Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This shrub is 3-12' tall, often branching abundantly near the base, but with long unbranched stems above. The woody stems are yellow to reddish brown, while young shoots are light green and either glabrous or finely hairy. Alternate leaves about 2½-5" long and ½-1½" across occur along the woody stems and young shoots; they are lanceolate-oblong in shape and finely serrated along their margins. The bases of mature leaves are cordate to rounded. Young leaves are frequently copper-colored to red, while mature leaves are medium green above and whitened below. Young leaves are glabrous to finely hairy, while mature leaves are glabrous (or nearly so). The slender petioles are about ½-1" long and they lack minute glands near the blades. Pairs of leafy stipules often persist at the bases of petioles. These stipules are about ½" long with serrated margins; a pair of stipules are oval-cordate to reniform in outline. Heart-Leaved Willow is dioecious, producing staminate (male) catkins and pistillate (female) catkins on separate shrubs. These catkins are produced a little before or during the development of first-generation leaves during the spring. Staminate catkins are ¾-1½" long. Each floret of these catkins has 2 stamens. At the base of these stamens, there is a single finely hairy bract that is brown to black and a minute cylindrical gland. Pistillate catkins are 1-2½" long. Each floret of these catkins has a single lanceoloid ovary (4-6 mm. long) that is glabrous and a short style with divergent stigmata on top; there is a short pedicel underneath the ovary. Beside the pedicel, there is a single finely hairy bract that is brown to black and a minute cylindrical gland. Blooming period lasts about 1-2 weeks during the spring. Afterwards, the female florets are replaced by seed capsules that split open to release tiny cottony seeds. These seeds are distributed by the wind. The root system is shallow, woody, and branching. This shrub spreads by reseeding itself.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Heart-Leaved Willow is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands with immature trees, soggy meadows along rivers, edges of sandy swales and sloughs, fens, and ditches. This shrub is found in both degraded and higher quality wetlands.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Salix rigida var. angustata (Pursh) Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Salix cordata var. abrasa Fernald:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Salix eriocephala Michx.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Salix rigida Muhl.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isolectotype for Salix acutidens Rydb. in Britton
Catalog Number: US 406332
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: ; Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. A. Heller
Year Collected: 1901
Locality: In the Dillerville Swamp, Pennsylvania, United States, North America
  • Isolectotype: Rydberg, P. A. 1901. Man. Fl. N. States. 315.; Argus, G. W. 1986. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 9: 128.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Heart-Leaved Willow is occasional throughout Illinois (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands with immature trees, soggy meadows along rivers, edges of sandy swales and sloughs, fens, and ditches. This shrub is found in both degraded and higher quality wetlands.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Heart-Leaved Willow in Illinois

Salix rigida (Heart-Leaved Willow)
(Originally referred to as Salix cordata by Robertson; on staminate flowers, short-tongued bees & honeybees suck nectar or collect pollen, while other insects suck nectar; on pistillate flowers, all insects suck nectar; a few observations are from Krombein et al., otherwise they are from Robertson; information about oligolegy in bees is from Krombein et al.)

On staminate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cuneatus sn fq, Nomada denticulata sn fq, Nomada illinoiensis sn fq, Nomada integerrima sn fq, Nomada luteola sn fq, Nomada ovatus sn fq, Nomada sayi sn, Nomada sulphurata sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia lignaria lignaria sn fq, Osmia pumila sn fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochlorella aurata sn, Augochlorella striata sn fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn fq, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn fq, Lasioglossum cinctipes sn, Lasioglossum forbesii sn cp, Lasioglossum foxii sn cp fq, Lasioglossum illinoensis sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn fq, Lasioglossum tegularis sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn fq, Paralictus platyparius sn; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes dichroa sn fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn fq; Andrenindae (Andreninae): Andrena andrenoides andrenoides sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Kr), Andrena barbilabris sn fq, Andrena bisalicis sn cp fq icp olg, Andrena cressonii sn fq, Andrena dunningi sn, Andrena erythrogaster sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Kr), Andrena erythronii sn, Andrena forbesii sn fq, Andrena hippotes sn fq, Andrena illinoiensis sn fq olg, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn fq, Andrena mandibularis sn, Andrena mariae sn cp fq icp olg, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn fq icp, Andrena nuda sn, Andrena pruni sn fq, Andrena rugosa sn fq, Andrena salictaria sn cp fq icp olg (Rb, Kr), Andrena sayi sn fq icp

Wasps
Pompilidae: Priocnemis cornicus; Vespidae: Polistes carolina

Sawflies
Tenthredinidae: Dolerus bicolor, Dolerus unicolor fq, Nematus vertebratus

Flies
Simuliidae: Cnephia pecuarum; Syrphidae: Brachyopa vacua, Brachypalpus oarus fq, Chalcosyrphus metallifer fq, Chalcosyrphus nemorum fq, Chrysogaster antitheus, Eristalinus aeneus fq, Eristalis dimidiatus fq, Eristalis flavipes, Eupeodes americanus fq, Helophilus fasciatus, Lejota aerea, Orthonevra pictipennis fq, Platycheirus hyboreus, Platycheirus obscurus, Platycheirus quadratus fq, Psilota buccata, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens, Syrphus torvus, Tropidia mamillata; Empididae: Empis otiosa, Rhamphomyia gilvipilosa fq, Rhamphomyia priapulus; Conopidae: Myopa vesiculosa, Myopa vicaria fq; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata fq; Sarcophagidae: Ravinia derelicta; Calliphoridae: Cynomya cadaverina fq; Muscidae: Helina rufitibia, Neomyia cornicina fq; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura fq; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata fq; Lonchaeidae: Dasiops latifrons, Earomyia aberrans; Chloropidae: Elachiptera costata; Sciomyzidae: Dictya pictipes, Pherbellia parallela; Piophilidae: Prochyliza xanthostoma

Beetles
Chrysomelidae: Pyrrhalta tuberculata fq; Oedemeridae: Asclera puncticollis fq; Orsodacnidae: Orsodacne atra fq

On pistillate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata fq, Ceratina dupla dupla fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cuneatus fq, Nomada denticulata fq, Nomada integerrima fq, Nomada ovatus fq; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia lignaria lignaria fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea, Augochlora purus, Halictus confusus fq, Halictus rubicunda fq, Lasioglossum cinctipes, Lasioglossum cressonii, Lasioglossum forbesii, Lasioglossum foxii fq, Lasioglossum imitatus fq, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus fq, Lasioglossum pruinosus, Lasioglossum testaceus, Lasioglossum versatus fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus fq, Paralictus platyparius; Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes confertus fq, Sphecodes dichroa fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena andrenoides andrenoides fq icp olg, Andrena bisalicis fq icp olg, Andrena carlini, Andrena erythronii, Andrena forbesii fq, Andrena illinoiensis fq olg, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix fq, Andrena mariae fq icp olg, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata fq icp, Andrena rugosa fq, Andrena salictaria fq icp olg

Wasps
Vespidae: Polistes fuscata

Sawflies
Tenthredinidae: Dolerus unicolor fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Brachypalpus oarus fq, Chalcosyrphus metallifer fq, Chalcosyrphus nemorum fq, Eristalis flavipes, Eristalis transversus, Eupeodes americanus fq, Helophilus fasciatus, Merapioidus villosus, Platycheirus quadratus fq; Empididae: Rhamphomyia gilvipilosa fq; Conopidae: Myopa vicaria fq; Tachinidae: Chetogena claripennis, Gonia capitata fq, Panzeria aldrichi, Tachinomyia panaetius; Calliphoridae: Calliphora vicina, Cynomya cadaverina fq, Pollenia rudis; Muscidae: Myospila meditabunda, Neomyia cornicina fq; Anthomyiidae: Delia platura fq; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata fq; Chloropidae: Apallates coxendix; Sepsidae: Sepsis violacea

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa atalanta

Beetles
Orsodacnidae: Orsodacne atra fq

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris

Flower gender unspecified:

Bees (short-tongued)
Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena nigrae (Kr)

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Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the florets of this willow can attract many insects, especially bees and flies. Several Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.) are specialist pollinators (oligoleges) of willows. The caterpillars of Satyrium acadicum (Acadian Hairstreak), Satyrium liparops strigosum (Striped Hairstreak), Limenitis archippus (Viceroy), Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Red-Spotted Purple), Nymphalis antiopa (Mourning Cloak), and Nymphalis vau-album j-album (Compton Tortoiseshell) feed on the foliage of these shrubs. Other insect feeders include the caterpillars of Catocala relicta (White Underwing), Micrurapteryx salicifoliella (Willow Leaf Miner), Nycteola metaspilella (Little Willow Sister), and many other moths (see Moth Table); the wood-boring larvae of Agrilus politus (Common Willow Agrilus), Cryptorhynchus lapathi (Poplar & Willow Borer), and similar beetles (see Wood-Boring Beetle Table); Chrysomela knabi (American Willow Leaf Beetle), Disonycha alternata (Striped Willow Flea Beetle), and other leaf beetles (see Leaf Beetle Table); Cavariella aegopodii (Carrot-Willow Aphid), Tuberolachnus salignus (Giant Willow Aphid), and other aphids; Lopidea salicis (Willow Plant Bug) and other plant bugs; the larvae of Nematus ventralis (Willow Sawfly) and other sawflies; Microcentrum retinervis (Angular-Winged Katydid) and many other insects. For a more complete listing of these species, see the Insect Table. Vertebrate animals also use willows as a food source and to provide cover. Among birds, the Ruffed Grouse, Northern Pintail, Mallard, and White-Crown Sparrow eat the buds or catkins. The Yellow Warbler, Warbling Vireo, Philadelphia Vireo, and Rusty Grackle use willows as nesting sites. Among mammals, the White-Tailed Deer and Elk browse on the stems and leaves, while the Beaver gnaws on the bark and wood. The leaves of willows are consumed by some turtles, including Chelydra serpentina (Snapping Turtle) and Clemmys insculpta (Wood Turtle).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Salix eriocephala

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Salix eriocephala

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 45
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full to partial sun, wet to moist conditions, and soil containing loam, calcareous sand, or gravel. Occasional flooding is tolerated if it is temporary. The seeds remain viable for only 1-2 weeks; they require moist ground to germinate. It is also possible to propagate this shrub by sticking a broken-off stem into the ground during the spring.
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