Root suckers arise from adventitious buds on the extensive lateral root system. Large numbers of suckers from a single tree can quickly develop into a dense colony. Suckering can occur naturally or as a result of damage or other disturbance to the parent plant. Mature white poplar trees produce thousands of wind-dispersed seeds that may be carried long distances. However, seed germination of white poplar appears to be very low in the U.S.

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U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Populus alba

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Populus alba

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 29
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread in huge native range in Eurasia.

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© NatureServe

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Information on state-level noxious weed status of plants in the United States is available at Plants Database.

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Management

Impacts and Control

More info for the terms: fire management, formation, introgression, invasive species, natural, prescribed fire, restoration, top-kill

 

Impacts: Although details and documentation of white poplar's impacts on native vegetation and drainage structures are lacking, these impacts are commonly noted in floras, weed control handbooks, and landscape manuals.

Concern about the impacts of white poplar in wildlands varies, as do recommendations for prioritizing its control. White poplar is listed as a "significant threat" by many eastern weed organizations [61,98,109,118]. In a survey of Wisconsin's authorities on local flora, white poplar ranked 35th out of 66 nonnative invasive plants evaluated for their negative impacts on native plant communities [87]. It was ranked 36th in a list of 81 nonnative, invasive species impacting natural habitats of Canada [14]. Based on models using climatic tolerances, biological traits, and invasiveness in other wildlands, researchers predicted that white poplar was a very high threat for establishing and proliferating in Manitoba's Riding Mountain National Park [80]. White poplar was assigned high priority for removal from Point Pelee National Park, Ontario (Dunster 1990 cited in [123]).

Photo © Richard Old, XID Services, Inc., Bugwood.org

White poplar was not considered a problematic species or a control priority in several other cases. It probably has less potential impact and receives lower priority for control in areas where it has not been widely planted and does not have the potential to hybridize with native aspens. In a survey answered by 35 Canadian botanists, most respondents indicated that white poplar was not a "problem species" and was invasive only locally. The survey was sent to botanists across Canada, but the regional distribution of respondents was not reported [123]. White poplar was relatively rare in Farmington, western Maine, and spread of clones was easily tracked back to areas where white poplar was planted [6]. Surveys of the flora in New London County, Connecticut, revealed that white poplar populations were uncommon and generally restricted to disturbed sites. Population sizes were stable [48].

Impacts from underground growth: The extensive white poplar root system has caused problems near houses or other urban developments. Several sources anecdotally report that white poplar roots can clog drains, sewers, and water channels [19,34,68]. In his manual of woody plants, Dirr [19] indicates that white poplar "becomes a nuisance and liability after a time". Dirr suggests that homeowners "avoid this pest". A pamphlet produced by England's Forestry Commission reports that white poplar can remove soil moisture rapidly during dry, hot days. In low-rainfall areas such as London and Essex, white poplar has caused rapid drying and shrinkage of clay soils, which can upset dwelling foundations [26].

Impacts to associated vegetation: Impacts on associated vegetation may change as white poplar stands expand and age. Through prolific root sprouting, white poplar can develop dense stands, which can crowd and shade native vegetation and reduce species diversity [16,97,120]. As stands age, the breakage of brittle white poplar wood can damage nearby vegetation [73]. In the central Transvaal area of South Africa, where white poplar is nonnative, there is "marked correlation between the occurrence of naturalized and planted white poplar", but white poplar no longer occurs as isolated stands; instead, it occupies whole river reaches and has spread from the water's edge to far outside the riparian zone. White poplar has "out-compete(d)" and suppressed existing vegetation in its formation of "absolutely pure stands" [121].

Hybridization: White poplar hybridizes with native aspens. Researchers fear that this hybridization could change the native aspen gene pool or produce "vigorous" hybrids that could replace native aspens. Because of its hybridization ability, white poplar was rated as a high priority for control in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia. Although current hybridization was not evaluated, white poplar populations occurred near quaking aspen and bigtooth aspen populations. Managers feared that hybridization could lead to the introgression of white poplar genes into the native aspen gene pool [103]. In southwestern Michigan, white poplar, native aspens, and their hybrids were evaluated. The impact of white poplar on the native aspen gene pools was considered low. As of the early 1980s, white poplar hybrid populations were clustered; recent hybridization, backcrossing, and extensive gene flow were not detected [101]. Hybrids were relatively disease and insect free [102].

Control: Because white poplar regenerates easily after top-kill (see Vegetative regeneration), it is difficult to control once established [13,88].

In all cases where invasive species are targeted for control, no matter what method is employed, the potential for other invasive species to fill their void must be considered [9]. Control of biotic invasions is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders [69].

Fire: For information on the use of prescribed fire to control this species, see Fire Management Considerations.

Prevention: Although there has been widespread planting of white poplar in North America, eliminating future plantings could improve future control efforts and reduce the potential for contamination of the gene pool for native aspens. Restricting sale of white poplar could limit future use. Informing land owners of white poplar's objectionable traits, as was done by Appleton and others [2], may help to limit future plantings.

It is commonly argued that the most cost-efficient and effective method of managing invasive species is to prevent their establishment and spread by maintaining "healthy" natural communities [69,93] and by monitoring several times each year [53]. Managing to maintain the integrity of the native plant community and mitigate the factors enhancing ecosystem invasibility is likely to be more effective than managing solely to control the invader [50].

Weed prevention and control can be incorporated into many types of management plans, including those for logging and site preparation, grazing allotments, recreation management, research projects, road building and maintenance, and fire management [113]. See the Guide to noxious weed prevention practices [113] for specific guidelines in preventing the spread of weed seeds and propagules under different management conditions.

Cultural control: No information is available on this topic.

Physical or mechanical control: Vegetative regeneration and spread can be encouraged by cutting white poplar stems [73]. To be a viable control option, cutting will likely need to be frequent, repeated, and/or paired with another control method. Weed handbooks suggest controlling white poplar by repeated and frequent cutting [34,120]. In the tallgrass restoration handbook, white poplar spread is said to be controlled by girdling large trees and repeatedly cutting sprouts [97]. In a review, Czarapata [16] reports that white poplar stems with less than a 2-inch (5 cm) DBH may be controlled by cutting followed by herbicide treatments. Sprouting of girdled stems larger than 2 inches (5 cm) in DBH may be limited by applying an herbicide to the wound [16].

Biological control: Biological control of invasive species has a long history that indicates many factors must be considered before using biological controls. Refer to these sources: [115,124] and the Weed control methods handbook [110] for background information and important considerations for developing and implementing biological control programs. For information on pests and diseases known to infect white poplar in the United States, see Spaulding [99].

Chemical control: Herbicides may be useful to control white poplar [34], but effectiveness may be improved if used in conjunction with other control methods [97].

Herbicides are effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion or a severe infestation, but they are rarely a complete or long-term solution to weed management [11]. See the Weed control methods handbook [110] for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals.

Integrated management: No information is available on this topic.
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  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 103. Stapleton, C. A.; McCorquodale, D. B.; Sneddon, C.; Williams, M.; Bridgland, J. 1998. The distribution and potential for invasiveness of some non-native vascular plants in northern Cape Breton. Technical Report in Ecosystem Science No. 015. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Canadian Heritage, Atlantic Region. 68 p. [77812]
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  • 80. Otfinowski, R.; Kenkel, N. C.; Dixon, P.; Wilmshurst, J. F. 2008. Integrating climate and trait models to predict the invasiveness of exotic plants in Canada's Riding Mountain National Park. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87(5): 1001-1012. [70500]
  • 99. Spaulding, Perley. 1958. Diseases of foreign forest trees growing in the United States: An annotated list. Agriculture Handbook No. 139. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 118 p. [9945]
  • 110. Tu, Mandy; Hurd, Callie; Randall, John M., eds. 2001. Weed control methods handbook: tools and techniques for use in natural areas. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy. 194 p. [37787]
  • 121. Wells, M. J.; Duggan, K.; Hendersen, L. 1980. Woody plant invaders of the central Transvaal. In: Neser, S.; Cairns, A. L. P., eds. Proceedings, 3rd national weeds conference of South Africa; 1979 August; Pretoria, South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: A. A. Balkema: 11-23. [47112]
  • 123. White, David J.; Haber, Erich; Keddy, Cathy. 1993. Invasive plants of natural habitats in Canada: An integrated review of wetland and upland species and legislation governing their control. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Wildlife Service. 121 p. [71462]
  • 124. Wilson, Linda M.; McCaffrey, Joseph P. 1999. Biological control of noxious rangeland weeds. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 97-115. [35715]
  • 61. Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2008. Invasive exotic plant list, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/ky/list.htm [2009, January 5]. [72785]
  • 73. Mehrhoff, L. J.; Silander, J. A., Jr.; Leicht, S. A.; Mosher, E. S.; Tabak, N. M. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, [Online]. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Producer). Available: http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/ [2008, May 28]. [70356]
  • 87. Reinartz, James A. 2003. IPAW working list of the invasive plants of Wisconsin--March 2003: a call for comments and information, [Online]. In: Plants out of place: The newsletter of the Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin. Issue 4. Madison, WI: Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin (Producer). Available: http://www.ipaw.org/newsletters/issue4.pdf [2009, June 26]. [74814]
  • 98. South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2008. Invasive plant list, [Online]. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer). Available: http://www.se-eppc.org/southcarolina/SCEPPC_LIST_offical_2008.xls [2009, January 5]. [72717]
  • 109. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council. 2001. Tennessee invasive exotic plant list, [Online]. In: Invasive exotic plants in Tennessee. Fairview, TN: Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (Producer) Available: http://www.tneppc.org/Invasive_Exotic_Plant_List/The_List.htm [2009, June 12]. [74677]
  • 113. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2001. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. Available online: http://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/documents/FS_WeedBMP_2001.pdf [2009, November 19]. [37889]
  • 115. Van Driesche, Roy; Lyon, Suzanne; Blossey, Bernd; Hoddle, Mark; Reardon, Richard, tech. coords. 2002. Biological control of invasive plants in the eastern United States. Publication FHTET-2002-04. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. 413 p. Available online: http://www.invasive.org/eastern/biocontrol/index.html [2009, November 19]. [54194]
  • 118. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. 2003. Invasive alien plant species of Virginia, [Online]. In: Natural Heritage Program--Invasive plants list. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage; Virginia Native Plant Society (Producers). Available: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/invlist.pdf [2009, March 23]. [44942]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, moist well-drained conditions, and soil containing loam, silt, or calcareous sand. Growth and development are fairly rapid – some trees can develop catkins in as little as 5-7 years. Most specimens of White Poplar in North America are female trees; male trees are uncommon. As a result, the seeds of most female trees are infertile, although occasionally they can produce fertile seeds by hybridizing with other species of aspen and poplar. Should both staminate and pistillate catkins develop on the same tree, it is mostly like a hybrid.
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Other uses and values

After discovering the high productivity and growth rates of naturally occurring P. alba × P. grandidentata stands in Iowa, widespread planting trials of these hybrids were recommended. Researchers compared the growth and profitability of P. alba × P. grandidentata, P. deltoides × P. nigra, and silver maple (Acer saccharinum) for pulp production on a variety of sites in Iowa. After 6 years of growth, P. alba × P. grandidentata produced the greatest height and DBH and had the highest survival rate (94%). Researchers reported that P. alba × P. grandidentata had the greatest potential for profit as a short-rotation, woody biomass crop for pulp and/or fiber production [36]. Researchers have also engineered an herbicide-resistant strain of P. alba × P. grandidentata [21]. This strain has been grown in field trials [74].
  • 21. Donahue, Raymon A.; David, Tim D.; Michler, Charles H.; Riemenschneider, Don E.; Carter, Doug R.; Marquardt, Paula E.; Sankhla, Narendra; Sankhla, Daksha; Haissig, Bruce E.; Isebrands, J. G. 1994. Growth, photosynthesis, and herbicide tolerance of genetically modified hybrid poplar. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 24(12): 2377-2383. [77720]
  • 36. Goerndt, Michael E.; Mize, Carl. 2008. Short-rotation woody biomass as a crop on marginal lands in Iowa. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 25(2): 82-86. [77746]
  • 74. Meilan, R.; Han, K.-H.; Ma, C.; DiFazio, S. P.; Eaton, J. A.; Hoien, E. A.; Stanton, B. J.; Crockett, R. P.; Tayolor, M. L.; James, R. R.; Skinner, J. S.; Jouanin, L.; Pilate, G.; Strauss, S. H. 2002. The CP4 transgene provides high levels of tolerance to Roundup herbicide in field-grown hybrid poplars. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 32(6): 967-976. [77726]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

Few studies reported on the value of white poplar and white poplar hybrids to wildlife and livestock as of 2010. Use of white poplar was only noted in 2 studies. In Illinois, yellow-bellied sapsucker holes occurred in white poplar trees but were not abundant [38]. Based on observations made in western Massachusetts, white poplar was considered an attractive food source for eastern cottontails. However, only slight injury occurred from winter feeding by eastern cottontails [108]. It is likely that white poplar and its hybrids are utilized for food and cover by a wider variety of wildlife species than is indicated in the reviewed literature.

Palatability and/or nutritional value: No information is available on this topic.

Cover value: It is likely that white poplar and hybrid stands provide shade and cover for wildlife and livestock. White poplar has been recommended to improve wildlife habitat [42]; however, its cover value was not evaluated in the literature as of 2010.

  • 38. Graber, Jean W.; Graber, Richard R.; Kirk, Ethelyn L. 1977. Illinois birds: Picidae. Biological Notes No. 102. Urbana, IL: State of Illinois, Department of Registration and Education; Natural History Survey Division, Natural History Survey. 73 p. [64983]
  • 108. Sweetman, Harvey L. 1949. Further studies of the winter feeding habits of cottontail rabbits. Ecology. 30(3): 371-376. [72521]
  • 42. Hall, R. B.; Colletti, J. P.; Schultz, R. C.; Faltonson, R. R.; Kolison, S. H., Jr.; Hanna, R. D.; Hillson, T. D.; Morrison, J. W. 1990. Commercial-scale vegetative propagation of aspens. In: Adams, Roy D., ed. Aspen symposium '89: Proceedings; 1989 July 25-27; Duluth, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-140. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 211-219. [12432]

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Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

White poplar outcompetes many native tree and shrub species in mostly sunny areas, such as forest edges and fields, and interferes with the normal progress of natural community succession. It is an especially strong competitor because it can grow in a variety of soils, produce large seed crops, and resprouts easily in response to damage. Dense stands of white poplar prevent other plants from coexisting by reducing the amount of sunlight, nutrients, water and space available.

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U.S. National Park Service Weeds Gone Wild website

Source: U.S. National Park Service

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Wikipedia

Populus alba

Populus alba, commonly called abele,[1][2] silver poplar,[1][2] silverleaf poplar,[1][2] or white poplar,[1][2] is a species of poplar, most closely related to the aspens (Populus sect. Populus). It is native from Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula through central Europe (north to Germany and Poland) to central Asia. It grows in moist sites, often by watersides, in regions with hot summers and cold to mild winters.[3][4]

Description[edit]

It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, growing to heights of up to 16–27 m (rarely more), with a trunk up to 2 m diameter and a broad rounded crown. The bark is smooth and greenish-white to greyish-white with characteristic diamond-shaped dark marks on young trees, becoming blackish and fissured at the base of old trees. The young shoots are covered with whitish-grey down, including the small buds. The leaves are 4–15 cm long, five-lobed, with a thick covering of white scurfy down on both sides but thicker underneath; this layer wears off the upper side but not the lower, which stays white until autumn leaf fall. Larger, deeply lobed leaves are produced on fast-growing young trees, and smaller, less deeply lobed leaves on older, slow-growing trees. The flowers are catkins up to 8 cm long, produced in early spring; they are dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are grey with conspicuous dark red stamens, the female catkins are greyish-green. The female catkins lengthen to 8–10 cm after pollination, with several green seed capsules, maturing in late spring to early summer. It also propagates by means of root suckers growing from the lateral roots, often as far as 20–30 m from the trunk, to form extensive clonal colonies.[4][5]

Distinguishing features of the White Poplar

Foliage of the White Poplar
White Poplar leaves; underside left, upper side right
Trunk, showing the characteristic diamond-shaped marks


Hybridization[edit]

Alley of Grey Poplars

White Poplar hybridises with the closely related Common Aspen Populus tremula; the resulting hybrid, known as Grey Poplar (Populus × canescens), is intermediate between its parents, with a thin grey downy coating on the leaves, which are also much less deeply lobed than White Poplar leaves. It is a very vigorous tree with marked hybrid vigour, reaching 40 m tall and over 1.5 m trunk diameter (much larger than either of its parents). Most Grey Poplars in cultivation are male, but female trees occur naturally and some of these are also propagated.[4]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Populus alba Pyramidalis

It requires abundant light and ample moisture, and stands up well to flood water and slightly acidic soils. Its green-and-white leaves makes it an effective ornamental tree but the root suckers may cause problems in some situations. It is very attractive as an open-grown tree in water meadows, and, because of its extensive root system and tolerance of salt, is also planted to strengthen coastal sand dunes.[6]

The majority of White Poplars in cultivation in northern Europe are female trees.[5]

White poplar was first introduced to North America in 1748 and has a long history in cultivation. It is now found in forty-three states throughout the contiguous U.S.[7] It has come to be considered weedy or invasive, and has been banned in Connecticut.[8][9][10]

It has been introduced into North America, especially along the east coast. It is a highly competitive tree and was the most common introduced tree species on Cape Breton Island.[11]

In intensive forest management it is being replaced by various cottonwood hybrids. The wood is soft, and used to make cellulose and for cheap boxes.

A conical cultivar from Turkestan, Populus alba 'Pyramidalis' (Bolle's Poplar; syn. Populus bolleana) is sometimes planted in parks.[4]

History[edit]

An old English name "Abele", now rarely used, is derived from the Latin albellus, white, by way of Old French aubel and Low German name abeel.[6]

According to ancient Roman mythology the White Poplar was consecrated to Hercules because he destroyed Cacus in a cavern adjoining the Aventine Hill, which was covered with these trees; and in the moment of his triumph he bound his brows with a branch of White Poplar as a token of his victory. Persons offering sacrifices to Hercules were always crowned with branches of this tree; and all who had gloriously conquered their enemies in battle wore garlands of it, in imitation of Hercules. Homer in the "Iliad" compares the fall of Simoisius when killed by Ajax to that of a poplar.

So falls a poplar that on watery ground

Raised high its head with stately branches crowned.

Ovid mentions that Paris had carved the name of Ænone on a poplar, as Shakespeare has Orlando carve the name of Rosalind upon the trees of the forest of Arden.

Virgil gives directions for the culture of this tree and Horace speaks of the White Poplar as delighting to grow on the banks of rivers.[11]

Invasive species – Australia[edit]

Silver poplar are invasive in many parts of Australia. In Western Australia it has formed dense stands in disturbed wetlands from Perth to Albany and it is considered a threat to riparian vegetation in Victoria. It has spread along the Murrumbidgee River and in wet areas in rural parts of the ACT. It is still sold in nurseries around Australia.[12] White poplar is also an environmental weed in South Africa.

See also[edit]

  • Leuce/Leuka; a Oceanid and Hades' lover (before Hades' abduction of Kore/Persephone) until her death, where-upon Hades turned her into the white poplar tree, which became sacred for him from that moment on, and grew in the Elysian Fields. In Ancient Greco-Roman mythology, it is a symbol of a peaceful afterlife and a memory of those we love who have passed on; and in the Language of flowers, its meaning is "time".
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Notes

Comments

According to A. Nauman (l.c.) P. alba L. is confined to Europe, N. Africa and Anatolia and does not extend to Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Persia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, a region where it is replaced by P. caspica Bornm. However, this interpretation has not been accepted by subsequent workers (Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 2: 1491. 1985; Czerepanov, Vasc. Pl. Russia Adj. States (former USSR), 1995 and A. K. Skvortsov, personal communication). 

 This species is widely cultivated and produces suckers in abundance. It is a handsome road-side tree in Hazara etc.

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Eurasian; widely planted and often escaped (or at least long-persisting and clonally spreading) elsewhere. LEM 27Jun00.

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The scientific name of white poplar is Populus alba L. (Salicaceae) [30,39,59,84,107,125]. White poplar is part of the aspen and white poplar group or the Populus section of the genus Populus [17].

Hybrids:

Populus × canescens (Aiton) Sm. (gray poplar),
a cross between P. alba × P. tremula (European aspen)

Populus × heimburgeri B. Boivin (Heimburger's poplar),
a cross between P. alba × P. tremuloides (quaking aspen)

Populus × rouleauiana B. Boivin (Roulwau's poplar),
a cross between P. alba × P. grandidentata (bigtooth aspen) ([39], Boivin 1966 cited in [102])

Populus × tomentosa Carrière (Chinese white poplar),
a cross between P. alba × P. adenopoda (Chinese aspen) [30]
White poplar hybrids with European aspen, quaking aspen, and bigtooth aspen occur primarily east of the Great Plains region of North America [39]. However, hybrids are possible in any area where the parent species' distributions overlap. Hybridization has the potential to affect white poplar invasiveness. This is discussed later in the seed production, dispersal, vegetative spread, and
potential impacts sections. Populus alba × P. adenopoda hybrids have been planted in the southeastern United States, although rarely [30].
White poplar hybrids are identified using scientific parent names in this review.
  • 39. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 107. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 84. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 102. Spies, Thomas Allen. 1978. The occurrence, morphology, and reproductive biology of natural hybrids of Populus alba in southeastern Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources. 125 p. Thesis. [77815]
  • 17. Dickmann, Donald I. 2001. An overview of the genus Populus. In: Dickman, Donald I.; Isebrands, J. G.; Eckenwalder, James E.; Richardson, Jim, eds. Poplar culture in North America. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada, Research Press: 1-42. [79277]
  • 59. Kartesz, John T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 1st ed. In: Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina Botanical Garden (Producer). In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [36715]
  • 30. Flora of North America Association. 2010. Flora of North America: The flora, [Online]. Flora of North America Association (Producer). Available: http://www.fna.org/FNA. [36990]
  • 125. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2010. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

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Common Names

for Populus alba:

white poplar

European white poplar

silver poplar

for Populus alba hybrids:

gray poplar

Heimburger's poplar

Roulwau's poplar

Chinese white poplar

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Synonyms

for Populus alba L.:

Populus alba var. bolleana Lauche [122]

Populus alba var. pyramidalis Bunge [51,125]

for Populus × canescens Aiton (Sm.):

Populus alba L. var. canescens (Aiton) [25]
  • 51. Holmgren, Noel H.; Holmgren, Patricia K.; Cronquist, Arthur. 2005. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 2, Part B: Subclass Dilleniidae. New York: The New York Botanical Garden. 488 p. [63251]
  • 122. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 25. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p. [12764]
  • 125. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H.; Hong, D. Y., eds. 2010. Flora of China, [Online]. Volumes 1-25. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. In: eFloras. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Herbaria (Producers). Available: http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 and http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china. [72954]

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