Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Hyaloteuthis pelagica is one of the smallest ommastrephid species reaching a mantle length of 90 mm (Nesis, 1982/87) and may mature earlier than any other ommastrephid (46 mm ML mm ML for females - Dunning, 1998). Its maximum size is approximately the same as the dwarf Todarodes pusillus.

H. pelagica occurs in the upper 100 m at night but little is known about its daytime habitat although Young (1978) reported a mature female from 1,700-2,200 m captured in an opening-closing tow during the day off Hawaii. On one occasion, large numbers of mature H. pelagic were found stranded on a beach on Kauai, Hawaii (pers. comm.). Little is known of its general ecology.

Brief diagnosis:

  • 19 large, round photophores on mantle.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Hectocotylus (Wormuth, 1976)
      1. Hectocotylus may be on the right or left arm IV.
      2. Hectocotylus with 12-15 suckers of which the distal 2-4 abnormally small.
      3. Dorsal protective membrane, opposite last dorsal sucker, expands to form a flap then disappears; in same region, ventral membrane expands and thickens to arm tip without detectable trabeculae.


        Figure. Oral views of th hectocotylus of H. pelagica. Top - Entire hectocotylized arm, left arm IV, Hawaiian waters, 50 mm ML. Photograph aby R. Young. Bottom - Distal portion of the left arm IV showing the hectocotylized region. Drawing from Roeleveld (1988).

    2. Arms tips in subadults not unusually attenuate; arms I with 15-32 pairs of suckers (Wormuth, 1976).
    3. Arm protective membranes (Wormuth, 1976)
      1. Arms I with dorsal and ventral membranes low, well below sucker level.
      2. Arms II with low dorsal membrane; ventral membrane reaches sucker level in proximal third of arm increasing to twice sucker level distally.
      3. Arms III with low dorsal membrane; ventral membrane two to three times height of sucker level, thin with prominent trabeculae.
    4. Arm suckers(Wormuth, 1976)
      1. Arm suckers in rows 3-7 with weakly dentate proximal margins and distal 2/3 with 9-12 unequal, conical teeth with 6 larger teeth and small teeth inbetween; rows 8-15 with loss of proximal and inbetween teeth leaving 5-7 long, conical subequal teeth.
      2. Females with suckers of ventral suckers in rows 4-6 about 2-3 times larger in diameter than dorsal suckers on arms II and suckers on other arms.

        Figure. Oral view of arm suckers from H. pelagica, showing an enlarged arm II sucker. Drawings from Sasaki (1929).


      Figure. Oral view of large arm III suckers of H. pelagica, Hawaiian waters.Photograph by R. Young.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club with carpal locking-apparatus consisting of one knob and one smooth-ringed sucker (Wormuth, 1976).
    2. Largest club suckers with smooth ring but may have 1 large tooth (Roeleveld, 1988); largest suckers occasionally weakly dentate (Wormuth, 1976).

    3. Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of H. pelagica, mature female, 55 mm ML, Hawaiian waters. Note the rather elongate carpal locking-knob at the base of the club. Photograph by R. young.


      Figure. Largest club sucker ring from the median manus of H. pelagica. Left - Oral view. Drawing from Roeleveld (1988). Left center - Oral view, mature female, 55 mm ML, Hawaiian waters. Right center - Distal view, same sucker (composite photograph). Right - Proximal view, same sucker. Photographs by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.
    2. Funnel groove with foveola and 0-2 side pockets (Wormuth, 1976).

    Figure. Ventral view of the funnel groove of H. pelagica, Hawaiian waters, showing foveola, side pockets not detectable. Photograph by R. young.

  4. Funnel/mantle locking-apparatus
    1. Mantle component with anterior bifurcation less pronounced than in Ommastrephes.
    2. Funnel component without anterior bend.
    3. Figure. Frontal views of the funnel/mantle locking-apparatus of H. pelagica. Left - Funnel component. Right - Mantle component. Photographs by R. Young.

  5. Photophores
    1. Small subcutaneous photophores absent.
    2. Ventral surface of mantle with 19 round photophores.

      Figure. Ventral view of H. pelagica showing aberrant doubling at one photophore position (arrow). Photophore at posterior tip of mantle not obvious in this picture. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

    3. Two round photophores on ventral surface of head, one at base of each arm IV.
    4. Two spherical photophores in core of each arm IV located at 1/3 and 2/3 of arm length (difficult to see without dissection).
    5. 2 intestinal photophores.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

circum-(sub)tropical
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species has a circumglobal distribution in tropical to warm temperate water in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans (Young and Vecchione 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Type locality: Found within the stomach of a "dorade" in the open ocean.

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and probably the Indian Ocean (Nesis, 1982/87). Occurs in tropical waters to warm temperate waters in the Pacific (Wormuth, 1976).

H. pelagica is an open-ocean species. Bower, et al. (1999) found that 35 % of H. pelagica paralarvae collected in Hawaiian waters were taken more than 200 km offshore and that paralarvae of H. pelagica belonged to an assemblage of oceanic cephalopod paralarvae rather than an Island-associated assemblage.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

oceanic, epipelagic
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in the open ocean and is one of the smallest ommastrephid squids (Young and Vecchione 2009). Whilst it is known to inhabit the upper water column (<100 m in depth) at night, its daytime depth is unknown (Young and Vecchione 2009). Off Hawaii, mature females have been taken between 1,700 and 2,200 m in depth, and mass stranding of mature individuals have been reported on Hawaiian beaches (Young and Vecchione 2009). Such mass strandings of mature individuals suggests that spawning aggregations are formed. It is preyed upon by pelagic fish and sea birds (i.e. black noddy terns) (Roper et al. 2010). Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species.


Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 53 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 46 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 20 - 1025
  Temperature range (°C): 7.090 - 27.030
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.008 - 21.935
  Salinity (PPS): 34.414 - 36.904
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.594 - 5.131
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.036 - 1.415
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.885 - 14.234

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 20 - 1025

Temperature range (°C): 7.090 - 27.030

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.008 - 21.935

Salinity (PPS): 34.414 - 36.904

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.594 - 5.131

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.036 - 1.415

Silicate (umol/l): 0.885 - 14.234
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life History

Paralarvae

Dorsal head chromatophores tend to be very small, especially those in the mid-dorsal line. Young paralarvae with few large mantle chromatophores, typically one dorsal and one ventral.


Figure. Ventral and dorsal views of paralarval stages and the first juvenile stage of H. pelagica. Drawings from Harman and Young (1985).


Figure. Frontal view of the suckers at the tip of the proboscis of a paralarval H. pelagica. Photograph from Harman and Young (1985).

Adults

Fully developed hectocotylus may be present by 45 mm ML (Wormuth, 1976) and females can mature at least by 55 mm ML (pers. obs.).

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hyaloteuthis pelagica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyaloteuthis pelagica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Carrete-Vega, G.

Justification
Hyaloteuthis pelagica has been assessed as Least Concern. This is an oceanic species with a worldwide distribution, making it less susceptible to human impact. However, more research is still needed on its ecology and biology.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are unknown.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology of this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!