The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften 4: 237, pl. 6, f. 4. 1803. (Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften)
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora Boreali-Americana 2: 225. 1803. (Fl. Bor.-Amer.)
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (07/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Isolectotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States. 315.; Argus, G. W. 1986. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9: 128.
  • Manual of the Flora of the northern States and Canada 315. 1901. (Man. Fl. N. States)
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Salicaceae of North America Update
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.

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